14 CFR Appendix G to Part 36 - Takeoff Noise Requirements for Propeller-Driven Small Airplane and Propeller-Driven, Commuter Category Airplane Certification Tests on or After December 22, 1988
Section G36.1 Scope. This appendix prescribes limiting noise levels and procedures for measuring noise and adjusting these data to standard conditions, for propeller driven small airplanes and propeller-driven, commuter category airplanes specified in §§ 36.1 and 36.501(c).
(a) The test area must be relatively flat terrain having no excessive sound absorption characteristics such as those caused by thick, matted, or tall grass, by shrubs, or by wooded areas. No obstructions which significantly influence the sound field from the airplane may exist within a conical space above the measurement position, the cone being defined by an axis normal to the ground and by a half-angle 75 degrees from the normal ground axis.
(b) The tests must be carried out under the following conditions:
(1) No precipitation;
(2) Ambient air temperature between 36 and 95 degrees F (2.2 and 35 degrees C);
(3) Relative humidity between 20 percent and 95 percent, inclusively;
(4) Wind speed may not exceed 10 knots (19 km/h) and cross wind may not exceed 5 knots (9 km/h), using a 30-second average;
(5) No temperature inversion or anomalous wind condition that would significantly alter the noise level of the airplane when the nose is recorded at the required measuring point, and
(6) The meteorological measurements must be made between 4 ft. (1.2 m) and 33 ft. (10 m) above ground level. If the measurement site is within 1 n.m. of an airport meteorological station, measurements from that station may be used.
(c) The flight test procedures, measuring equipment, and noise measurement procedures must be approved by the FAA.
(d) Sound pressure level data for noise evaluation purposes must be obtained with acoustical equipment that complies with section G36.103 of this appendix.
The acoustical measurement system must consist of approved equipment with the following characteristics: (a) A microphone system with frequency response compatible with measurement and analysis system accuracy as prescribed in section G36.105 of this appendix.
(b) Tripods or similar microphone mountings that minimize interference with the sound being measured.
(c) Recording and reproducing equipment characteristics, frequency response, and dynamic range compatible with the response and accuracy requirements of section G36.105 of this appendix.
(d) Acoustic calibrators using sine wave or broadband noise of known sound pressure level. If broadband noise is used, the signal must be described in terms of its average and maximum root-mean-square (rms) value for non-overload signal level.
(a) The noise produced by the airplane must be recorded. A magnetic tape recorder, graphic level recorder, or sound level meter is acceptable when approved by the regional certificating authority.
(b) The characteristics of the complete system must comply with the requirements in IEC 651 and IEC 561 (incorporated by reference, see § 36.6). Sound level meters must comply with the requirements for Type 1 sound level meters as specified in IEC 651.
(c) The response of the complete system to a sensibly plane progressive sinusoidal wave of constant amplitude must be within the tolerance limits specified in IEC 651, over the frequency range 45 to 11,200 Hz.
(d) If equipment dynamic range limitations make it necessary, high frequency pre-emphasis must be added to the recording channel with the converse de-emphasis on playback. The pre-emphasis must be applied such that the instantaneous recorded sound pressure level of the noise signal between 800 and 11,200 Hz does not vary more than 20 dB between the maximum and minimum one-third octave bands.
(e) The output noise signal must be read through an “A” filter with dynamic characteristics designated “slow” as defined in IEC 651. A graphic recorder, sound level meter, or digital equipment may be used.
(f) The equipment must be acoustically calibrated using facilities for acoustic free-field calibration and if analysis of the tape recording is requested by the Administrator, the analysis equipment shall be electronically calibrated by a method approved by the FAA. Calibrations shall be performed, as appropriate, in accordance with paragraphs A36.3.8 and A36.3.9 of appendix A of this part.
(g) A windscreen must be employed with the microphone during all measurements of aircraft noise when the wind speed is in excess of 5 knots (9 km/hr).
(a) The microphone must be a pressure type, 12.7 mm in diameter, with a protective grid, mounted in an inverted position such that the microphone diaphragm is 7 mm above and parallel to a white-painted metal circular plate. This white-painted metal plate shall be 40 cm in diameter and at least 2.5 mm thick. The plate shall be placed horizontally and flush with the surrounding ground surface with no cavities below the plate. The microphone must be located three-quarters of the distance from the center to the back edge of the plate along a radius normal to the line of flight of the test airplane.
