26 CFR § 1.704-1 - Partner's distributive share.

§ 1.704-1 Partner's distributive share.

(a) Effect of partnership agreement. A partner's distributive share of any item or class of items of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit of the partnership shall be determined by the partnership agreement, unless otherwise provided by section 704 and paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section. For definition of partnership agreement see section 761(c).

(b) Determination of partner's distributive share - (0) Cross-references.

Table 1 to Paragraph (b)(0)

Heading Section
Cross-references 1.704-1(b)(0)
In general 1.704-1(b)(1)
Basic principles 1.704-1(b)(1)(i)
Effective dates 1.704-1(b)(1)(ii)
Generally 1.704-1(b)(1)(ii)(a)
Foreign tax expenditures 1.704-1(b)(1)(ii)(b)
In general 1.704-1(b)(1)(ii)(b)(1)
Special rules for certain interbranch payments 1.704-1(b)(1)(ii)(b)(3)
Effect of other sections 1.704-1(b)(1)(iii)
Other possible tax consequences 1.704-1(b)(1)(iv)
Purported allocations 1.704-1(b)(1)(v)
Section 704(c) determinations 1.704-1(b)(1)(vi)
Bottom line allocations 1.704-1(b)(1)(vii)
Substantial economic effect 1.704-1(b)(2)
Two-part analysis 1.704-1(b)(2)(i)
Economic effect 1.704-1(b)(2)(ii)
Fundamental principles 1.704-1(b)(2)(ii)(a)
Three requirements 1.704-1(b)(2)(ii)(b)
Obligation to restore deficit 1.704-1(b)(2)(ii)(c)
Alternate test for economic effect 1.704-1(b)(2)(ii)(d)
Partial economic effect 1.704-1(b)(2)(ii)(e)
Reduction of obligation to restore 1.704-1(b)(2)(ii)(f)
Liquidation defined 1.704-1(b)(2)(ii)(g)
Partnership agreement defined 1.704-1(b)(2)(ii)(h)
Economic effect equivalence 1.704-1(b)(2)(ii)(i)
Substantiality 1.704-1(b)(2)(iii)
General rules 1.704-1(b)(2)(iii)(a)
Shifting tax consequences 1.704-1(b)(2)(iii)(b)
Transitory allocations 1.704-1(b)(2)(iii)(c)
Maintenance of capital accounts 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)
In general 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(a)
Basic rules 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(b)
Treatment of liabilities 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(c)
Contributed property 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(d)
In general 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(d)(1)
Contribution of promissory notes 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(d)(2)
Section 704(c) considerations 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(d)(3)
Exercise of noncompensatory options 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(d)(4).
Distributed property 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(e)
In general 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(e)(1)
Distribution of promissory notes 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(e)(2)
Revaluations of property 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(f)
Adjustments to reflect book value 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(g)
In general 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(g)(1)
Payables and receivables 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(g)(2)
Determining amount of book items 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(g)(3)
Determinations of fair market value 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(h)
In general 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(h)(1).
Adjustments for noncompensatory options 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(h)(2).
Section 705(a)(2)(B) expenditures 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(i)
In general 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(i)(1)
Expenses described in section 709 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(i)(2)
Disallowed losses 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(i)(3)
Basis adjustments to section 38 property 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(j)
Depletion of oil and gas properties 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(k)
In general 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(k)(1)
Simulated depletion 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(k)(2)
Actual depletion 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(k)(3)
Effect of book values 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(k)(4)
Transfers of partnership interests 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(l)
Section 754 elections 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(m)
In general 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(m)(1)
Section 743 adjustments 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(m)(2)
Section 732 adjustments 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(m)(3)
Section 734 adjustments 1.704-1(b)(2) iv)(m)(4)
Limitations on adjustments 1.704-1(b)(2) iv)(m)(5)
Partnership level characterization 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(n)
Guaranteed payments 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(o)
Minor discrepancies 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(p)
Adjustments where guidance is lacking 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(q)
Restatement of capital accounts 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(r)
Adjustments on the exercise of a noncompensatory option 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(s).
Partner's interest in the partnership 1.704-1(b)(3)
In general 1.704-1(b)(3)(i)
Factors considered 1.704-1(b)(3)(ii)
Certain determinations 1.704-1(b)(3)(iii)
Special rules 1.704-1(b)(4)
Allocations to reflect revaluations 1.704-1(b)(4)(i)
Credits 1.704-1(b)(4)(ii)
Excess percentage depletion 1.704-1(b)(4)(iii)
Allocations attributable to nonrecourse liabilities 1.704-1(b)(4)(iv)
Allocations under section 613A(c(7)(D) 1.704-1(b)(4)(v)
Amendments to partnership agreement 1.704-1(b)(4)(vi)
Recapture 1.704-1(b)(4)(vii)
Allocation of creditable foreign taxes 1.704-1(b)(4)(viii)
In general 1.704-1(b)(4)(viii)(a)
Creditable foreign tax expenditures (CFTEs) 1.704-1(b)(4)(viii)(b)
Income to which CFTEs relate 1.704-1(b)(4)(viii)(c)
In general 1.704-1(b)(4)(viii)(c)(1)
CFTE category 1.704-1(b)(4)(viii)(c)(2)
Net income in a CFTE category 1.704-1(b)(4)(viii)(c)(3)
CFTE category share of income 1.704-1(b)(4)(viii)(c)(4)
No net income in a CFTE category 1.704-1(b)(4)(viii)(c)(5)
Allocation and apportionment of CFTEs to CFTE categories 1.704-1(b)(4)(viii)(d)
In general 1.704-1(b)(4)(viii)(d)(1)
Timing and base differences 1.704-1(b)(4)(viii)(d)(2)
Special rules for certain interbranch payments 1.704-1(b)(4)(viii)(d)(3)
Allocations with respect to noncompensatory options 1.704-1(b)(4)(ix).
Corrective allocations 1.704-1(b)(4)(x).
Examples 1.704-1(b)(6).

(1) In general -

(i) Basic principles. Under section 704(b) if a partnership agreement does not provide for the allocation of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit (or item thereof) to a partner, or if the partnership agreement provides for the allocation of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit (or item thereof) to a partner but such allocation does not have substantial economic effect, then the partner's distributive share of such income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit (or item thereof) shall be determined in accordance with such partner's interest in the partnership (taking into account all facts and circumstances). If the partnership agreement provides for the allocation of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit (or item thereof) to a partner, there are three ways in which such allocation will be respected under section 704(b) and this paragraph. First, the allocation can have substantial economic effect in accordance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section. Second, taking into account all facts and circumstances, the allocation can be in accordance with the partner's interest in the partnership. See paragraph (b)(3) of this section. Third, the allocation can be deemed to be in accordance with the partner's interest in the partnership pursuant to one of the special rules contained in paragraph (b)(4) of this section and § 1.704-2. To the extent an allocation under the partnership agreement of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit (or item thereof) to a partner does not have substantial economic effect, is not in accordance with the partner's interest in the partnership, and is not deemed to be in accordance with the partner's interest in the partnership, such income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit (or item thereof) will be reallocated in accordance with the partner's interest in the partnership (determined under paragraph (b)(3) of this section).

(ii) Effective/applicability date.

(a) Generally. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the provisions of this paragraph are effective for partnership taxable years beginning after December 31, 1975. However, for partnership taxable years beginning after December 31, 1975, but before May 1, 1986, (January 1, 1987, in the case of allocations of nonrecourse deductions as defined in paragraph (b)(4)(iv)(a) of this section) an allocation of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit (or item thereof) to a partner that is not respected under this paragraph nevertheless will be respected under section 704(b) if such allocation has substantial economic effect or is in accordance with the partners' interests in the partnership as those terms have been interpreted under the relevant case law, the legislative history of section 210(d) of the Tax Reform Act of 1976, and the provisions of this paragraph in effect for partnership taxable years beginning before May 1, 1986. Paragraphs (b)(2)(iii)(a) (last sentence), (b)(2)(iii)(d), (b)(2)(iii)(e), and (b)(5) Example 28, Example 29, and Example 30 of this section apply to partnership taxable years beginning on or after May 19, 2008. In addition, paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(d)(4), paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(f)(1), paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(f)(5)(iv), paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(h)(2), paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(s), paragraph (b)(4)(ix), paragraph (b)(4)(x), and Examples 31 through 35 in paragraph (b)(5) of this section apply to noncompensatory options (as defined in § 1.721-2(f)) that are issued on or after February 5, 2013. The last sentence of paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(g)(3) of this section is applicable for partnership taxable years ending on or after September 24, 2019. However, a partnership may choose to apply the last sentence in paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(g)(3) of this section for the partnership's taxable years ending on or after September 28, 2017. A partnership may rely on the last sentence in paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(g)(3) of this section in regulation project REG-104397-18 (2018-41 I.R.B. 558) (see § 601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter) for the partnership's taxable years ending on or after September 28, 2017, and ending before the partnership's taxable year that includes September 24, 2019. Furthermore, the last sentence of paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b)(3) of this section and paragraphs (b)(2)(ii)(b)(4) through (7) and (b)(2)(ii)(c) of this section apply to partnership taxable years ending on or after October 9, 2019. However, taxpayers may apply the last sentence of paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b)(3) of this section and paragraphs (b)(2)(ii)(b)(4) through (7) and (b)(2)(ii)(c) of this section for partnership taxable years ending on or after October 5, 2016. For partnership taxable years ending before October 9, 2019, see § 1.704-1 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 revised as of April 1, 2019.

(b) Rules relating to foreign tax expenditures.

(1) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(b)(1), the provisions of paragraphs (b)(3)(iv) and (b)(4)(viii) of this section (regarding the allocation of creditable foreign taxes) apply for partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 19, 2006. The rules that apply to allocations of creditable foreign taxes made in partnership taxable years beginning before October 19, 2006 are contained in § 1.704-1T(b)(1)(ii)(b)(1) and (b)(4)(xi) as in effect before October 19, 2006 (see 26 CFR part 1 revised as of April 1, 2005). However, taxpayers may rely on the provisions of paragraphs (b)(3)(iv) and (b)(4)(viii) of this section for partnership taxable years beginning on or after April 21, 2004. The provisions of paragraphs (b)(4)(viii)(a)(1), (b)(4)(viii)(c)(1), (b)(4)(viii)(c)(2)(ii) and (iii), (b)(4)(viii)(c)(3) and (4), (b)(4)(viii)(d)(1), and Examples 1,2, and 3 in paragraphs (b)(6)(i), (ii), and (iii) of this section apply for partnership taxable years that both begin on or after January 1, 2016, and end after February 4, 2016. For the rules that apply to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 19, 2006, and before January 1, 2016, and to taxable years that both begin on or after January 1, 2016, and end on or before February 4, 2016, see § 1.704-1(b)(1)(ii)(b), (b)(4)(viii)(a)(1), (b)(4)(viii)(c)(1), (b)(4)(viii)(c)(2)(ii) and (iii), (b)(4)(viii)(c)(3) and (4), (b)(4)(viii)(d)(1), and (b)(5), Example 25 (as contained in 26 CFR part 1 revised as of April 1, 2015).

