McNaghten Rule

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McNaghten Rule (more commonly spelled M’Naghten rule) was the first, and is still one of the four main tests jurisdictions use to determine whether a criminal defendant can claim insanity as a defense to a crime. 

The test originated in 1843 in England during the case against Daniel M’Naghten. M’Naghten shot and killed the secretary to the Prime Minister, Edward Drummond, believing he was the Prime Minister. During his arrest, M’Naghten claimed he needed to murder the Prime Minister because “the tories” were conspiring against him and wished to murder him. At trial, M’Naghten’s counsel put forth a defense of insanity, offering expert testimony and other evidence in support of this. Following instructions from the judge, the jury’s verdict was not guilty “by reason of insanity” and M’Naghten spent the rest of his life in a mental institution.

After public outrage following M’Naghten’s verdict, a stricter test for criminal insanity was articulated. Under this M’Naghten test, all defendants are presumed to be sane unless they can prove that–at the time of committing the criminal act–the defendant’s state of mind caused them to:

  • Not have the mental capacity to know what they were doing when they committed the said act, or 
  • That they knew what they were doing, but did not know that it was wrong. 
    • A common example for the second prong is if a person is acting on orders from “God.”

For other major insanity tests, see the Durham Test, Model Penal Code Test, and the Irresistible Impulse Test.  

[Last updated in August of 2023 by the Wex Definitions Team]