International criminal tribunals are temporary (ad hoc) or permanent courts convened for the purpose of deciding cases arising under international criminal law. Examples of international criminal tribunals include:
- Nuremberg Military Tribunals, including the International Military Tribunal and the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials, established in 1945 to prosecute those responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity in WWII;
- The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal), convened in May 1946;
- International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia;
- International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda;
- Special Court for Sierra Leone, established in November 1996 to prosecute war crimes and crimes against humanity arising from the Civil War in Sierra Leone;
- International Criminal Court.