(2) Transition rule. Transition relief is provided herein to partnerships whose agreements were entered into prior to April 21, 2004. In such case, if there has been no material modification to the partnership agreement on or after April 21, 2004, then the partnership may apply the provisions of paragraph (b) of this section as if the amendments made by paragraphs (b)(3)(iv) and (b)(4)(viii) of this section had not occurred. If the partnership agreement was materially modified on or after April 21, 2004, then the rules provided in paragraphs (b)(3)(iv) and (b)(4)(viii) of this section shall apply to the later of the taxable year beginning on or after October 19, 2006 or the taxable year within which the material modification occurred, and to all subsequent taxable years. If the partnership agreement was materially modified on or after April 21, 2004, and before a tax year beginning on or after October 19, 2006, see §§ 1.704-1T(b)(1)(ii)(b)(1) and 1.704-1T(b)(4)(xi) as in effect prior to October 19, 2006 (26 CFR part 1 revised as of April 1, 2005). For purposes of this paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(b)(2), any change in ownership constitutes a material modification to the partnership agreement. This transition rule does not apply to any taxable year (and all subsequent taxable years) in which persons that are related to each other (within the meaning of section 267(b) and 707(b)) collectively have the power to amend the partnership agreement without the consent of any unrelated party.

(3) Special rules for certain inter-branch payments -

(i) In general. The provisions of § 1.704-1(b)(4)(viii)(d)(3) apply for partnership taxable years ending after February 9, 2015. See 26 CFR 1.704-1T(b)(4)(viii)(d)(3) (revised as of April 1, 2014) for rules applicable to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and ending on or before February 9, 2015.

(ii) Transition rule. Transition relief is provided by this paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(b)(3)(ii) to partnerships whose agreements were entered into before February 14, 2012. In such cases, if there has been no material modification to the partnership agreement on or after February 14, 2012, then, for taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before January 1, 2016, and for taxable years that both begin on or after January 1, 2012, and end on or before February 4, 2016, these partnerships may apply the provisions of § 1.704-1(b)(4)(viii)(c)(3)(ii) and (b)(4)(viii)(d)(3) (see 26 CFR part 1 revised as of April 1, 2011). For taxable years that both begin on or after January 1, 2016, and end after February 4, 2016, these partnerships may apply the provisions of § 1.704-1(b)(4)(viii)(d)(3) (see 26 CFR part 1 revised as of April 1, 2011). For purposes of this paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(b)(3), any change in ownership constitutes a material modification to the partnership agreement. The transition rule in this paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(b)(3)(ii) does not apply to any taxable year in which persons bearing a relationship to each other that is specified in section 267(b) or section 707(b) collectively have the power to amend the partnership agreement without the consent of any unrelated party (and all subsequent taxable years).

(4) Special rules for covered asset acquisitions. Paragraphs (b)(4)(viii)(c)(4)(v) through (vii) of this section apply to covered asset acquisitions (CAAs) (as defined in § 1.901(m)-1(a)(13)) occurring on or after March 23, 2020. Taxpayers may, however, choose to apply paragraphs (b)(4)(viii)(c)(4)(v) through (vii) of this section before the date paragraphs (b)(4)(viii)(c)(4)(v) through (vii) of this section are applicable provided that they (along with any persons that are related (within the meaning of section 267(b) or 707(b)) to the taxpayer) -

(i) Consistently apply paragraphs (b)(4)(viii)(c)(4)(v) through (vii) of this section, § 1.901(m)-1, and §§ 1.901(m)-3 through 1.901(m)-8 (excluding § 1.901(m)-4(e)) to all CAAs occurring on or after January 1, 2011, and consistently apply § 1.901(m)-2 (excluding § 1.901(m)-2(d)) to all CAAs occurring on or after December 7, 2016, on any original or amended tax return for each taxable year for which the application of the provisions listed in this paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(b)(4)(i) affects the tax liability and for which the statute of limitations does not preclude assessment or the filing of a claim for refund, as applicable;

(ii) File all tax returns described in paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(b)(4)(i) of this section for any taxable year ending on or before March 23, 2020, no later than March 23, 2021; and

(iii) Make appropriate adjustments to take into account deficiencies that would have resulted from the consistent application under paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(b)(4)(i) of this section for taxable years that are not open for assessment.

(iii) Effect of other sections. The determination of a partner's distributive share of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit (or item thereof) under section 704(b) and this paragraph is not conclusive as to the tax treatment of a partner with respect to such distributive share. For example, an allocation of loss or deduction to a partner that is respected under section 704(b) and this paragraph may not be deductible by such partner if the partner lacks the requisite motive for economic gain (see, e.g., Goldstein v. Commissioner, 364 F.2d 734 (2d Cir. 1966)), or may be disallowed for that taxable year (and held in suspense) if the limitations of section 465 or section 704(d) are applicable. Similarly, an allocation that is respected under section 704(b) and this paragraph nevertheless may be reallocated under other provisions, such as section 482, section 704(e)(2), section 706(d) (and related assignment of income principles), and paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of § 1.751-1. If a partnership has a section 754 election in effect, a partner's distributive share of partnership income, gain, loss, or deduction may be affected as provided in § 1.743-1 (see paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(m)(2) of this section). A deduction that appears to be a nonrecourse deduction deemed to be in accordance with the partners' interests in the partnership may not be such because purported nonrecourse liabilities of the partnership in fact constitute equity rather than debt. The examples in paragraph (b)(5) of this section concern the validity of allocations under section 704(b) and this paragraph and, except as noted, do not address the effect of other sections or limitations on such allocations.

(iv) Other possible tax consequences. Allocations that are respected under section 704(b) and this paragraph may give rise to other tax consequences, such as those resulting from the application of section 61, section 83, section 751, section 2501, paragraph (f) of § 1.46-3, § 1.47-6, paragraph (b)(1) of § 1.721-1 (and related principles), and paragraph (e) of § 1.752-1. The examples in paragraph (b)(5) of this section concern the validity of allocations under section 704(b) and this paragraph and, except as noted, do not address other tax consequences that may result from such allocations.

(v) Purported allocations. Section 704(b) and this paragraph do not apply to a purported allocation if it is made to a person who is not a partner of the partnership (see section 7701(a)(2) and paragraph (d) of § 301.7701-3) or to a person who is not receiving the purported allocation in his capacity as a partner (see section 707(a) and paragraph (a) of § 1.707-1).

(vi) Section 704(c) determinations. Section 704(c) and § 1.704-3 generally require that if property is contributed by a partner to a partnership, the partners' distributive shares of income, gain, loss, and deduction, as computed for tax purposes, with respect to the property are determined so as to take account of the variation between the adjusted tax basis and fair market value of the property. Although section 704(b) does not directly determine the partners' distributive shares of tax items governed by section 704(c), the partners' distributive shares of tax items may be determined under section 704(c) and § 1.704-3 (depending on the allocation method chosen by the partnership under § 1.704-3) with reference to the partners' distributive shares of the corresponding book items, as determined under section 704(b) and this paragraph. (See paragraphs (b)(2)(iv)(d) and (b)(4)(i) of this section.) See § 1.704-3 for methods of making allocations under section 704(c), and § 1.704-3(d)(2) for a special rule in determining the amount of book items if the remedial allocation method is chosen by the partnership. See also paragraph (b)(5) Example (13) (i) of this section.

(vii) Bottom line allocations. Section 704(b) and this paragraph are applicable to allocations of income, gain, loss, deduction, and credit, allocations of specific items of income, gain, loss, deduction, and credit, and allocations of partnership net or “bottom line” taxable income and loss. An allocation to a partner of a share of partnership net or “bottom line” taxable income or loss shall be treated as an allocation to such partner of the same share of each item of income, gain, loss, and deduction that is taken into account in computing such net or “bottom line” taxable income or loss. See example 15(i) of paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(2) Substantial economic effect -

(i) Two-part analysis. The determination of whether an allocation of income, gain, loss, or deduction (or item thereof) to a partner has substantial economic effect involves a two-part analysis that is made as of the end of the partnership taxable year to which the allocation relates. First, the allocation must have economic effect (within the meaning of paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section). Second, the economic effect of the allocation must be substantial (within the meaning of paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section).

(ii) Economic effect -

(a) Fundamental principles. In order for an allocation to have economic effect, it must be consistent with the underlying economic arrangement of the partners. This means that in the event there is an economic benefit or economic burden that corresponds to an allocation, the partner to whom the allocation is made must receive such economic benefit or bear such economic burden.

(b) Three requirements. Based on the principles contained in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(a) of this section, and except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, an allocation of income, gain, loss, or deduction (or item thereof) to a partner will have economic effect if, and only if, throughout the full term of the partnership, the partnership agreement provides -

(1) For the determination and maintenance of the partners' capital accounts in accordance with the rules of paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section,

(2) Upon liquidation of the partnership (or any partner's interest in the partnership), liquidating distributions are required in all cases to be made in accordance with the positive capital account balances of the partners, as determined after taking into account all capital account adjustments for the partnership taxable year during which such liquidation occurs (other than those made pursuant to this requirement (2) and requirement (3) of this paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b)), by the end of such taxable year (or, if later, within 90 days after the date of such liquidation), and

(3) If such partner has a deficit balance in his capital account following the liquidation of his interest in the partnership, as determined after taking into account all capital account adjustments for the partnership taxable year during which such liquidation occurs (other than those made pursuant to this requirement (3)), he is unconditionally obligated to restore the amount of such deficit balance to the partnership by the end of such taxable year (or, if later, within 90 days after the date of such liquidation), which amount shall, upon liquidation of the partnership, be paid to creditors of the partnership or distributed to other partners in accordance with their positive capital account balances (in accordance with requirement (2) of this paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b)). Notwithstanding the partnership agreement, an obligation to restore a deficit balance in a partner's capital account, including an obligation described in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(c)(1) of this section, will not be respected for purposes of this section to the extent the obligation is disregarded under paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(c)(4) of this section.

(4) For purposes of paragraphs (b)(2)(ii)(b)(1) through (3) of this section, a partnership taxable year shall be determined without regard to section 706(c)(2)(A).

(5) The requirements in paragraphs (b)(2)(ii)(b)(2) and (3) of this section are not violated if all or part of the partnership interest of one or more partners is purchased (other than in connection with the liquidation of the partnership) by the partnership or by one or more partners (or one or more persons related, within the meaning of section 267(b) (without modification by section 267(e)(1)) or section 707(b)(1), to a partner) pursuant to an agreement negotiated at arm's length by persons who at the time such agreement is entered into have materially adverse interests and if a principal purpose of such purchase and sale is not to avoid the principles of the second sentence of paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(a) of this section.

(6) The requirement in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b)(2) of this section is not violated if, upon the liquidation of the partnership, the capital accounts of the partners are increased or decreased pursuant to paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(f) of this section as of the date of such liquidation and the partnership makes liquidating distributions within the time set out in the requirement in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b)(2) of this section in the ratios of the partners' positive capital accounts, except that it does not distribute reserves reasonably required to provide for liabilities (contingent or otherwise) of the partnership and installment obligations owed to the partnership, so long as such withheld amounts are distributed as soon as practicable and in the ratios of the partners' positive capital account balances.

(7) See Examples 1.(i) and (ii), 4.(i),8.(i), and 16.(i) of paragraph (b)(5) of this section for issues concerning paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b) of this section.

(c) Obligation to restore deficit -

(1) Other arrangements treated as obligations to restore deficits. If a partner is not expressly obligated to restore the deficit balance in such partner's capital account, such partner nevertheless will be treated as obligated to restore the deficit balance in his capital account (in accordance with the requirement in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b)(3) of this section and subject to paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(c)(2) of this section) to the extent of -

(A) The outstanding principal balance of any promissory note (of which such partner is the maker) contributed to the partnership by such partner (other than a promissory note that is readily tradable on an established securities market), and

(B) The amount of any unconditional obligation of such partner (whether imposed by the partnership agreement or by state or local law) to make subsequent contributions to the partnership (other than pursuant to a promissory note of which such partner is the maker).

