21 CFR § 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

prev | next
§ 172.510 Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

Natural flavoring substances and natural adjuvants may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions.

(a) They are used in the minimum quantity required to produce their intended physical or technical effect and in accordance with all the principles of good manufacturing practice.

(b) In the appropriate forms (plant parts, fluid and solid extracts, concentrates, absolutes, oils, gums, balsams, resins, oleoresins, waxes, and distillates) they consist of one or more of the following, used alone or in combination with flavoring substances and adjuvants generally recognized as safe in food, previously sanctioned for such use, or regulated in any section of this part.

Common name Scientific name Limitations
Aloe Aloe perryi Baker, A. barbadensis Mill., A. ferox Mill., and hybrids of this sp. with A. africana Mill. and A. spicata Baker
Althea root and flowers Althea officinalis L
Amyris (West Indian sandalwood) Amyris balsamifera L
Angola weed Roccella fuciformis Ach In alcoholic beverages only
Arnica flowers Arnica montana L., A. fulgens Pursh, A. sororia Greene, or A. cordifolia Hooker Do.
Artemisia (wormwood) Artemisia spp Finished food thujone free 1
Artichoke leaves Cynara scolymus L In alcoholic beverages only
Benzoin resin Styrax benzoin Dryander, S. paralleloneurus Perkins, S. tonkinensis (Pierre) Craib ex Hartwich, or other spp. of the Section Anthostyrax of the genus Styrax
Blackberry bark Rubus, Section Eubatus
Boldus (boldo) leaves Peumus boldus Mol Do.
Boronia flowers Boronia megastigma Nees
Bryonia root Bryonia alba L., or B. diocia Jacq Do.
Buchu leaves Barosma betulina Bartl. et Wendl., B. crenulata (L.) Hook. or B. serratifolia Willd
Buckbean leaves Menyanthes trifoliata L Do.
Cajeput Melaleuca leucadendron L. and other Melaleuca spp
Calumba root Jateorhiza palmata (Lam.) Miers Do.
Camphor tree Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Nees et Eberm Safrole free
Cascara sagrada Rhamnus purshiana DC
Cassie flowers Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd
Castor oil Ricinus communis L
Catechu, black Acacia catechu Willd
Cedar, white (aborvitae), leaves and twigs Thuja occidentalis L Finished food thujone free 1
Centuary Centaurium umbellatum Gilib In alcoholic beverages only
Cherry pits Prunus avium L. or P. cerasus L Not to exceed 25 p.p.m. prussic acid
Cherry-laurel leaves Prunus laurocerasus L Do.
Chestnut leaves Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh
Chirata Swertia chirata Buch.-Ham In alcoholic beverages only
Cinchona, red, bark Cinchona succirubra Pav. or its hybrids In beverages only; not more than 83 p.p.m. total cinchona alkaloids in finished beverage
Cinchona, yellow, bark Cinchona ledgeriana Moens, C. calisaya Wedd., or hybrids of these with other spp. of Cinchona. Do.
Copaiba South American spp. of Copaifera L
Cork, oak Quercus suber L., or Q. occidentalis F. Gay In alcoholic beverages only
Costmary Chrysanthemum balsamita L Do.
Costus root Saussurea lappa Clarke
Cubeb Piper cubeba L. f
Currant, black, buds and leaves Ribes nigrum L
Damiana leaves Turnera diffusa Willd
Davana Artemisia pallens Wall
Dill, Indian Anethum sowa Roxb. (Peucedanum graveolens Benth et Hook., Anethum graveolens L.)
Dittany (fraxinella) roots Dictamnus albus L Do.
Dittany of Crete Origanum dictamnus L
Dragon's blood (dracorubin) Daemonorops spp
Elder tree leaves Sambucus nigra L In alcoholic beverages only; not to exceed 25 p.p.m. prussic acid in the flavor
Elecampane rhizome and roots Inula helenium L In alcoholic beverages only
Elemi Canarium commune L. or C. luzonicum Miq
Erigeron Erigeron canadensis L
Eucalyptus globulus leaves Eucalyptus globulus Labill
Fir (“pine”) needles and twigs Abies sibirica Ledeb., A. alba Mill., A. sachalinesis Masters or A. mayriana Miyabe et Kudo
Fir, balsam, needles and twigs Abies balsamea (L.) Mill
Galanga, greater Alpinia galanga Willd Do.
Galbanum Ferula galbaniflua Boiss. et Buhse and other Ferula spp
Gambir (catechu, pale) Uncaria gambir Roxb
Genet flowers Spartium junceum L
Gentian rhizome and roots Gentiana lutea L
Gentian, stemless Gentiana acaulis L Do.
Germander, chamaedrys Teucrium chamaedrys L Do.
Germander, golden Teucrium polium L Do.
Guaiac Guaiacum officinale L., G. santum L., Bulnesia sarmienti Lor
Guarana Paullinia cupana HBK
Haw, black, bark Viburnum prunifolium L
Hemlock needles and twigs Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. or T. heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg
Hyacinth flowers Hyacinthus orientalis L
Iceland moss Cetraria islandica Ach Do.
Imperatoria Peucedanum ostruthium (L.). Koch (Imperatoria ostruthium L.)
Iva Achillea moschata Jacq Do.
Labdanum Cistus spp
Lemon-verbena Lippia citriodora HBK Do.
Linaloe wood Bursera delpechiana Poiss. and other Bursera spp
Linden leaves Tillia spp Do.
Lovage Levisticum officinale Koch