(b) Immediately prior to and after each test, a recorded acoustic calibration of the system must be made in the field with an acoustic calibrator for the purposes of checking system sensitivity and providing an acoustic reference level for the analysis of the sound level data. If a tape recorder or graphic level recorder is used, the frequency response of the electrical system must be determined at a level within 10 dB of the full-scale reading used during the test, utilizing pink or pseudorandom noise.
(c) The ambient noise, including both acoustic background and electrical systems noise, must be recorded and determined in the test area with the system gain set at levels which will be used for aircraft noise measurements. If aircraft sound pressure levels do not exceed the background sound pressure levels by at least 10 dB(A), a takeoff measurement point nearer to the start of the takeoff roll must be used and the results must be adjusted to the reference measurement point by an approved method.
(a) Data representing physical measurements and adjustments to measured data must be recorded in permanent form and appended to the record, except that corrections to measurements for normal equipment response deviations need not be reported. All other adjustments must be approved. Estimates must be made of the individual errors inherent in each of the operations employed in obtaining the final data.
(b) Measured and corrected sound pressure levels obtained with equipment conforming to the specifications in section G36.105 of this appendix must be reported.
(c) The type of equipment used for measurement and analysis of all acoustical, airplane performance, and meteorological data must be reported.
(d) The following atmospheric data, measured immediately before, after, or during each test at the observation points prescribed in section G36.101 of this appendix must be reported:
(1) Ambient temperature and relative humidity.
(2) Maximum and average wind speeds and directions for each run.
(e) Comments on local topography, ground cover, and events that might interfere with sound recordings must be reported.
(f) The aircraft position relative to the takeoff reference flight path must be determined by an approved method independent of normal flight instrumentation, such as radar tracking, theodolite triangulation, or photographic scaling techniques.
(g) The following airplane information must be reported:
(1) Type, model, and serial numbers (if any) of airplanes, engines, and propellers;
(2) Any modifications or nonstandard equipment likely to affect the noise characteristics of the airplane;
(3) Maximum certificated takeoff weight;
(4) For each test flight, airspeed and ambient temperature at the flyover altitude over the measuring site determined by properly calibrated instruments;
(5) For each test flight, engine performance parameters, such as manifold pressure or power, propeller speed (rpm) and other relevant parameters. Each parameter must be determined by properly calibrated instruments. For instance, propeller RPM must be validated by an independent device accurate to within ±1 percent, when the airplane is equipped with a mechanical tachometer.
(6) Airspeed, position, and performance data necessary to make the corrections required in section G36.201 of this appendix must be recorded by an approved method when the airplane is directly over the measuring site.
(a) The noise measurement point is on the extended centerline of the runway at a distance of 8200 ft (2500 m) from the start of takeoff roll. The aircraft must pass over the measurement point within ±10 degrees from the vertical and within 20% of the reference altitude. The flight test program shall be initiated at the maximum approved takeoff weight and the weight shall be adjusted back to this maximum weight after each hour of flight time. Each flight test must be conducted at the speed for the best rate of climb (Vy) ±5 knots (±9 km/hour) indicated airspeed. All test, measurement, and data correction procedures must be approved by the FAA.
(b) The takeoff reference flight path must be calculated for the following atmospheric conditions:
(1) Sea level atmospheric pressure of 1013.25 mb (013.25 hPa);
(2) Ambient air temperature of 59 °F (15 °C);
(3) Relative humidity of 70 percent; and
(4) Zero wind.
(c) The takeoff reference flight path must be calculated assuming the following two segments:
(1) First segment.
(i) Takeoff power must be used from the brake release point to the point at which the height of 50 ft (15m) above the runway is reached.
(ii) A constant takeoff configuration selected by the applicant must be maintained through this segment.
(iii) The maximum weight of the airplane at brake-release must be the maximum for which noise certification is requested.
(iv) The length of this first segment must correspond to the airworthiness approved value for a takeoff on a level paved runway (or the corresponding value for seaplanes).
(2) Second segment.
(i) The beginning of the second segment corresponds to the end of the first segment.