(2) Satisfaction requirement. For purposes of paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(c)(1) of this section, a promissory note or unconditional obligation is taken into account only if it is required to be satisfied at a time no later than the end of the partnership taxable year in which such partner's interest is liquidated (or, if later, within 90 days after the date of such liquidation). If a promissory note referred to in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(c)(1) of this section is negotiable, a partner will be considered required to satisfy such note within the time period specified in this paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(c)(2) if the partnership agreement provides that, in lieu of actual satisfaction, the partnership will retain such note and such partner will contribute to the partnership the excess, if any, of the outstanding principal balance of such note over its fair market value at the time of liquidation. See paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(d)(2) of this section. See Examples 1.(ix) and (x) of paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(3) Related party notes. For purposes of paragraph (b)(2) of this section, if a partner contributes a promissory note to the partnership during a partnership taxable year beginning after December 29, 1988, and the maker of such note is a person related to such partner (within the meaning of § 1.752-4(b)(1)), then such promissory note shall be treated as a promissory note of which such partner is the maker.

(4) Obligations disregarded -

(A) General rule. A partner in no event will be considered obligated to restore the deficit balance in his capital account to the partnership (in accordance with the requirement in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b)(3) of this section) to the extent such partner's obligation is a bottom dollar payment obligation that is not recognized under § 1.752-2(b)(3) or is not legally enforceable, or the facts and circumstances otherwise indicate a plan to circumvent or avoid such obligation. See paragraphs (b)(2)(ii)(f), (b)(2)(ii)(h), and (b)(4)(vi) of this section for other rules regarding such obligation. To the extent a partner is not considered obligated to restore the deficit balance in the partner's capital account to the partnership (in accordance with the requirement in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b)(3) of this section), the obligation is disregarded and paragraph (b)(2) of this section and § 1.752-2 are applied as if the obligation did not exist.

(B) Factors indicating plan to circumvent or avoid obligation. In the case of an obligation to restore a deficit balance in a partner's capital account upon liquidation of a partnership, paragraphs (b)(2)(ii)(c)(4)(B)(i) through (iv) of this section provide a non-exclusive list of factors that may indicate a plan to circumvent or avoid the obligation. For purposes of making determinations under this paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(c)(4), the weight to be given to any particular factor depends on the particular case and the presence or absence of any particular factor is not, in itself, necessarily indicative of whether or not the obligation is respected. The following factors are taken into consideration for purposes of this paragraph (b)(2):

(i) The partner is not subject to commercially reasonable provisions for enforcement and collection of the obligation.

(ii) The partner is not required to provide (either at the time the obligation is made or periodically) commercially reasonable documentation regarding the partner's financial condition to the partnership.

(iii) The obligation ends or could, by its terms, be terminated before the liquidation of the partner's interest in the partnership or when the partner's capital account as provided in § 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv) is negative other than when a transferee partner assumes the obligation.

(iv) The terms of the obligation are not provided to all the partners in the partnership in a timely manner.

(d) Alternate test for economic effect. If -

(1) Requirements (1) and (2) of paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b) of this section are satisfied, and

(2) The partner to whom an allocation is made is not obligated to restore the deficit balance in his capital account to the partnership (in accordance with requirement (3) of paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b) of this section), or is obligated to restore only a limited dollar amount of such deficit balance, and

(3) The partnership agreement contains a “qualified income offset,”

such allocation will be considered to have economic effect under this paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(d) to the extent such allocation does not cause or increase a deficit balance in such partner's capital account (in excess of any limited dollar amount of such deficit balance that such partner is obligated to restore) as of the end of the partnership taxable year to which such allocation relates. In determining the extent to which the previous sentence is satisfied, such partner's capital account also shall be reduced for -

(4) Adjustments that, as of the end of such year, reasonably are expected to be made to such partner's capital account under paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(k) of this section for depletion allowances with respect to oil and gas properties of the partnership, and

(5) Allocations of loss and deduction that, as of the end of such year, reasonably are expected to be made to such partner pursuant to section 704(e)(2), section 706(d), and paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of § 751-1, and

(6) Distributions that, as of the end of such year, reasonably are expected to be made to such partner to the extent they exceed offsetting increases to such partner's capital account that reasonably are expected to occur during (or prior to) the partnership taxable years in which such distributions reasonably are expected to be made (other than increases pursuant to a minimum gain chargeback under paragraph (b)(4)(iv)(e) of this section or under § 1.704-2(f); however, increases to a partner's capital account pursuant to a minimum gain chargeback requirement are taken into account as an offset to distributions of nonrecourse liability proceeds that are reasonably expected to be made and that are allocable to an increase in partnership minimum gain).

For purposes of determining the amount of expected distributions and expected capital account increases described in (6) above, the rule set out in paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(c) of this section concerning the presumed value of partnership property shall apply. The partnership agreement contains a “qualified income offset” if, and only if, it provides that a partner who unexpectedly receives an adjustment, allocation, or distribution described in (4), (5), or (6) above, will be allocated items of income and gain (consisting of a pro rata portion of each item of partnership income, including gross income, and gain for such year) in an amount and manner sufficient to eliminate such deficit balance as quickly as possible. Allocations of items of income and gain made pursuant to the immediately preceding sentence shall be deemed to be made in accordance with the partners' interests in the partnership if requirements (1) and (2) of paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b) of this section are satisfied. See examples (1)(iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (viii), (ix), and (x), (15), and (16)(ii) of paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(e) Partial economic effect. If only a portion of an allocation made to a partner with respect to a partnership taxable year has economic effect, both the portion that has economic effect and the portion that is reallocated shall consist of a proportionate share of all items that made up the allocation to such partner for such year. See examples (15) (ii) and (iii) of paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(f) Reduction of obligation to restore. If requirements (1) and (2) of paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b) of this section are satisfied, a partner's obligation to restore the deficit balance in his capital account (or any limited dollar amount thereof) to the partnership may be eliminated or reduced as of the end of a partnership taxable year without affecting the validity of prior allocations (see paragraph (b)(4)(vi) of this section) to the extent the deficit balance (if any) in such partner's capital account, after reduction for the items described in (4), (5), and (6) of paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(d) of this section, will not exceed the partner's remaining obligation (if any) to restore the deficit balance in his capital account. See example (1)(viii) of paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(g) Liquidation defined. For purposes of this paragraph, a liquidation of a partner's interest in the partnership occurs upon the earlier of (1) the date upon which there is a liquidation of the partnership, or (2) the date upon which there is a liquidation of the partner's interest in the partnership under paragraph (d) of § 1.761-1. For purposes of this paragraph, the liquidation of a partnership occurs upon the earlier of (3) the date upon which the partnership is terminated under section 708(b)(1), or (4) the date upon which the partnership ceases to be a going concern (even though it may continue in existence for the purpose of winding up its affairs, paying its debts, and distributing any remaining balance to its partners). Requirements (2) and (3) of paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b) of this section will be considered unsatisfied if the liquidation of a partner's interest in the partnership is delayed after its primary business activities have been terminated (for example, by continuing to engage in a relatively minor amount of business activity, if such actions themselves do not cause the partnership to terminate pursuant to section 708(b)(1)) for a principal purpose of deferring any distribution pursuant to requirement (2) of paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b) of this section or deferring any partner's obligations under requirement (3) of paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b) of this section.

(h) Partnership agreement defined. For purposes of this paragraph, the partnership agreement includes all agreements among the partners, or between one or more partners and the partnership, concerning affairs of the partnership and responsibilities of partners, whether oral or written, and whether or not embodied in a document referred to by the partners as the partnership agreement. Thus, in determining whether distributions are required in all cases to be made in accordance with the partners' positive capital account balances (requirement (2) of paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b) of this section), and in determining the extent to which a partner is obligated to restore a deficit balance in his capital account (requirement (3) of paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b) of this section), all arrangements among partners, or between one or more partners and the partnership relating to the partnership, direct and indirect, including puts, options, and other buy-sell agreements, and any other “stop-loss” arrangement, are considered to be part of the partnership agreement. (Thus, for example, if one partner who assumes a liability of the partnership is indemnified by another partner for a portion of such liability, the indemnifying partner (depending upon the particular facts) may be viewed as in effect having a partial deficit makeup obligation as a result of such indemnity agreement.) In addition, the partnership agreement includes provisions of Federal, State, or local law that govern the affairs of the partnership or are considered under such law to be a part of the partnership agreement (see the last sentence of paragraph (c) of § 1.761-1). For purposes of this paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(h), an agreement with a partner or a partnership shall include an agreement with a person related, within the meaning of section 267(b) (without modification by section 267(e)(1)) or section 707(b)(1), to such partner or partnership. For purposes of the preceding sentence, sections 267(b) and 707(b)(1) shall be applied for partnership taxable years beginning after December 29, 1988 by (1) substituting “80 percent or more” for “more than 50 percent” each place it appears in such sections, (2) excluding brothers and sisters from the members of a person's family, and (3) disregarding § 267(f)(1)(A).

(i) Economic effect equivalence. Allocations made to a partner that do not otherwise have economic effect under this paragraph (b)(2)(ii) shall nevertheless be deemed to have economic effect, provided that as of the end of each partnership taxable year a liquidation of the partnership at the end of such year or at the end of any future year would produce the same economic results to the partners as would occur if requirements (1), (2), and (3) of paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b) of this section had been satisfied, regardless of the economic performance of the partnership. See examples (4)(ii) and (iii) of paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(iii) Substantiality -

(a) General rules. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (b)(2)(iii), the economic effect of an allocation (or allocations) is substantial if there is a reasonable possibility that the allocation (or allocations) will affect substantially the dollar amounts to be received by the partners from the partnership, independent of tax consequences. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, the economic effect of an allocation (or allocations) is not substantial if, at the time the allocation becomes part of the partnership agreement, (1) the after-tax economic consequences of at least one partner may, in present value terms, be enhanced compared to such consequences if the allocation (or allocations) were not contained in the partnership agreement, and (2) there is a strong likelihood that the after-tax economic consequences of no partner will, in present value terms, be substantially diminished compared to such consequences if the allocation (or allocations) were not contained in the partnership agreement. In determining the after-tax economic benefit or detriment to a partner, tax consequences that result from the interaction of the allocation with such partner's tax attributes that are unrelated to the partnership will be taken into account. See examples 5 and 9 of paragraph (b)(5) of this section. The economic effect of an allocation is not substantial in the two situations described in paragraphs (b)(2)(iii) (b) and (c) of this section. However, even if an allocation is not described therein, its economic effect may be insubstantial under the general rules stated in this paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(a). References in this paragraph (b)(2)(iii) to allocations include capital account adjustments made pursuant to paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(k) of this section. References in this paragraph (b)(2)(iii) to a comparison to consequences arising if an allocation (or allocations) were not contained in the partnership agreement mean that the allocation (or allocations) is determined in accordance with the partners' interests in the partnership (within the meaning of paragraph (b)(3) of this section), disregarding the allocation (or allocations) being tested under this paragraph (b)(2)(iii).