Lungmoss (lungwort) Sticta pulmonacea Ach
Maidenhair fern Adiantum capillus-veneris L Do.
Maple, mountain Acer spicatum Lam
Mimosa (black wattle) flowers Acacia decurrens Willd. var. dealbata
Mullein flowers Verbascum phlomoides L. or V. thapsiforme Schrad Do.
Myrrh Commiphora molmol Engl., C. abyssinica (Berg) Engl., or other Commiphora spp
Myrtle leaves Myrtus communis L Do.
Oak, English, wood Quercus robur L Do.
Oak, white, chips Quercus alba L
Oak moss Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach., E. furfuracea (L.) Mann, and other lichens Finished food thujone free 1
Olibanum Boswellia carteri Birdw. and other Boswellia spp
Opopanax (bisabolmyrrh) Opopanax chironium Koch (true opopanax) of Commiphora erythraea Engl. var. Llabrescens
Orris root Iris germanica L. (including its variety florentina Dykes) and I. pallida Lam
Pansy Viola tricolor L In alcoholic beverages only
Passion flower Passiflora incarnata L
Patchouly Pogostemon cablin Benth. and P. heyneanus Benth
Peach leaves Prunus persica (L.) Batsch In alcoholic beverages only; not to exceed 25 p.p.m. prussic acid in the flavor
Pennyroyal, American Hedeoma pulegioides (L.) Pers
Pennyroyal, European Mentha pulegium L
Pine, dwarf, needles and twigs Pinus mugo Turra var. pumilio (Haenke) Zenari
Pine, Scotch, needles and twigs Pinus sylvestris L
Pine, white, bark Pinus strobus L In alcoholic beverages only
Pine, white oil Pinus palustris Mill., and other Pinus spp
Poplar buds Populus balsamifera L. (P. tacamahacca Mill.), P. candicans Ait., or P. nigra L Do.
Quassia Picrasma excelsa (Sw.) Planch, or Quassia amara L
Quebracho bark Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Schlecht, or (Quebrachia lorentzii (Griseb)) Schinopsis lorentzii (Griseb.) Engl.
Quillaia (soapbark) Quillaja saponaria Mol
Red saunders (red sandalwood) Pterocarpus san alinus L In alcoholic beverages only
Rhatany root Krameria triandra Ruiz et Pav. or K. argentea Mart
Rhubarb, garden root Rheum rhaponticum L Do.
Rhubarb root Rheum officinale Baill., R. palmatum L., or other spp. (excepting R. rhaponticum L.) or hybrids of Rheum grown in China
Roselle Hibiscus sabdariffa L Do.
Rosin (colophony) Pinus palustris Mill., and other Pinus spp Do.
St. Johnswort leaves, flowers, and caulis Hypericum perforatum L Hypericin-free alcohol distillate form only; in alcoholic beverages only
Sandalwood, white (yellow, or East Indian) Santalum album L
Sandarac Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl.), Mast In alcoholic beverages only
Sarsaparilla Smilax aristolochiaefolia Mill., (Mexican sarsaparilla), S. regelii Killip et Morton (Honduras sarsaparilla), S. febrifuga Kunth (Ecuadorean sarsaparilla), or undetermined Smilax spp. (Ecuadorean or Central American sarsaparilla)
Sassafras leaves Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees Safrole free
Senna, Alexandria Cassia acutifolia Delile
Serpentaria (Virginia snakeroot) Aristolochia serpentaria L In alcoholic beverages only
Simaruba bark Simaruba amara Aubl Do.
Snakeroot, Canadian (wild ginger) Asarum canadense L
Spruce needles and twigs Picea glauca (Moench) Voss or P. mariana (Mill.) BSP
Storax (styrax) Liquidambar orientalis Mill. or L. styraciflua L
Tagetes (marigold) Tagetes patula L., T. erecta L., or T. minuta L. (T. glandulifera Schrank) As oil only
Tansy Tanacetum vulgare L In alcoholic beverages only; finished alcoholic beverage thujone free 1
Thistle, blessed (holy thistle) Onicus benedictus L In alcoholic beverages only
Thymus capitatus (Spanish “origanum”) Thymus capitatus Hoffmg. et Link
Tolu Myroxylon balsamum (L.) Harms
Turpentine Pinus palustris Mill. and other Pinus spp. which yield terpene oils exclusively
Valerian rhizome and roots Valeriana officinalis L
Veronica Veronica officinalis L Do.
Vervain, European Verbena officinalis L Do.
Vetiver Vetiveria zizanioides Stapf Do.
Violet, Swiss Viola calcarata L
Walnut husks (hulls), leaves, and green nuts Juglans nigra L. or J. regia L
Woodruff, sweet Asperula odorata L In alcoholic beverages only
Yarrow Achillea millefolium L In beverages only; finished beverage thujone free 1
Yerba santa Eriodictyon californicum (Hook, et Arn.) Torr
Yucca, Joshua-tree Yucca brevifolia Engelm
Yucca, Mohave Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies (Y. mohavensis Sarg.)

1 As determined by using the method (or, in other than alcoholic beverages, a suitable adaptation thereof) in section 9.129 of the “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,” 13th Ed. (1980), which is incorporated by reference. Copies may be obtained from the AOAC INTERNATIONAL, 481 North Frederick Ave., suite 500, Gaithersburg, MD 20877, or may be examined at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202–741–6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

[42 FR 14491, Mar. 15, 1977, as amended at 43 FR 14644, Apr. 7, 1978; 49 FR 10104, Mar. 19, 1984; 54 FR 24897, June 12, 1989; 69 FR 24511, May 4, 2004; 72 FR 10357, Mar. 8, 2007]