24 CFR 248.173 - Resident homeownership program.
(a) Formation of resident council. Tenants seeking to purchase eligible low income housing in accordance with §§ 248.157 and 248.161 shall organize a resident council for the purpose of developing a resident homeownership program in accordance with standards established by the Commissioner. In order to fulfill the purposes of this section, the resident council shall work with a public or private nonprofit organization or a public body, including an agency or instrumentality thereof. Such organization shall have sufficient experience to enable it to help the tenants to consider their options and to develop the capacity necessary to own and manage the project, where appropriate, and shall be approved by the Commissioner.
(b) Submission of expression of interest. A resident council shall identify itself as such in an expression of interest submitted pursuant to § 248.157 or § 248.161 and shall state that, it is interested in purchasing the project pursuant to a homeownership program.
(c) Bona fide offer. When submitting an offer to purchase the project pursuant to this section, the resident council must simultaneously submit a certified list of project tenants representing at least 75 percent of the occupied units in the project, and representing at least 50 percent of all of the units in the project, who have expressed an interest in participating in the homeownership program developed by the resident council. An offer made without this certified list will not be considered a bona fide offer for the purposes of subpart B of this part.
(d) Submission of a homeownership program. (1) The resident council shall prepare a homeownership program acceptable to the Commissioner for giving all residents of the project an opportunity to become homeowners. The plan shall describe the major elements of, and schedules for, the homeownership program and demonstrate how the program complies with all applicable requirements of this section. The plan shall also describe the resident council's current abilities and proposed capacity-building activities to successfully carry out the homeownership program in compliance with this section. The homeownership program shall include, at a minimum, the following information:
(i) The amount of grant funds requested from the Commissioner, and the expected amounts and sources of other funding;
(ii) The proposed use of the grant funds to be received from HUD and of all other funds, including proceeds from the sale of units to initial purchasers, consistent with paragraph (h) of this section;
(iii) A summary of major rehabilitation activities to be carried out, including repairs, replacements and improvements;
(iv) The price at which the resident council intends to transfer ownership interests in, or shares representing, units in the project, broken down by unit size and/or type; the factors that will influence the establishment of such price, including, but not limited to, the resident council's acquisition cost, estimated rehabilitation costs, capitalization of reserves and organizational costs; how the price arrived at by the resident council compares to the estimated appraised value of the ownership interests or shares; and the underwriting standard that the resident council plans to use, or reasonably expects a public or private lender to use, for potential tenant purchasers, consistent with paragraph (g)(2) of this section;
(v) The expected number of very low, low and moderate income tenants that will be initial owners under the program, consistent with paragraph (g)(1) of this section;
(vi) A pro forma analysis which demonstrates the financial feasibility and viability of the homeownership program, based on the required conditions specified in paragraph (g) of this section;
(vii) The financing arrangements that the tenants are expected to pursue or to be provided, including financing available through the resident council or a State or local governmental entity, and criteria for acceptability of conventional financing;
(viii) A description of the estimated costs expected to be paid by the homeowner at closing;
(ix) The type of homeownership contemplated, consistent with paragraph (f) of this section;
(x) How the marketing of currently vacant units and units occupied by nonpurchasing tenants that become vacant will affect the sales price and occupancy charges to purchasers;
(xi) A workable schedule of sale, subject to the limitations of paragraph (o) of this section, based on estimated tenant incomes;
(xii) Any restrictions on resale by homeowners over and above those specified in paragraph (i) of this section, and any restrictions on homeowners' equity, over and above those specified in paragraph (k) of this section;
(xiii) The qualifications of the resident council or the proposed management entity to manage the project, in compliance with paragraph (n) of this section;
(xiv) The expected number of non-purchasing tenants and their eligibility for section 8 rental assistance under paragraph (m)(2) of this section;
(xv) Expected scope and expenses of relocation activities, both for any temporary relocation due to rehabilitation as well as relocation assistance for nonpurchasing tenants, consistent with paragraph (m)(4) of this section;
(xvi) Expected scope and costs of technical assistance, training and counseling for the resident council, purchasers and non-purchasing tenants; and
(xvii) A certification that the resident council shall comply with the provisions of the Fair Housing Act (42 U.S.C. 3601-3619); title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000d); Executive Order 11063 (3 CFR 1959-1963 comp., p. 652); section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 794); the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 (42 U.S.C. 6101-6107); and all regulations issued pursuant to these statutes and authorities.