(b) Shifting tax consequences. The economic effect of an allocation (or allocations) in a partnership taxable year is not substantial if, at the time the allocation (or allocations) becomes part of the partnership agreement, there is a strong likelihood that -

(1) The net increases and decreases that will be recorded in the partners' respective capital accounts for such taxable year will not differ substantially from the net increases and decreases that would be recorded in such partners' respective capital accounts for such year if the allocations were not contained in the partnership agreement, and

(2) The total tax liability of the partners (for their respective taxable years in which the allocations will be taken into account) will be less than if the allocations were not contained in the partnership agreement (taking into account tax consequences that result from the interaction of the allocation (or allocations) with partner tax attributes that are unrelated to the partnership).

If, at the end of a partnership taxable year to which an allocation (or allocations) relates, the net increases and decreases that are recorded in the partners' respective capital accounts do not differ substantially from the net increases and decreases that would have been recorded in such partners' respective capital accounts had the allocation (or allocations) not been contained in the partnership agreement, and the total tax liability of the partners is (as described in (2) above) less than it would have been had the allocation (or allocations) not been contained in the partnership agreement, it will be presumed that, at the time the allocation (or allocations) became part of such partnership agreement, there was a strong likelihood that these results would occur. This presumption may be overcome by a showing of facts and circumstances that prove otherwise. See examples 6, 7(ii) and (iii), and (10)(ii) of paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(c) Transitory allocations. If a partnership agreement provides for the possibility that one or more allocations (the “original allocation(s)”) will be largely offset by one or more other allocations (the “offsetting allocation(s)”), and, at the time the allocations become part of the partnership agreement, there is a strong likelihood that -

(1) The net increases and decreases that will be recorded in the partners' respective capital accounts for the taxable years to which the allocations relate will not differ substantially from the net increases and decreases that would be recorded in such partners' respective capital accounts for such years if the original allocation(s) and offsetting allocation(s) were not contained in the partnership agreement, and

(2) The total tax liability of the partners (for their respective taxable years in which the allocations will be taken into account) will be less than if the allocations were not contained in the partnership agreement (taking into account tax consequences that result from the interaction of the allocation (or allocations) with partner tax attributes that are unrelated to the partnership)

the economic effect of the original allocation(s) and offsetting allocation(s) will not be substantial. If, at the end of a partnership taxable year to which an offsetting allocation(s) relates, the net increases and decreases recorded in the partners' respective capital accounts do not differ substantially from the net increases and decreases that would have been recorded in such partners' respective capital accounts had the original allocation(s) and the offsetting allocation(s) not been contained in the partnership agreement, and the total tax liability of the partners is (as described in (2) above) less than it would have been had such allocations not been contained in the partnership agreement, it will be presumed that, at the time the allocations became part of the partnership agreement, there was a strong likelihood that these results would occur. This presumption may be overcome by a showing of facts and circumstances that prove otherwise. See examples (1)(xi), (2), (3), (7), (8)(ii), and (17) of paragraph (b)(5) of this section. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the original allocation(s) and the offsetting allocation(s) will not be insubstantial (under this paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(c)) and, for purposes of paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(a), it will be presumed that there is a reasonable possibility that the allocations will affect substantially the dollar amounts to be received by the partners from the partnership if, at the time the allocations become part of the partnership agreement, there is a strong likelihood that the offsetting allocation(s) will not, in large part, be made within five years after the original allocation(s) is made (determined on a first-in, first-out basis). See example 2 of paragraph (b)(5) of this section. For purposes of applying the provisions of this paragraph (b)(2)(iii) (and paragraphs (b)(2)(ii)(d)(6) and (b)(3)(iii) of this section), the adjusted tax basis of partnership property (or, if partnership property is properly reflected on the books of the partnership at a book value that differs from its adjusted tax basis, the book value of such property) will be presumed to be the fair market value of such property, and adjustments to the adjusted tax basis (or book value) of such property will be presumed to be matched by corresponding changes in such property's fair market value. Thus, there cannot be a strong likelihood that the economic effect of an allocation (or allocations) will be largely offset by an allocation (or allocations) of gain or loss from the disposition of partnership property. See examples 1 (vi) and (xi) of paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(d) Partners that are look-through entities or members of a consolidated group -

(1) In general. For purposes of applying paragraphs (b)(2)(iii)(a), (b), and (c) of this section to a partner that is a look-through entity, the tax consequences that result from the interaction of the allocation with the tax attributes of any person that is an owner, or in the case of a trust or estate, the beneficiary, of an interest in such a partner, whether directly or indirectly through one or more look-through entities, must be taken into account. For purposes of applying paragraphs (b)(2)(iii)(a), (b), and (c) of this section to a partner that is a member of a consolidated group (within the meaning of § 1.1502-1(h)), the tax consequences that result from the interaction of the allocation with the tax attributes of the consolidated group and with the tax attributes of another member with respect to a separate return year must be taken into account. See paragraph (b)(5) Example 29 of this section.

(2) Look-through entity. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(d), a look-through entity means -

(i) A partnership;

(ii) A subchapter S corporation;

(iii) A trust or an estate;

(iv) An entity that is disregarded for Federal tax purposes, such as a qualified subchapter S subsidiary under section 1361(b)(3), an entity that is disregarded as an entity separate from its owner under §§ 301.7701-1 through 301.7701-3 of this chapter, or a qualified REIT subsidiary within the meaning of section 856(i)(2); or

(v) A controlled foreign corporation if United States shareholders of the controlled foreign corporation in the aggregate own, directly or indirectly, at least 10 percent of the capital or profits of the partnership on any day during the partnership's taxable year. In such case, the controlled foreign corporation shall be treated as a look-through entity, but only with respect to allocations of income, gain, loss, or deduction (or items thereof) that enter into the computation of a United States shareholder's inclusion under section 951(a) with respect to the controlled foreign corporation, enter into any person's income attributable to a United States shareholder's inclusion under section 951(a) with respect to the controlled foreign corporation, or would enter into the computations described in this paragraph if such items were allocated to the controlled foreign corporation. See paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(d)(6) for the definition of indirect ownership.

(3) Controlled foreign corporations. For purposes of this section, the term controlled foreign corporation means a controlled foreign corporation as defined in section 957(a) or section 953(c). In the case of a controlled foreign corporation that is a look-through entity, the tax attributes to be taken into account are those of any person that is a United States shareholder (as defined in paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(d)(5) of this section) of the controlled foreign corporation, or, if the United States shareholder is a look-through entity, a United States person that owns an interest in such shareholder directly or indirectly through one or more look-through entities.

(4) United States person. For purposes of this section, a United States person is a person described in section 7701(a)(30).

(5) United States shareholder. For purposes of this section, a United States shareholder is a person described in section 951(b) or section 953(c).

(6) Indirect ownership. For purposes of this section, indirect ownership of stock or another equity interest (such as an interest in a partnership) shall be determined in accordance with the principles of section 318, substituting the phrase “10 percent” for the phrase “50 percent” each time it appears.

(e) De minimis rule -

(1) Partnership taxable years beginning after May 19, 2008 and beginning before December 28, 2012. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(e)(2) of this section, for purposes of applying this paragraph (b)(2)(iii), for partnership taxable years beginning after May 19, 2008 and beginning before December 28, 2012, the tax attributes of de minimis partners need not be taken into account. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(e)(1), a de minimis partner is any partner, including a look-through entity that owns, directly or indirectly, less than 10 percent of the capital and profits of a partnership, and who is allocated less than 10 percent of each partnership item of income, gain, loss, deduction, and credit. See paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(d)(6) of this section for the definition of indirect ownership.

(2) Nonapplicability of de minimis rule.

(i) Allocations that become part of the partnership agreement on or after December 28, 2012. Paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(e)(1) of this section does not apply to allocations that become part of the partnership agreement on or after December 28, 2012.

(ii) Retest for allocations that become part of the partnership agreement prior to December 28, 2012. If the de minimis partner rule of paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(e)(1) of this section was relied upon in testing the substantiality of allocations that became part of the partnership agreement before December 28, 2012, such allocations must be retested on the first day of the first partnership taxable year beginning on or after December 28, 2012, without regard to paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(e)(1) of this section.

(iv) Maintenance of capital accounts -

(a) In general. The economic effect test described in paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section requires an examination of the capital accounts of the partners of a partnership, as maintained under the partnership agreement. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(i) of this section, an allocation of income, gain, loss, or deduction will not have economic effect under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, and will not be deemed to be in accordance with a partner's interest in the partnership under paragraph (b)(4) of this section, unless the capital accounts of the partners are determined and maintained throughout the full term of the partnership in accordance with the capital accounting rules of this paragraph (b)(2)(iv).

(b) Basic rules. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (b)(2)(iv), the partners' capital accounts will be considered to be determined and maintained in accordance with the rules of this paragraph (b)(2)(iv) if, and only if, each partner's capital account is increased by (1) the amount of money contributed by him to the partnership, (2) the fair market value of property contributed by him to the partnership (net of liabilities that the partnership is considered to assume or take subject to), and (3) allocations to him of partnership income and gain (or items thereof), including income and gain exempt from tax and income and gain described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(g) of this section, but excluding income and gain described in paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section; and is decreased by (4) the amount of money distributed to him by the partnership, (5) the fair market value of property distributed to him by the partnership (net of liabilities that such partner is considered to assume or take subject to), (6) allocations to him of expenditures of the partnership described in section 705 (a)(2)(B), and (7) allocations of partnership loss and deduction (or item thereof), including loss and deduction described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(g) of this section, but excluding items described in (6) above and loss or deduction described in paragraphs (b)(4)(i) or (b)(4)(iii) of this section; and is otherwise adjusted in accordance with the additional rules set forth in this paragraph (b)(2)(iv). For purposes of this paragraph, a partner who has more than one interest in a partnership shall have a single capital account that reflects all such interests, regardless of the class of interests owned by such partner (e.g., general or limited) and regardless of the time or manner in which such interests were acquired. For liabilities assumed before June 24, 2003, references to liabilities in this paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(b) shall include only liabilities secured by the contributed or distributed property that are taken into account under section 752(a) and (b).

(c) Treatment of liabilities. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(2)(iv), (1) money contributed by a partner to a partnership includes the amount of any partnership liabilities that are assumed by such partner (other than liabilities described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(b)(5) of this section that are assumed by a distributee partner) but does not include increases in such partner's share of partnership liabilities (see section 752(a)), and (2) money distributed to a partner by a partnership includes the amount of such partner's individual liabilities that are assumed by the partnership (other than liabilities described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(b)(2) of this section that are assumed by the partnership) but does not include decreases in such partner's share of partnership liabilities (see section 752(b)). For purposes of this paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(c), liabilities are considered assumed only to the extent the assuming party is thereby subjected to personal liability with respect to such obligation, the obligee is aware of the assumption and can directly enforce the assuming party's obligation, and, as between the assuming party and the party from whom the liability is assumed, the assuming party is ultimately liable.

(d) Contributed property -

(1) In general. The basic capital accounting rules contained in paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(b) of this section require that a partner's capital account be increased by the fair market value of property contributed to the partnership by such partner on the date of contribution. See Example 13(i) of paragraph (b)(5) of this section. Consistent with section 752(c), section 7701(g) does not apply in determining such fair market value.