(ii) The airplane must be in the climb configuration with landing gear up, if retractable, and flap setting corresponding to normal climb position throughout this second segment.
(iii) The airplane speed must be the speed for the best rate of climb (Vy).
(iv) For airplanes equipped with fixed pitch propellers, takeoff power must be maintained throughout the second segment. For airplanes equipped with variable pitch or constant speed propellers, takeoff power and rpm must be maintained throughout the second segment. If airworthiness limitations do not allow the application of takeoff power and rpm up to the reference point, then takeoff power and rpm must be maintained for as long as is permitted by such limitations; thereafter, maximum continuous power and rpm must be maintained. Maximum time allowed at takeoff power under the airworthiness standards must be used in the second segment. The reference height must be calculated assuming climb gradients appropriate to each power setting used.
(a) These corrections account for the effects of:
(1) Differences in atmospheric absorption of sound between meteorological test conditions and reference conditions.
(2) Differences in the noise path length between the actual airplane flight path and the reference flight path.
(3) The change in the helical tip Mach number between test and reference conditions.
(4) The change in the engine power between test and reference conditions.
(b) Atmospheric absorption correction is required for noise data obtained when the test conditions are outside those specified in Figure G1. Noise data outside the applicable range must be corrected to 59 F and 70 percent relative humidity by an FAA approved method.
(c) No corrections for helical tip Mach number variation need to be made if the propeller helical tip Mach number is:
(1) At or below 0.70 and the test helical tip Mach number is within 0.014 of the reference helical tip Mach number.
(2) Above 0.70 and at or below 0.80 and the test helical tip Mach number is within 0.007 of the reference helical tip Mach number.
(3) Above 0.80 and the test helical tip Mach number is within 0.005 of the reference helical tip Mach number. For mechanical tachometers, if the helical tip Mach number is above 0.8 and the test helical tip Mach number is within 0.008 of the reference helical tip Mach number.
(d) When the test conditions are outside those specified, corrections must be applied by an approved procedure or by the following simplified procedure:
(1) Measured sound levels must be corrected from test day meteorological conditions to reference conditions by adding an increment equal to
(2) Measured sound levels in decibels must be corrected for height by algebraically adding an increment equal to Delta (1). When test day conditions are within those specified in figure G1:
Delta (1) = 22 log (HT/HR)
When test day conditions are outside those specified in figure G1:
Delta (1) = 20 log (HT/HR)
(3) Measured sound levels in decibels must be corrected for helical tip Mach number by algebraically adding an increment equal to:
Delta (2) = k log (MR/MT)
(4) Measured sound levels in decibels must be corrected for engine power by algebraically adding an increment equal to
(a) The measuring point must be overflown at least six times. The test results must produce an average noise level (LAmax) value within a 90 percent confidence limit. The average noise level is the arithmetic average of the corrected acoustical measurements for all valid test runs over the measuring point.
(b) The samples must be large enough to establish statistically a 90 percent confidence limit not exceeding ±1.5 dB(A). No test results may be omitted from the averaging process unless omission is approved by the FAA.
(a) Compliance with this section must be shown with noise data measured and corrected as prescribed in Parts B and C of this appendix.
(b) For single-engine airplanes for which the original type certification application is received before February 3, 2006 and multi-engine airplanes, the noise level must not exceed 76 dB(A) up to and including aircraft weights of 1,320 pounds (600 kg). For aircraft weights greater than 1,320 pounds, the limit increases from that point with the logarithm of airplane weight at the rate of 9.83 dB (A) per doubling of weight, until the limit of 88 dB (A) is reached, after which the limit is constant up to and including 19,000 pounds (8,618 kg). Figure G2 shows noise level limits vs airplane weight.
(c) For single-engine airplanes for which the original type certification application is received on or after February 3, 2006, the noise level must not exceed 70dB(A) for aircraft having a maximum certificated takeoff weight of 1,257 pounds (570 kg) or less. For aircraft weights greater than 1,257 pounds, the noise limit increases from that point with the logarithm of airplane weight at the rate of 10.75dB(A) per doubling of weight, until the limit of 85dB(A) is reached, after which the limit is constant up to and including 19,000 pounds (8,618 kg). Figure G2 depicts noise level limits for airplane weights for single-engine airplanes.