14 CFR Appendix F to Part 36 - Appendix F to Part 36—Flyover Noise Requirements for Propeller-Driven Small Airplane and Propeller-Driven, Commuter Category Airplane Certification Tests Prior to December 22, 1988
Section F36.1 Scope. This appendix prescribes noise level limits and procedures for measuring and correcting noise data for the propeller driven small airplanes specified in §§ 36.1 and 36.501(b).
(a) The test area must be relatively flat terrain having no excessive sound absorption characteristics such as those caused by thick, matted, or tall grass, by shrubs, or by wooded areas. No obstructions which significantly influence the sound field from the airplane may exist within a conical space above the measurement position, the cone being defined by an axis normal to the ground and by a half-angle 75 degrees from this axis.
(b) The tests must be carried out under the following conditions:
(1) There may be no precipitation.
(2) Relative humidity may not be higher than 90 percent or lower than 30 percent.
(3) Ambient temperature may not be above 86 degrees F. or below 41 degrees F. at 33′ above ground. If the measurement site is within 1 n.m. of an airport thermometer the airport reported temperature may be used.
(4) Reported wind may not be above 10 knots at 33′ above ground. If wind velocities of more than 4 knots are reported, the flight direction must be aligned to within ±15 degrees of wind direction and flights with tail wind and head wind must be made in equal numbers. If the measurement site is within 1 n.m. of an airport anemometer, the airport reported wind may be used.
(5) There may be no temperature inversion or anomalous wind conditions that would significantly alter the noise level of the airplane when the noise is recorded at the required measuring point.
(6) The flight test procedures, measuring equipment, and noise measurement procedures must be approved by the FAA.
(7) Sound pressure level data for noise evaluation purposes must be obtained with acoustical equipment that complies with section F36.103 of this appendix.
Sec. F36.103 Acoustical measurement system. The acoustical measurement system must consist of approved equipment equivalent to the following:
(a) A microphone system with frequency response compatible with measurement and analysis system accuracy as prescribed in section F36.105 of this appendix.
(b) Tripods or similar microphone mountings that minimize interference with the sound being measured.
(c) Recording and reproducing equipment characteristics, frequency response, and dynamic range compatible with the response and accuracy requirements of section F36.105 of this appendix.
(d) Acoustic calibrators using sine wave or broadband noise of known sound pressure level. If broadband noise is used, the signal must be described in terms of its average and maximum root-mean-square (rms) value for nonoverload signal level.
(a) The noise produced by the airplane must be recorded. A magnetic tape recorder is acceptable.
(b) The characteristics of the system must comply with the recommendations in IEC 179 (incorporated by reference, see § 36.6).
(c) The response of the complete system to a sensibly plane progressive sinusoidal wave of constant amplitude must lie within the tolerance limits specified in IEC Publication No. 179, dated 1973, over the frequency range 45 to 11,200 Hz.
(d) If limitations of the dynamic range of the equipment make it necessary, high frequency pre-emphasis must be added to the recording channel with the converse de-emphasis on playback. The pre-emphasis must be applied such that the instantaneous recorded sound pressure level of the noise signal between 800 and 11,200 Hz does not vary more than 20 dB between the maximum and minimum one-third octave bands.
(e) If requested by the Administrator, the recorded noise signal must be read through an “A” filter with dynamic characteristics designated “slow,” as defined in IEC Publication No. 179, dated 1973. The output signal from the filter must be fed to a rectifying circuit with square law rectification, integrated with time constants for charge and discharge of about 1 second or 800 milliseconds.
(f) The equipment must be acoustically calibrated using facilities for acoustic freefield calibration and if analysis of the tape recording is requested by the Administrator, the analysis equipment shall be electronically calibrated by a method approved by the FAA.
(g) A windscreen must be employed with microphone during all measurements of aircraft noise when the wind speed is in excess of 6 knots.
(a) The microphones must be oriented in a known direction so that the maximum sound received arrives as nearly as possible in the direction for which the microphones are calibrated. The microphone sensing elements must be approximately 4′ above ground.
(b) Immediately prior to and after each test; a recorded acoustic calibration of the system must be made in the field with an acoustic calibrator for the two purposes of checking system sensitivity and providing an acoustic reference level for the analysis of the sound level data.