(2) Contribution of promissory notes. Notwithstanding the general rule of paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(b)(2) of this section, except as provided in this paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(d)(2), if a promissory note is contributed to a partnership by a partner who is the maker of such note, such partner's capital account will be increased with respect to such note only when there is a taxable disposition of such note by the partnership or when the partner makes principal payments on such note. See example (1)(ix) of paragraph (b)(5) of this section. The first sentence of this paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(d)(2) shall not apply if the note referred to therein is readily tradable on an established securities market. See also paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(c) of this section. Furthermore, a partner whose interest is liquidated will be considered as satisfying his obligation to restore the deficit balance in his capital account to the extent of (i) the fair market value, at the time of contribution, of any negotiable promissory note (of which such partner is the maker) that such partner contributes to the partnership on or after the date his interest is liquidated and within the time specified in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b)(3) of this section, and (ii) the fair market value, at the time of liquidation, of the unsatisfied portion of any negotiable promissory note (of which such partner is the maker) that such partner previously contributed to the partnership. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the fair market value of a note will be no less than the outstanding principal balance of such note, provided that such note bears interest at a rate no less than the applicable federal rate at the time of valuation.

(3) Section 704(c) considerations. Section 704(c) and § 1.704-3 govern the determination of the partners' distributive shares of income, gain, loss, and deduction, as computed for tax purposes, with respect to property contributed to a partnership (see paragraph (b)(1)(vi) of this section). In cases where section 704(c) and § 1.704-3 apply to partnership property, the capital accounts of the partners will not be considered to be determined and maintained in accordance with the rules of this paragraph (b)(2)(iv) unless the partnership agreement requires that the partners' capital accounts be adjusted in accordance with paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(g) of this section for allocations to them of income, gain, loss, and deduction (including depreciation, depletion, amortization, or other cost recovery) as computed for book purposes, with respect to the property. See, however, § 1.704-3(d)(2) for a special rule in determining the amount of book items if the partnership chooses the remedial allocation method. See also Example (13) (i) of paragraph (b)(5) of this section. Capital accounts are not adjusted to reflect allocations under section 704(c) and § 1.704-3 (e.g., tax allocations of precontribution gain or loss).

(4) Exercise of noncompensatory options. Solely for purposes of paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(b)(2) of this section, the fair market value of the property contributed on the exercise of a noncompensatory option (as defined in § 1.721-2(f)) does not include the fair market value of the option privilege, but does include the consideration paid to the partnership to acquire the option and the fair market value of any property (other than the option) contributed to the partnership on the exercise of the option. With respect to convertible debt, the fair market value of the property contributed on the exercise of the option is the adjusted issue price of the debt and the accrued but unpaid qualified stated interest (as defined in § 1.1273-1(c)) on the debt immediately before the conversion, plus the fair market value of any property (other than the convertible debt) contributed to the partnership on the exercise of the option. See Examples 31 through 35 of paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(e) Distributed property -

(1) In general. The basic capital accounting rules contained in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) (b) of this section require that a partner's capital account be decreased by the fair market value of property distributed by the partnership (without regard to section 7701(g)) to such partner (whether in connection with a liquidation or otherwise). To satisfy this requirement, the capital accounts of the partners first must be adjusted to reflect the manner in which the unrealized income, gain, loss, and deduction inherent in such property (that has not been reflected in the capital accounts previously) would be allocated among the partners if there were a taxable disposition of such property for the fair market value of such property (taking section 7701(g) into account) on the date of distribution. See example (14)(v) of paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(2) Distribution of promissory notes. Notwithstanding the general rule of paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(b)(5), except as provided in this paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(e)(2), if a promissory note is distributed to a partner by a partnership that is the maker of such note, such partner's capital account will be decreased with respect to such note only when there is a taxable disposition of such note by the partner or when the partnership makes principal payments on the note. The previous sentence shall not apply if a note distributed to a partner by a partnership who is the maker of such note is readily tradable on an established securities market. Furthermore, the capital account of a partner whose interest in a partnership is liquidated will be reduced to the extent of (i) the fair market value, at the time of distribution, of any negotiable promissory note (of which such partnership is the maker) that such partnership distributes to the partner on or after the date such partner's interest is liquidated and within the time specified in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b)(2) of this section, and (ii) the fair market value, at the time of liquidation, of the unsatisfied portion of any negotiable promissory note (of which such partnership is the maker) that such partnership previously distributed to the partner. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the fair market value of a note will be no less than the outstanding principal balance of such note, provided that such note bears interest at a rate no less than the applicable Federal rate at time of valuation.

(f) Revaluations of property. A partnership agreement may, upon the occurrence of certain events, increase or decrease the capital accounts of the partners to reflect a revaluation of partnership property (including intangible assets such as goodwill) on the partnership's books. Capital accounts so adjusted will not be considered to be determined and maintained in accordance with the rules of this paragraph (b)(2)(iv) unless -

(1) The adjustments are based on the fair market value of partnership property (taking section 7701(g) into account) on the date of adjustment, as determined under paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(h) of this section. See Example 33 of paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(2) The adjustments reflect the manner in which the unrealized income, gain, loss, or deduction inherent in such property (that has not been reflected in the capital accounts previously) would be allocated among the partners if there were a taxable disposition of such property for such fair market value on that date, and

(3) The partnership agreement requires that the partners' capital accounts be adjusted in accordance with paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(g) of this section for allocations to them of depreciation, depletion, amortization, and gain or loss, as computed for book purposes, with respect to such property, and

(4) The partnership agreement requires that the partners' distributive shares of depreciation, depletion, amortization, and gain or loss, as computed for tax purposes, with respect to such property be determined so as to take account of the variation between the adjusted tax basis and book value of such property in the same manner as under section 704(c) (see paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section), and

(5) The adjustments are made principally for a substantial non-tax business purpose -

(i) In connection with a contribution of money or other property (other than a de minimis amount) to the partnership by a new or existing partner as consideration for an interest in the partnership, or

(ii) In connection with the liquidation of the partnership or a distribution of money or other property (other than a de minimis amount) by the partnership to a retiring or continuing partner as consideration for an interest in the partnership, or

(iii) In connection with the grant of an interest in the partnership (other than a de minimis interest) on or after May 6, 2004, as consideration for the provision of services to or for the benefit of the partnership by an existing partner acting in a partner capacity, or by a new partner acting in a partner capacity or in anticipation of being a partner, or

(iv) In connection with the issuance by the partnership of a noncompensatory option (other than an option for a de minimis partnership interest), or

(v) Under generally accepted industry accounting practices, provided substantially all of the partnership's property (excluding money) consists of stock, securities, commodities, options, warrants, futures, or similar instruments that are readily tradable on an established securities market.

See examples 14 and 18 of paragraph (b)(5) of this section. If the capital accounts of the partners are not adjusted to reflect the fair market value of partnership property when an interest in the partnership is acquired from or relinquished to the partnership, paragraphs (b)(1)(iii) and (b)(1)(iv) of this section should be consulted regarding the potential tax consequences that may arise if the principles of section 704(c) are not applied to determine the partners' distributive shares of depreciation, depletion, amortization, and gain or loss as computed for tax purposes, with respect to such property.

(6) Notwithstanding paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(f)(5) of this section, the revaluation is required under § 1.721(c)-3(d)(1) as a condition of the application of the gain deferral method (as described in § 1.721(c)-3(b)) and is pursuant to an event described in this paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(f)(6). If an interest in a partnership is contributed to a section 721(c) partnership (as defined in § 1.721(c)-1(b)(14)), the partnership whose interest is contributed may revalue its property in accordance with this section. In this case, the revaluation by the partnership whose interest was contributed must occur immediately before the contribution. If a partnership that revalues its property pursuant to this paragraph owns an interest in another partnership, the partnership in which it owns an interest may also revalue its property in accordance with this section. When multiple partnerships revalue under this paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(f)(6), the revaluations occur in order from the lowest-tier partnership to the highest-tier partnership.

(g) Adjustments to reflect book value -

(1) In general. Under paragraphs (b)(2)(iv)(d) and (b)(2)(iv)(f) of this section, property may be properly reflected on the books of the partnership at a book value that differs from the adjusted tax basis of such property. In these circumstances, paragraphs (b)(2)(iv)(d)(3) and (b)(2)(iv)(f)(3) of this section provide that the capital accounts of the partners will not be considered to be determined and maintained in accordance with the rules of this paragraph (b)(2)(iv) unless the partnership agreement requires the partners' capital accounts to be adjusted in accordance with this paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(g) for allocations to them of depreciation, depletion, amortization, and gain or loss, as computed for book purposes, with respect to such property. In determining whether the economic effect of an allocation of book items is substantial, consideration will be given to the effect of such allocation on the determination of the partners' distributive shares of corresponding tax items under section 704(c) and paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section. See example 17 of paragraph (b)(5) of this section. If an allocation of book items under the partnership agreement does not have substantial economic effect (as determined under paragraphs (b)(2)(ii) and (b)(2)(iii) of this section), or is not otherwise respected under this paragraph, such items will be reallocated in accordance with the partners' interests in the partnership, and such reallocation will be the basis upon which the partners' distributive shares of the corresponding tax items are determined under section 704(c) and paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section. See examples 13, 14, and 18 of paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(2) Payables and receivables. References in this paragraph (b)(2)(iv) and paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section to book and tax depreciation, depletion, amortization, and gain or loss with respect to property that has an adjusted tax basis that differs from book value include, under analogous rules and principles, the unrealized income or deduction with respect to accounts receivable, accounts payable, and other accrued but unpaid items.

(3) Determining amount of book items. The partners' capital accounts will not be considered adjusted in accordance with this paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(g) unless the amount of book depreciation, depletion, or amortization for a period with respect to an item of partnership property is the amount that bears the same relationship to the book value of such property as the depreciation (or cost recovery deduction), depletion, or amortization computed for tax purposes with respect to such property for such period bears to the adjusted tax basis of such property. If such property has a zero adjusted tax basis, the book depreciation, depletion, or amortization may be determined under any reasonable method selected by the partnership. For purposes of the preceding sentence, additional first year depreciation deduction under section 168(k) is not a reasonable method.

(h) Determinations of fair market value -

(1) In general. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(2)(iv), the fair market value assigned to property contributed to a partnership, property distributed by a partnership, or property otherwise revalued by a partnership, will be regarded as correct, provided that (1) such value is reasonably agreed to among the partners in arm's-length negotiations, and (2) the partners have sufficiently adverse interests. If, however, these conditions are not satisfied and the value assigned to such property is overstated or understated (by more than an insignificant amount), the capital accounts of the partners will not be considered to be determined and maintained in accordance with the rules of this paragraph (b)(2)(iv). Valuation of property contributed to the partnership, distributed by the partnership, or otherwise revalued by the partnership shall be on a property-by-property basis, except to the extent the regulations under section 704(c) permit otherwise.

(2) Adjustments for noncompensatory options. The value of partnership property as reflected on the books of the partnership must be adjusted to account for any outstanding noncompensatory options (as defined in § 1.721-2(f)) at the time of a revaluation of partnership property under paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(f) or (s) of this section. If the fair market value of outstanding noncompensatory options (as defined in § 1.721-2(f)) as of the date of the adjustment exceeds the consideration paid to the partnership to acquire the options, then the value of partnership property as reflected on the books of the partnership must be reduced by that excess to the extent of the unrealized income or gain in partnership property (that has not been reflected in the capital accounts previously). This reduction is allocated only to properties with unrealized appreciation in proportion to their respective amounts of unrealized appreciation. If the consideration paid to the partnership to acquire the outstanding noncompensatory options (as defined in § 1.721-2(f)) exceeds the fair market value of such options as of the date of the adjustment, then the value of partnership property as reflected on the books of the partnership must be increased by that excess to the extent of the unrealized loss in partnership property (that has not been reflected in the capital accounts previously). This increase is allocated only to properties with unrealized loss in proportion to their respective amounts of unrealized loss. However, any reduction or increase shall take into account the economic arrangement of the partners with respect to the property.