(2) The Commissioner shall give the resident council a reasonable opportunity to revise the homeownership program if approval is denied.
(e) Approval of a homeownership program; assistance provided. (1) When the Commissioner determines that the homeownership program submitted by the resident council meets the requirements of this section, is financially feasible, and is the least costly alternative that is consistent with establishing a viable homeownership program, the Commissioner shall approve the program.
(2) In connection with an approved homeownership program the Commissioner shall provide assistance sufficient to pay the following costs:
(i) The debt service on the federally-assisted mortgage(s) covering the project, when such mortgage is assumed by the resident council;
(ii) The purchase price, which shall not exceed the transfer preservation value;
(iii) Transaction costs, as provided in § 248.157(m)(6);
(iv) Other costs, as provided in § 248.157(m)(7);
(v) The costs of rehabilitation;
(vi) The establishment of an adequate reserve for replacements; and
(vii) If necessary, the establishment of operating reserve escrows including contingencies against unexpected increases in expenses or shortfalls in homeowners' payments.
(3) Upon approval of the homeownership program, the Commissioner and the resident council shall enter into an agreement, which shall include, among other matters, procedures governing the drawdown of funds and remedies for noncompliance with the requirements of this section.
(f) Method of conversion. The Commissioner shall approve the method for converting the project to homeownership, which may involve acquisition of ownership interests in, or shares representing, the units in a project under any arrangement determined by the Commissioner to be appropriate, such as cooperative ownership, and fee simple ownership, including condominium ownership.
(g) Required conditions. The Commissioner shall require that the form of homeownership impose appropriate conditions, including conditions to assure that:
(1) To the extent practicable, the number of initial owners that are very low, low, and moderate income persons at initial occupancy are of the same proportion of very low, low, and moderate income tenants (including families and persons whose incomes are 95 percent or more of area median income) as resided in the project on January 1, 1987 (or if the January 1, 1987 profile is unavailable, a certification from the owner stating its unavailability and a profile as of January 1, 1988, or, if that is also unavailable, a profile as of January 1, 1989) or as of the date of approval of the plan of action, whichever date results in the higher proportion of very low income families, except that the resident council may, at its option, increase the proportions of very low income and low income initial owners, however, no current tenant may be denied homeownership as a result of this paragraph;
(2) Projected debt service payments, occupancy charges and utilities payable by the owners shall not exceed 35 percent of the monthly adjusted gross income of the owners;
(3) The aggregate incomes of initial owners and other sources of funds for the project are sufficient to permit occupancy charges to cover the full operating costs of the project and any debt service; and
(4) Each initial owner occupies the unit it acquires for at least the initial 15 years of ownership, unless the resident council determines that the initial owner is required to move outside the market area due to a change in employment or an emergency situation.
(5) All units which remain as rental units, from the date of approval of the resident homeownership program, until they are purchased by an initial owner under the resident homeownership program, shall be maintained in accordance with § 248.145 (a)(5), (a)(6), (a)(7), (a)(8), and (a)(9).
(h) Use of proceeds from sales to eligible families. The entity that transfers ownership interests in, or shares representing, units to eligible families, or another entity specified in the approved application, may use 50 percent of the proceeds, if any, from the initial sale for costs of the homeownership program, including improvements to the project, operating and replacement reserves for the project, additional homeownership opportunities in the project, and other project-related activities approved by the Commissioner. The remaining 50 percent of such proceeds shall be returned to the Commissioner for use under §§ 248.157 and 248.161, subject to the availability of appropriations. Such entity shall keep, and make available to the Commissioner, all records necessary to calculate accurately payments due the Commissioner under paragraph (h) of this section.
(i) Restrictions on resale by homeowners. Resale of a homeowner's interest in a project with an approved homeownership program may occur subject to any reasonable restrictions placed on such a transfer by the resident council and approved by the Commissioner.