(c) The ambient noise, including both acoustical background and electrical noise of the measurement systems, must be recorded and determined in the test area with the system gain set at levels that will be used for aircraft noise measurements. If aircraft sound pressure levels do not exceed the background sound pressure levels by at least 10 dB(A), approved corrections for the contribution of background sound pressure level to the observed sound pressure level must be applied.
(a) Data representing physical measurements or corrections to measured data must be recorded in permanent form and appended to the record except that corrections to measurements for normal equipment response deviations need not be reported. All other corrections must be approved. Estimates must be made of the individual errors inherent in each of the operations employed in obtaining the final data.
(b) Measured and corrected sound pressure levels obtained with equipment conforming to the specifications described in section F36.105 of this appendix must be reported.
(c) The type of equipment used for measurement and analysis of all acoustic, airplane performance, and meteorological data must be reported.
(d) The following atmospheric data, measured immediately before, after, or during each test at the observation points prescribed in section F36.101 of this appendix must be reported:
(1) Air temperature and relative humidity.
(2) Maximum, minimum, and average wind velocities.
(e) Comments on local topography, ground cover, and events that might interfere with sound recordings must be reported.
(f) The following airplane information must be reported:
(1) Type, model and serial numbers (if any) of airplanes, engines, and propellers.
(2) Any modifications or nonstandard equipment likely to affect the noise characteristics of the airplane.
(3) Maximum certificated takeoff weights.
(4) Airspeed in knots for each overflight of the measuring point.
(5) Engine performance in terms of revolutions per minute and other relevant parameters for each overflight.
(6) Aircraft height in feet determined by a calibrated altimeter in the aircraft, approved photographic techniques, or approved tracking facilities.
(g) Aircraft speed and position and engine performance parameters must be recorded at an approved sampling rate sufficient to ensure compliance with the test procedures and conditions of this appendix.
(a) Tests to demonstrate compliance with the noise level requirements of this appendix must include at least six level flights over the measuring station at a height of 1,000′ ±30′ and ±10 degrees from the zenith when passing overhead.
(b) Each test over flight must be conducted:
(1) At not less than the highest power in the normal operating range provided in an Airplane Flight Manual, or in any combination of approved manual material, approved placard, or approved instrument markings; and
(2) At stabilized speed with propellers synchronized and with the airplane in cruise configuration, except that if the speed at the power setting prescribed in this paragraph would exceed the maximum speed authorized in level flight, accelerated flight is acceptable.
(a) Noise data obtained when the temperature is outside the range of 68 degrees F. ±9 degrees F., or the relative humidity is below 40 percent, must be corrected to 77 degrees F. and 70 percent relative humidity by a method approved by the FAA.
(b) The performance correction prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section must be used. It must be determined by the method described in this appendix, and must be added algebraically to the measured value. It is limited to 5dB(A).
(c) The performance correction must be computed by using the following formula:
(d) When takeoff distance to 50′ is not listed as approved performance information, the figures of 2000 for single-engine airplanes and 1600′ for multi-engine airplanes must be used.
(a) The test results must produce an average dB(A) and its 90 percent confidence limits, the noise level being the arithmetic average of the corrected acoustical measurements for all valid test runs over the measuring point.
(b) The samples must be large enough to establish statistically a 90 pecent confidence limit not to exceed ±1.5 dB(A). No test result may be omitted from the averaging process, unless omission is approved by the FAA.
(a) Compliance with this section must be shown with noise data measured and corrected as prescribed in Parts B and C of this appendix.
(b) For airplanes for which application for a type certificate is made on or after October 10, 1973, the noise level must not exceed 68 dB(A) up to and including aircraft weights of 1,320 pounds (600 kg.). For weights greater than 1,320 pounds up to and including 3,630 pounds (1.650 kg.) the limit increases at the rate of 1 dB/165 pounds (1 dB/75 kg.) to 82 dB(A) at 3,630 pounds, after which it is constant at 82 dB(A). However, airplanes produced under type certificates covered by this paragraph must also meet paragraph (d) of this section for the original issuance of standard airworthiness certificates or restricted category airworthiness certificates if those airplanes have not had flight time before the date specified in that paragraph.
(c) For airplanes for which application for a type certificate is made on or after January 1, 1975, the noise levels may not exceed the noise limit curve prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section, except that 80 dB(A) may not be exceeded.
(d) For airplanes for which application is made for a standard airworthiness certificate or for a restricted category airworthiness certificate, and that have not had any flight time before January 1, 1980, the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section apply, regardless of date of application, to the original issuance of the certificate for that airplane.