(i) Section 705(a)(2)(B) expenditures - (1) In general. The basic capital accounting rules contained in paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(b) of this section require that a partner's capital account be decreased by allocations made to such partner of expenditures described in section 705(a)(2)(B). See example 11 of paragraph (b)(5) of this section. If an allocation of these expenditures under the partnership agreement does not have substantial economic effect (as determined under paragraphs (b)(2)(ii) and (b)(2)(iii) of this section), or is not otherwise respected under this paragraph, such expenditures will be reallocated in accordance with the partners' interest in the partnership.

(2) Expenses described in section 709. Except for amounts with respect to which an election is properly made under section 709(b), amounts paid or incurred to organize a partnership or to promote the sale of (or to sell) an interest in such a partnership shall, solely for purposes of this paragraph, be treated as section 705(a)(2)(B) expenditures, and upon liquidation of the partnership no further capital account adjustments will be made in respect thereof.

(3) Disallowed losses. If a deduction for a loss incurred in connection with the sale or exchange of partnership property is disallowed to the partnership under section 267(a)(1) or section 707(b), that deduction shall, solely for purposes of this paragraph, be treated as a section 705(a)(2)(B) expenditure.

(j) Basis adjustments to section 38 property. The capital accounts of the partners will not be considered to be determined and maintained in accordance with the rules of this paragraph (b)(2)(iv) unless such capital accounts are adjusted by the partners' shares of any upward or downward basis adjustments allocated to them under this paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(j). When there is a reduction in the adjusted tax basis of partnership section 38 property under section 48(q)(1) or section 48(q)(3), section 48(q)(6) provides for an equivalent downward adjustment to the aggregate basis of partnership interests (and no additional adjustment is made under section 705(a)(2)(B)). These downward basis adjustments shall be shared among the partners in the same proportion as the adjusted tax basis or cost of (or the qualified investment in) such section 38 property is allocated among the partners under paragraph (f) of § 1.46-3 (or paragraph (a)(4)(iv) of § 1.48-8). Conversely, when there is an increase in the adjusted tax basis of partnership section 38 property under section 48(q)(2), section 48(q)(6) provides for an equivalent upward adjustment to the aggregate basis of partnership interests. These upward adjustments shall be allocated among the partners in the same proportion as the investment tax credit from such property is recaptured by the partners under § 1.47-6.

(k) Depletion of oil and gas properties -

(1) In general. The capital accounts of the partners will not be considered to be determined and maintained in accordance with the rules of this paragraph (b)(2)(iv) unless such capital accounts are adjusted for depletion and gain or loss with respect to the oil or gas properties of the partnership in accordance with this paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(k).

(2) Simulated depletion. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(k) (3) of this section, a partnership shall, solely for purposes of maintaining capital accounts under this paragraph, compute simulated depletion allowances with respect to its oil and gas properties at the partnership level. These allowances shall be computed on each depletable oil or gas property of the partnership by using either the cost depletion method or the percentage depletion method (computed in accordance with section 613 at the rates specified in section 613A(c)(5) without regard to the limitations of section 613A, which theoretically could apply to any partner) for each partnership taxable year that the property is owned by the partnership and subject to depletion. The choice between the simulated cost depletion method and the simulated percentage depletion method shall be made on a property-by-property basis in the first partnership taxable year beginning after April 30, 1986, for which it is relevent for the property, and shall be binding for all partnership taxable years during which the oil or gas property is held by the partnership. The partnership shall make downward adjustments to the capital accounts of the partners for the simulated depletion allowance with respect to each oil or gas property of the partnership, in the same proportion as such partners (or their precedecessors in interest) were properly allocated the adjusted tax basis of each such property. The aggregate capital account adjustments for simulated percentage depletion allowances with respect to an oil or gas property of the partnership shall not exceed the aggregate adjusted tax basis allocated to the partners with respect to such property. Upon the taxable disposition of an oil or gas property by a partnership, such partnership's simulated gain or loss shall be determined by subtracting its simulated adjusted basis in such property from the amount realized upon such disposition. (The partnership's simulated adjusted basis in an oil or gas property is determined in the same manner as adjusted tax basis except that simulated depletion allowances are taken into account instead of actual depletion allowances.) The capital accounts of the partners shall be adjusted upward by the amount of any simulated gain in proportion to such partners' allocable shares of the portion of the total amount realized from the disposition of such property that exceeds the partnership's simulated adjusted basis in such property. The capital accounts of such partners shall be adjusted downward by the amount of any simulated loss in proportion to such partners' allocable shares of the total amount realized from the disposition of such property that represents recovery of the partnership's simulated adjusted basis in such property. See section 613A(c)(7)(D) and the regulations thereunder and paragraph (b)(4)(v) of this section. See example (19)(iv) of paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(3) Actual depletion. Pursuant to section 613A(c)(7)(D) and the regulations thereunder, the depletion allowance under section 611 with respect to the oil and gas properties of a partnership is computed separately by the partners. Accordingly, in lieu of adjusting the partner's capital accounts as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(k)(2) of this section, the partnership may make downward adjustments to the capital account of each partner equal to such partner's depletion allowance with respect to each oil or gas property of the partnership (for the partner's taxable year that ends with or within the partnership's taxable year). The aggregate adjustments to the capital account of a partner for depletion allowances with respect to an oil or gas property of the partnership shall not exceed the adjusted tax basis allocated to such partner with respect to such property. Upon the taxable disposition of an oil or gas property by a partnership, the capital account of each partner shall be adjusted upward by the amount of any excess of such partner's allocable share of the total amount realized from the disposition of such property over such partner's remaining adjusted tax basis in such property. If there is no such excess, the capital account of such partner shall be adjusted downward by the amount of any excess of such partner's remaining adjusted tax basis in such property over such partner's allocable share of the total amount realized from the disposition thereof. See section 613A(c)(7)(4)(D) and the regulations thereunder and paragraph (b)(4)(v) of this section.

(4) Effect of book values. If an oil or gas property of the partnership is, under paragraphs (b)(2)(iv(d) or (b)(2)(iv)(f) of this section, properly reflected on the books of the partnership at a book value that differs from the adjusted tax basis of such property, the rules contained in this paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(k) and paragraph (b)(4)(v) of this section shall be applied with reference to such book value. A revaluation of a partnership oil or gas property under paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(f) of this section may give rise to a reallocation of the adjusted tax basis of such property, or a change in the partners' relative shares of simulated depletion from such property, only to the extent permitted by section 613A(c)(7)(D) and the regulations thereunder.

(l) Transfers of partnership interests. The capital accounts of the partners will not be considered to be determined and maintained in accordance with the rules of this paragraph (b)(2)(iv) unless, upon the transfer of all or a part of an interest in the partnership, the capital account of the transferor that is attributable to the transferred interest carries over to the transferee partner. (See paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(m) of this section for rules concerning the effect of a section 754 election on the capital accounts of the partners.) If the transfer of an interest in a partnership causes a termination of the partnership under section 708(b)(1)(B), the capital account of the transferee partner and the capital accounts of the other partners of the terminated partnership carry over to the new partnership that is formed as a result of the termination of the partnership under § 1.708-1(b)(1)(iv). Moreover, the deemed contribution of assets and liabilities by the terminated partnership to a new partnership and the deemed liquidation of the terminated partnership that occur under § 1.708-1(b)(1)(iv) are disregarded for purposes of this paragraph (b)(2)(iv). See Example 13 of paragraph (b)(5) of this section and the example in § 1.708-1(b)(1)(iv). The previous three sentences apply to terminations of partnerships under section 708(b)(1)(B) occurring on or after May 9, 1997; however, the sentences may be applied to terminations occurring on or after May 9, 1996, provided that the partnership and its partners apply the sentences to the termination in a consistent manner.

(m) Section 754 elections -

(1) In general. The capital accounts of the partners will not be considered to be determined and maintained in accordance with the rules of this paragraph (b)(2)(iv) unless, upon adjustment to the adjusted tax basis of partnership property under section 732, 734, or 743, the capital accounts of the partners are adjusted as provided in this paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(m).

(2) Section 743 adjustments. In the case of a transfer of all or a part of an interest in a partnership that has a section 754 election in effect for the partnership taxable year in which such transfer occurs, adjustments to the adjusted tax basis of partnership property under section 743 shall not be reflected in the capital account of the transferee partner or on the books of the partnership, and subsequent capital account adjustments for distributions (see paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(e)(1) of this section) and for depreciation, depletion, amortization, and gain or loss with respect to such property will disregard the effect of such basis adjustment. The preceding sentence shall not apply to the extent such basis adjustment is allocated to the common basis of partnership property under paragraph (b)(1) of § 1.734-2; in these cases, such basis adjustment shall, except as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(m)(5) of this section, give rise to adjustments to the capital accounts of the partners in accordance with their interests in the partnership under paragraph (b)(3) of this section. See examples 13 (iii) and (iv) of paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(3) Section 732 adjustments. In the case of a transfer of all or a part of an interest in a partnership that does not have a section 754 election in effect for the partnership taxable year in which such transfer occurs, adjustments to the adjusted tax basis of partnership property under section 732(d) will be treated in the capital accounts of the partners in the same manner as section 743 basis adjustments are treated under paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(m)(2) of this section.

(4) Section 734 adjustments. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(m)(5) of this section, in the case of a distribution of property in liquidation of a partner's interest in the partnership by a partnership that has a section 754 election in effect for the partnership taxable year in which the distribution occurs, the partner who receives the distribution that gives rise to the adjustment to the adjusted tax basis of partnership property under section 734 shall have a corresponding adjustment made to his capital account. If such distribution is made other than in liquidation of a partner's interest in the partnership, however, except as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(m)(5) of this section, the capital accounts of the partners shall be adjusted by the amount of the adjustment to the adjusted tax basis of partnership property under section 734, and such capital account adjustment shall be shared among the partners in the manner in which the unrealized income and gain that is displaced by such adjustment would have been shared if the property whose basis is adjusted were sold immediately prior to such adjustment for its recomputed adjusted tax basis.

(5) Limitations on adjustments. Adjustments may be made to the capital account of a partner (or his successor in interest) in respect of basis adjustments to partnership property under sections 732, 734, and 743 only to the extent that such basis adjustments (i) are permitted to be made to one or more items of partnership property under section 755, and (ii) result in an increase or a decrease in the amount at which such property is carried on the partnership's balance sheet, as computed for book purposes. For example, if the book value of partnership property exceeds the adjusted tax basis of such property, a basis adjustment to such property may be reflected in a partner's capital account only to the extent such adjustment exceeds the difference between the book value of such property and the adjusted tax basis of such property prior to such adjustment.

(n) Partnership level characterization. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(k) of this section, the capital accounts of the partners will not be considered to be determined and maintained in accordance with the rules of this paragraph (b)(2)(iv) unless adjustments to such capital accounts in respect of partnership income, gain, loss, deduction, and section 705(a)(2)(B) expenditures (or item thereof) are made with reference to the Federal tax treatment of such items (and in the case of book items, with reference to the Federal tax treatment of the corresponding tax items) at the partnership level, without regard to any requisite or elective tax treatment of such items at the partner level (for example, under section 58(i)). However, a partnership that incurs mining exploration expenditures will determine the Federal tax treatment of income, gain, loss, and deduction with respect to the property to which such expenditures relate at the partnership level only after first taking into account the elections made by its partners under section 617 and section 703(b)(4).