(1) Transfer permitted. A homeowner may transfer the homeowner's ownership interest in the unit, subject to the right to purchase under paragraph (i)(2) of this section, the requirement for the purchaser to execute a promissory note, if required under paragraph (i)(3) of this section and the restrictions on retention of sales proceeds in paragraph (k) of this section. An applicant may propose in its application, and HUD may approve, reasonable restrictions on the resale of units under the program.
(2) Right to purchase. Where a resident management corporation, resident council, or cooperative has jurisdiction over the unit, it shall have the right to purchase the ownership interest in the unit from the initial homeowner for the amount specified in a firm contract between the homeowner and a prospective buyer. Where a resident management corporation, resident council, or a cooperative exercises a right to purchase, it shall resell the unit to an eligible family within a reasonable period of time.
(3) Promissory note required. At closing, the initial homeowner shall execute a nonrecourse promissory note for a term of twenty years, in a form acceptable to HUD, equal to the difference between the fair market value of the unit and the purchase price, payable to the Commissioner, together with a mortgage securing the obligation of the note.
(i) With respect to a sale by an initial homeowner, the note shall require payment upon sale by the initial homeowner, to the extent proceeds of the sale remain after paying off other outstanding debt incurred in connection with the purchase of the property, paying any other amounts due in connection with the sale, including closing costs and transfer taxes, and paying the family the amount of its equity in the property, computed in accordance with paragraph (k) of this section.
(ii) With respect to a sale by an initial homeowner during the first six years after acquisition, the family may retain only the amount computed under paragraph (k) of this section. Any excess is distributed as provided in paragraph (1) of this section.
(iii) With respect to a sale by an initial homeowner six to twenty years after acquisition, the amount payable under the note shall be reduced by 1/168th of the original principal amount of the note for each full month of ownership by the family after the end of the sixth year. The homeowner may retain all other proceeds of the sale.
(j) Execution of promissory note by subsequent purchaser. Where a subsequent purchaser during the 20-year period, measured by the term of the initial promissory note, purchases the property for less than the then current fair market value, the purchaser shall also execute at closing such a promissory note and mortgage, for the amount of the discount. The term of the promissory note shall be the period remaining of the original 20-year period. The note shall require payment upon sale by the subsequent homeowner, to the extent proceeds of the sale remain after paying off other outstanding debt incurred in connection with the purchase of the property, and paying any other amounts due in connection with the sale (such as closing costs and transfer taxes). The amount payable on the note shall be reduced by a percentage of the original principal amount of the note for each full month of ownership by the subsequent homeowner. The percentage shall be computed by determining the percentage of the term of the promissory note that the homeowner has owned the property. The remainder may be retained by the subsequent homeowner selling the property.
(k) Homeowners' equity. The amount of equity an initial homeowner has in the property is determined by computing the sum of the following:
(1) The contribution to equity paid by the family, if any, including any down payment and any amount paid towards principal on a mortgage loan during the period of ownership;
(2) The value of any improvements installed at the expense of the family during the family's tenure as owner, as determined by the resident council based on evidence of amounts spent on the improvements, including the cost of material and labor; and
(3) The appreciated value, determined by applying the Consumer Price Index (urban consumers) against the contribution to equity under paragraphs (k) (1) and (2) of this section, excluding the value of any sweat equity or volunteer labor used to make improvements to the unit. The resident council may, at the time of initial sale, enter into an agreement with the family to set a maximum amount which this appreciation may not exceed.
(l) Use of recaptured funds. Any net sales proceeds that may not be retained by the homeowner under the homeownership program approved under this section shall be paid to the HOME Investment Trust Fund for the unit of general local government in which the project is located. If the project is located in a unit of general local government that is not a participating jurisdiction, as such term is defined in § 248.101, any such net sales proceeds shall be paid to the HOME Investment Trust Fund for the State in which the project is located. With respect to any proceeds transferred to a HOME Investment Trust Fund under paragraph (1) of this section, the Commissioner shall take such actions as are necessary to ensure that the proceeds shall be immediately available for eligible activities to expand the supply of affordable housing under section 212 of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12742). The Commissioner shall monitor the HOME Investment Trust Fund for each State and unit of local government and shall require maintenance of any records necessary to calculate accurately payments due under this paragraph (1) of this section.