(o) Guaranteed payments. Guaranteed payments to a partner under section 707(c) cause the capital account of the recipient partner to be adjusted only to the extent of such partner's distributive share of any partnership deduction, loss, or other downward capital account adjustment resulting from such payment.

(p) Minor discrepancies. Discrepancies between the balances in the respective capital accounts of the partners and the balances that would be in such respective capital accounts if they had been determined and maintained in accordance with this paragraph (b)(2)(iv) will not adversely affect the validity of an allocation, provided that such discrepancies are minor and are attributable to good faith error by the partnership.

(q) Adjustments where guidance is lacking. If the rules of this paragraph (b)(2)(iv) fail to provide guidance on how adjustments to the capital accounts of the partners should be made to reflect particular adjustments to partnership capital on the books of the partnership, such capital accounts will not be considered to be determined and maintained in accordance with those rules unless such capital account adjustments are made in a manner that (1) maintains equality between the aggregate governing capital accounts of the partners and the amount of partnership capital reflected on the partnership's balance sheet, as computed for book purposes, (2) is consistent with the underlying economic arrangement of the partners, and (3) is based, wherever practicable, on Federal tax accounting principles.

(r) Restatement of capital accounts. With respect to partnerships that began operating in a taxable year beginning before May 1, 1986, the capital accounts of the partners of which have not been determined and maintained in accordance with the rules of this paragraph (b)(2)(iv) since inception, such capital accounts shall not be considered to be determined and maintained in accordance with the rules of this paragraph (b)(2)(iv) for taxable years beginning after April 30, 1986, unless either -

(1) Such capital accounts are adjusted, effective for the first partnership taxable year beginning after April 30, 1986, to reflect the fair market value of partnership property as of the first day of such taxable year, and in connection with such adjustment, the rules contained in paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(f) (2), (3), and (4) of this section are satisfied, or

(2) The differences between the balance in each partner's capital account and the balance that would be in such partner's capital account if capital accounts had been determined and maintained in accordance with this paragraph (b)(2)(iv) throughout the full term of the partnership are not significant (for example, such differences are solely attributable to a failure to provide for treatment of section 709 expenses in accordance with the rules of paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(i)(2) of this section or to a failure to follow the rules in paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(m) of this section), and capital accounts are adjusted to bring them into conformity with the rules of this paragraph (b)(2)(iv) no later than the end of the first partnership taxable year beginning after April 30, 1986.

(3) With respect to a partnership that began operating in a taxable year beginning before May 1, 1986, modifications to the partnership agreement adopted on or before November 1, 1988, to make the capital account adjustments required to comply with this paragraph, and otherwise to satisfy the requirements of this paragraph, will be treated as if such modifications were included in the partnership agreement before the end of the first partnership taxable year beginning after April 30, 1986. However, compliance with the previous sentences will have no bearing on the validity of allocations that relate to partnership taxable years beginning before May 1, 1986.

(s) Adjustments on the exercise of a noncompensatory option. A partnership agreement may grant a partner, on the exercise of a noncompensatory option (as defined in § 1.721-2(f)), a right to share in partnership capital that exceeds (or is less than) the sum of the consideration paid to the partnership to acquire and exercise such option. Where such an agreement exists, capital accounts will not be considered to be determined and maintained in accordance with the rules of this paragraph (b)(2)(iv) unless the following requirements are met:

(1) In lieu of revaluing partnership property under paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(f) of this section immediately before the exercise of the option, the partnership revalues partnership property in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs (b)(2)(iv)(f)(1) through (f)(4) of this section immediately after the exercise of the option.

(2) In determining the capital accounts of the partners (including the exercising partner) under paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(s)(1) of this section, the partnership first allocates any unrealized income, gain, or loss in partnership property (that has not been reflected in the capital accounts previously) to the exercising partner to the extent necessary to reflect that partner's right to share in partnership capital under the partnership agreement, and then allocates any remaining unrealized income, gain, or loss (that has not been reflected in the capital accounts previously) to the existing partners, to reflect the manner in which the unrealized income, gain, or loss in partnership property would be allocated among those partners if there were a taxable disposition of such property for its fair market value on that date. For purposes of the preceding sentence, if the exercising partner's initial capital account as determined under § 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(b) and (d)(4) of this section would be less than the amount that reflects the exercising partner's right to share in partnership capital under the partnership agreement, then only income or gain may be allocated to the exercising partner from partnership properties with unrealized appreciation, in proportion to their respective amounts of unrealized appreciation. If the exercising partner's initial capital account, as determined under § 1.704-1(b)(2)(iv)(b) and (d)(4) of this section, would be greater than the amount that reflects the exercising partner's right to share in partnership capital under the partnership agreement, then only loss may be allocated to the exercising partner from partnership properties with unrealized loss, in proportion to their respective amounts of unrealized loss. However, any allocation must take into account the economic arrangement of the partners with respect to the property.

(3) If, after making the allocations described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(s)(2) of this section, the exercising partner's capital account does not reflect that partner's right to share in partnership capital under the partnership agreement, then the partnership reallocates partnership capital between the existing partners and the exercising partner so that the exercising partner's capital account reflects the exercising partner's right to share in partnership capital under the partnership agreement (a capital account reallocation). Any increase or decrease in the capital accounts of existing partners that occurs as a result of a capital account reallocation under this paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(s)(3) must be allocated among the existing partners in accordance with the principles of this section. See Example 32 of paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(4) The partnership agreement requires corrective allocations so as to take into account all capital account re allocations made under paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(s)(3) of this section (see paragraph (b)(4)(x) of this section). See Example 32 of paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(3) Partner's interest in the partnership -

(i) In general. References in section 704(b) and this paragraph to a partner's interest in the partnership, or to the partners' interests in the partnership, signify the manner in which the partners have agreed to share the economic benefit or burden (if any) corresponding to the income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit (or item thereof) that is allocated. Except with respect to partnership items that cannot have economic effect (such as nonrecourse deductions of the partnership), this sharing arrangement may or may not correspond to the overall economic arrangement of the partners. Thus, a partner who has a 50 percent overall interest in the partnership may have a 90 percent interest in a particular item of income or deduction. (For example, in the case of an unexpected downward adjustment to the capital account of a partner who does not have a deficit make-up obligation that causes such partner to have a negative capital account, it may be necessary to allocate a disproportionate amount of gross income of the partnership to such partner for such year so as to bring that partner's capital account back up to zero.) The determination of a partner's interest in a partnership shall be made by taking into account all facts and circumstances relating to the economic arrangement of the partners.

(ii) Factors considered. In determining a partner's interest in the partnership, the following factors are among those that will be considered:

(a) The partners' relative contributions to the partnership,

(b) The interests of the partners in economic profits and losses (if different than that in taxable income or loss),

(c) The interests of the partners in cash flow and other non-liquidating distributions, and

(d) The rights of the partners to distributions of capital upon liquidation.

The provisions of this subparagraph (b)(3) are illustrated by examples (1)(i) and (ii), (4)(i), (5)(i) and (ii), (6), (7), (8), (10)(ii), (16)(i), and (19)(iii) of paragraph (b)(5) of this section. See paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section concerning rules for determining the partners' interests in the partnership with respect to certain tax items.

(iii) Certain determinations. If -

(a) Requirements (1) and (2) of paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b) of this section are satisfied, and

(b) All or a portion of an allocation of income, gain, loss, or deduction made to a partner for a partnership taxable year does not have economic effect under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section.

the partners' interests in the partnership with respect to the portion of the allocation that lacks economic effect will be determined by comparing the manner in which distributions (and contributions) would be made if all partnership property were sold at book value and the partnership were liquidated immediately following the end of the taxable year to which the allocation relates with the manner in which distributions (and contributions) would be made if all partnership property were sold at book value and the partnership were liquidated immediately following the end of the prior taxable year, and adjusting the result for the items described in (4), (5), and (6) of paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(d) of this section. A determination made under this paragraph (b)(3)(iii) will have no force if the economic effect of valid allocations made in the same manner is insubstantial under paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section. See examples 1 (iv), (v), and (vi), and 15 (ii) and (iii) of paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(iv) Special rule for creditable foreign tax expenditures. In determining whether an allocation of a partnership item is in accordance with the partners' interests in the partnership, the allocation of the creditable foreign tax expenditure (CFTE) (as defined in paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(b) of this section) must be disregarded. This paragraph (b)(3)(iv) shall not apply to the extent the partners to whom such taxes are allocated reasonably expect to claim a deduction for such taxes in determining their U.S. tax liabilities.

(4) Special rules -

(i) Allocations to reflect revaluations. If partnership property is, under paragraphs (b)(2)(iv)(d) or (b)(2)(iv)(f) of this section, properly reflected in the capital accounts of the partners and on the books of the partnership at a book value that differs from the adjusted tax basis of such property, then depreciation, depletion, amortization, and gain or loss, as computed for book purposes, with respect to such property will be greater or less than the depreciation, depletion, amortization, and gain or loss, as computed for tax purposes, with respect to such property. In these cases the capital accounts of the partners are required to be adjusted solely for allocations of the book items to such partners (see paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(g) of this section), and the partners' shares of the corresponding tax items are not independently reflected by further adjustments to the partners' capital accounts. Thus, separate allocations of these tax items cannot have economic effect under paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b)(1) of this section, and the partners' distributive shares of such tax items must (unless governed by section 704(c)) be determined in accordance with the partners' interests in the partnership. These tax items must be shared among the partners in a manner that takes account of the variation between the adjusted tax basis of such property and its book value in the same manner as variations between the adjusted tax basis and fair market value of property contributed to the partnership are taken into account in determining the partners' shares of tax items under section 704(c). See examples 14 and 18 of paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(ii) Credits. Allocations of tax credits and tax credit recapture are not reflected by adjustments to the partners' capital accounts (except to the extent that adjustments to the adjusted tax basis of partnership section 38 property in respect of tax credits and tax credit recapture give rise to capital account adjustments under paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(j) of this section). Thus, such allocations cannot have economic effect under paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b)(1) of this section, and the tax credits and tax credit recapture must be allocated in accordance with the partners' interests in the partnership as of the time the tax credit or credit recapture arises. With respect to the investment tax credit provided by section 38, allocations of cost or qualified investment made in accordance with paragraph (f) of § 1.46-3 and paragraph (a)(4)(iv) of § 1.48-8 shall be deemed to be made in accordance with the partners' interests in the partnership. With respect to other tax credits, if a partnership expenditure (whether or not deductible) that gives rise to a tax credit in a partnership taxable year also gives rise to valid allocations of partnership loss or deduction (or other downward capital account adjustments) for such year, then the partners' interests in the partnership with respect to such credit (or the cost giving rise thereto) shall be in the same proportion as such partners' respective distributive shares of such loss or deduction (and adjustments). See example 11 of paragraph (b)(5) of this section. Identical principles shall apply in determining the partners' interests in the partnership with respect to tax credits that arise from receipts of the partnership (whether or not taxable).

(iii) Excess percentage depletion. To the extent the percentage depletion in respect of an item of depletable property of the partnership exceeds the adjusted tax basis of such property, allocations of such excess percentage depletion are not reflected by adjustments to the partners' capital accounts. Thus, such allocations cannot have economic effect under paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b)(1) of this section, and such excess percentage depletion must be allocated in accordance with the partners' interests in the partnership. The partners' interests in the partnership for a partnership taxable year with respect to such excess percentage depletion shall be in the same proportion as such partners' respective distributive shares of gross income from the depletable property (as determined under section 613(c)) for such year. See example 12 of paragraph (b)(5) of this section. See paragraphs (b)(2)(iv)(k) and (b)(4)(v) of this section for special rules concerning oil and gas properties of the partnership.