(m) Protection of nonpurchasing families. Nonpurchasing families who continue to reside in a project subject to a homeownership program approved under this section shall be protected as follows:
(1) Eviction. No tenant residing in an eligible property on the date the Commissioner approves a plan of action may be evicted by reason of a homeownership program approved under this section. This does not preclude evictions for material violation of the terms of occupancy of the unit.
(2) Section 8 assistance. If a tenant decides not to purchase a unit, or is not qualified to do so, the Commissioner shall ensure that tenant-based assistance under the Housing Choice Voucher Program in accordance with part 982 of this title is available for use in that or another property by each tenant that meets the eligibility requirements thereunder.
(3) Rent increases for ineligible tenants. Rents for tenants who do not purchase a unit but are ineligible for assistance under paragraph (m)(2) of this section may be increased to a level that does not exceed 30 percent of the tenant's adjusted income or the section 8 existing fair market rent, whichever is lower. Rent increases shall be phased in in accordance with § 248.145(a)(6).
(4) Relocation assistance. The resident council shall also inform each tenant that if the tenant chooses to move, the resident council, as owner of the project, will pay relocation expenses in accordance with the approved homeownership program. The provisions of § 248.165 shall not apply to resident councils who are project owners pursuant to an approved homeownership program under this section.
(n) Qualified management. As a condition of approval of a homeownership program under subpart B of this section, the resident council shall have demonstrated its abilities to manage eligible properties by having done so effectively and efficiently for a period of not less than three years or by entering into a contract with a qualified management entity that meets such standards as the Commissioner may prescribe to ensure that the project will be maintained in a decent, safe and sanitary condition.
(o) Timely homeownership. The resident council shall acquire ownership of the project no later than 90 days after final approval of a plan of action pursuant to this section. The resident council shall transfer ownership of units in the project (other than units occupied by nonpurchasing tenants) to the tenants within a reasonable time thereafter, but in no event more than 4 years from the date of transfer of the project to the resident council. The Commissioner may seek contractual remedies against any resident council which fails to transfer ownership of all units within the 4-year period. During the interim period when the project continues to be operated and managed as rental housing, the resident council shall utilize written tenant selection policies and criteria that are approved by the Commissioner as consistent with the purpose of providing housing for very low income families. The resident council shall promptly notify in writing any rejected applicant of the grounds for any rejection.
(p) Housing standards; inspections. (1) Until the resident council has transferred all units in the project (other than those occupied by nonpurchasing tenants) to the initial purchasers, the project shall be maintained in accordance with the housing standards set forth in § 248.147.
(2) The Commissioner shall inspect the project at least annually in order to determine compliance with paragraph (p)(1) of this section.
(q) Audits. Each resident council shall be subject to the audit requirements in part 45 of this title and shall submit an annual audit to the Commissioner in such form as the Commissioner may prescribe. The resident council shall keep such records as may be reasonably necessary to fully disclose the amount and the disposition by such resident council of the proceeds of assistance received under subpart B of this part, including any proceeds from sales under paragraphs (h) and (l) of this section, the total cost of the homeownership program in connection with which such assistance is given or used, and the amount and nature of that portion of the program supplied by other sources, and such other sources as will facilitate an effective audit.
The Commissioner or his or her duly authorized representative shall have access for the purpose of audit and examination to any books, documents, papers, and records of the resident council that are pertinent to assistance received under subpart B of this part. The Comptroller General of the United States, or any of the duly authorized representatives of the Comptroller General, shall also have access, for the purpose of audit and examination, to any books, documents, papers, and records of the resident council that are pertinent to assistance received under subpart B of this part.
(r) Reports. The resident council shall submit reports, as required by the Commissioner, in order to demonstrate continued compliance with the requirements of this section.
(s) Assumption of the federally assisted mortgage(s). In connection with a resident homeownership plan, the resident council may assume a mortgage insured, held or assisted by the Commissioner under part 236 of this chapter or under part 221 of this chapter and bearing a below market interest rate as provided under § 221.518(b) of this chapter or may choose to pay off the mortgage. If the resident council decides to assume the mortgage, the project must be sold pursuant to § 248.175 and the project must be operated as a limited equity cooperative.