(iv) Allocations attributable to nonrecourse liabilities. The rules for allocations attributable to nonrecourse liabilities are contained in § 1.704-2.

(v) Allocations under section 613A(c)(7)(D). Allocations of the adjusted tax basis of a partnership oil or gas property are controlled by section 613A(c)(7)(D) and the regulations thereunder. However, if the partnership agreement provides for an allocation of the adjusted tax basis of an oil or gas property among the partners, and such allocation is not otherwise governed under section 704(c) (or related principles under paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section), that allocation will be recognized as being in accordance with the partners' interests in partnership capital under section 613A(c)(7)(D), provided (a) such allocation does not give rise to capital account adjustments under paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(k) of this section, the economic effect of which is insubstantial (as determined under paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section), and (b) all other material allocations and capital account adjustments under the partnership agreement are recognized under this paragraph (b). Otherwise, such adjusted tax basis must be allocated among the partners pursuant to section 613A(c)(7)(D) in accordance with the partners' actual interests in partnership capital or income. For purposes of section 613A(c)(7)(D) the partners' allocable shares of the amount realized upon the partnership's taxable disposition of an oil or gas property will, except to the extent governed by section 704(c) (or related principles under paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section), be determined under this paragraph (b)(4)(v). If, pursuant to paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(k)(2) of this section, the partners' capital accounts are adjusted to reflect the simulated depletion of an oil or gas property of the partnership, the portion of the total amount realized by the partnership upon the taxable disposition of such property that represents recovery of its simulated adjusted tax basis therein will be allocated to the partners in the same proportion as the aggregate adjusted tax basis of such property was allocated to such partners (or their predecessors in interest). If, pursuant to paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(k)(3) of this section, the partners' capital accounts are adjusted to reflect the actual depletion of an oil or gas property of the partnership, the portion of the total amount realized by the partnership upon the taxable disposition of such property that equals the partners' aggregate remaining adjusted basis therein will be allocated to the partners in proportion to their respective remaining adjusted tax bases in such property. An allocation provided by the partnership agreement of the portion of the total amount realized by the partnership on its taxable disposition of an oil or gas property that exceeds the portion of the total amount realized allocated under either of the previous two sentences (whichever is applicable) shall be deemed to be made in accordance with the partners' allocable shares of such amount realized, provided (c) such allocation does not give rise to capital account adjustments under paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(k) of this section the economic effect of which is insubstantial (as determined under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section), and (d) all other allocations and capital account adjustments under the partnership agreement are recognized under this paragraph. Otherwise, the partners' allocable shares of the total amount realized by the partnership on its taxable disposition of an oil or gas property shall be determined in accordance with the partners' interests in the partnership under paragraph (b)(3) of this section. See example 19 of paragraph (b)(5) of this section. (See paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(k) of this section for the determination of appropriate adjustments to the partners' capital accounts relating to section 613A(c)(7)(D).)

(vi) Amendments to partnership agreement. If an allocation has substantial economic effect under paragraph (b)(2) of this section or is deemed to be made in accordance with the partners' interests in the partnership under paragraph (b)(4) of this section under the partnership agreement that is effective for the taxable year to which such allocation relates, and such partnership agreement thereafter is modified, both the tax consequences of the modification and the facts and circumstances surrounding the modification will be closely scrutinized to determine whether the purported modification was part of the original agreement. If it is determined that the purported modification was part of the original agreement, prior allocations may be reallocated in a manner consistent with the modified terms of the agreement, and subsequent allocations may be reallocated to take account of such modified terms. For example, if a partner is obligated by the partnership agreement to restore the deficit balance in his capital account (or any limited dollar amount thereof) in accordance with requirement (3) of paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b) of this section and, thereafter, such obligation is eliminated or reduced (other than as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(f) of this section), or is not complied with in a timely manner, such elimination, reduction, or noncompliance may be treated as if it always were part of the partnership agreement for purposes of making any reallocations and determining the appropriate limitations period.

(vii) Recapture. For special rules applicable to the allocation of recapture income or credit, see paragraph (e) of § 1.1245-1, paragraph (f) of § 1.1250-1, paragraph (c) of § 1.1254-1, and paragraph (a) of § 1.47-6.

(viii) Allocation of creditable foreign taxes -

(a) In general. Allocations of creditable foreign taxes do not have substantial economic effect within the meaning of paragraph (b)(2) of this section and, accordingly, such expenditures must be allocated in accordance with the partners' interests in the partnership. See paragraph (b)(3)(iv) of this section. An allocation of a creditable foreign tax expenditure (CFTE) will be deemed to be in accordance with the partners' interests in the partnership if -

(1) The CFTE is allocated (whether or not pursuant to an express provision in the partnership agreement) to each partner and reported on the partnership return in proportion to the partners' CFTE category shares of income to which the CFTE relates; and

(2) Allocations of all other partnership items that, in the aggregate, have a material effect on the amount of CFTEs allocated to a partner pursuant to paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(a)(1) of this section are valid.

(b) Creditable foreign tax expenditures (CFTEs). For purposes of this section, a CFTE is a foreign tax paid or accrued by a partnership that is eligible for a credit under section 901(a) or an applicable U.S. income tax treaty. A foreign tax is a CFTE for these purposes without regard to whether a partner receiving an allocation of such foreign tax elects to claim a credit for such tax. Foreign taxes paid or accrued by a partner with respect to a distributive share of partnership income, and foreign taxes deemed paid under section 902 or 960 by a corporate partner with respect to stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for a partnership, are not taxes paid or accrued by a partnership and, therefore, are not CFTEs subject to the rules of this section. See paragraphs (e) and (f) of § 1.901-2 for rules for determining when and by whom a foreign tax is paid or accrued.

(c) Income to which CFTEs relate. -

(1) In general. For purposes of paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(a) of this section, CFTEs are related to net income in the partnership's CFTE category or categories to which the CFTE is allocated and apportioned in accordance with the rules of paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(d) of this section. Paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(c)(2) of this section provides rules for determining a partnership's CFTE categories. Paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(c)(3) of this section provides rules for determining the net income in each CFTE category. Paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(c)(4) of this section provides rules for determining a partner's CFTE category share of income, including rules that require adjustments to net income in a CFTE category for purposes of determining the partners' CFTE category share of income with respect to certain CFTEs. Paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(c)(5) of this section provides a special rule for allocating CFTEs when a partnership has no net income in a CFTE category.

(2) CFTE category -

(i) Income from activities. A CFTE category is a category of net income (or loss) attributable to one or more activities of the partnership. Net income (or loss) from all the partnership's activities shall be included in a single CFTE category unless the allocation of net income (or loss) from one or more activities differs from the allocation of net income (or loss) from other activities, in which case income from each activity or group of activities that is subject to a different allocation shall be treated as net income (or loss) in a separate CFTE category.

(ii) Different allocations. Different allocations of net income (or loss) generally will result from provisions of the partnership agreement providing for different sharing ratios for net income (or loss) from separate activities. Different allocations of net income (or loss) from separate activities generally will also result if any partnership item is shared in a different ratio than any other partnership item. A guaranteed payment described in paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(c)(4)(ii) of this section, gross income allocation, or other preferential allocation will result in different allocations of net income (or loss) from separate activities only if the amount of the payment or the allocation is determined by reference to income from less than all of the partnership's activities.

(iii) Activity. Whether a partnership has one or more activities, and the scope of each activity, is determined in a reasonable manner taking into account all the facts and circumstances. In evaluating whether aggregating or disaggregating income from particular business or investment operations constitutes a reasonable method of determining the scope of an activity, the principal consideration is whether the proposed determination has the effect of separating CFTEs from the related foreign income. Relevant considerations include whether the partnership conducts business in more than one geographic location or through more than one entity or branch, and whether certain types of income are exempt from foreign tax or subject to preferential foreign tax treatment. In addition, income from a divisible part of a single activity is treated as income from a separate activity if necessary to prevent separating CFTEs from the related foreign income, such as when income from divisible parts of a single activity is subject to different allocations. See, for example, paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(c)(3)(iv) of this section (special allocations related to disregarded payments can give rise to subdivision of an activity into divisible parts). A guaranteed payment, gross income allocation, or other preferential allocation of income that is determined by reference to all the income from a single activity generally will not result in the division of an activity into divisible parts. See Example 22 in paragraph (b)(5)(xxii) of this section and Example 1 in paragraph (b)(6)(i) of this section. The partnership's activities must be determined consistently from year to year absent a material change in facts and circumstances.

(3) Net income in a CFTE category -

(i) In general. A partnership computes net income in a CFTE category as follows: First, the partnership determines for U.S. Federal income tax purposes all of its partnership items, including items of gross income, gain, loss, deduction, and expense, and items allocated pursuant to section 704(c). For the purpose of this paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(c)(3)(i), the items of the partnership are determined without regard to any adjustments under section 743(b) that its partners may have to the basis of property of the partnership. However, if the partnership is a transferee partner that has a basis adjustment under section 743(b) in its capacity as a direct or indirect partner in a lower-tier partnership, the partnership does take such basis adjustment into account. Second, the partnership must assign those partnership items to its activities pursuant to paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(c)(3)(ii) of this section. Third, partnership items attributable to each activity are aggregated within the relevant CFTE category as determined under paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(c)(2) of this section in order to compute the net income in a CFTE category.

(ii) Assignment of partnership items to activities. The items of gross income attributable to an activity must be determined in a consistent manner under any reasonable method taking into account all the facts and circumstances. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(c)(3)(iii) of this section, expenses, losses, or other deductions must be allocated and apportioned to gross income attributable to an activity in accordance with the rules of §§ 1.861-8 and 1.861-8T. Under the rules §§ 1.861-8 and 1.861-8T, if an expense, loss, or other deduction is allocated to gross income from more than one activity, such expense, loss, or deduction must be apportioned among each such activity using a reasonable method that reflects to a reasonably close extent the factual relationship between the deduction and the gross income from such activities. See § 1.861-8T(c). For the effect of disregarded payments in determining the amount of net income attributable to an activity, see paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(c)(3)(iv) of this section.

(iii) Interest expense and research and experimental expenditures. The partnership's interest expense and research and experimental expenditures described in section 174 may be allocated and apportioned under any reasonable method, including but not limited to the methods prescribed in §§ 1.861-9 through 1.861-13T (interest expense) and § 1.861-17 (research and experimental expenditures).

(iv) Disregarded payments. An item of gross income is assigned to the activity that generates the item of income that is recognized for U.S. Federal income tax purposes. Consequently, disregarded payments are not taken into account in determining the amount of net income attributable to an activity, although a special allocation of income used to make a disregarded payment may result in the subdivision of an activity into divisible parts. See paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(c)(2)(iii) of this section, Example 24 in paragraph (b)(5)(xxiv) of this section, and Examples 2 and 3 in paragraphs (b)(6)(ii) and (iii), respectively, of this section (relating to inter-branch payments).

(4) CFTE category share of income -

(i) In general. CFTE category share of income means the portion of the net income in a CFTE category, determined in accordance with paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(c)(3) of this section as modified by paragraphs (b)(4)(viii)(c)(4)(ii) through (iv) of this section, that is allocated to a partner. To the extent provided in paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(c)(4)(ii) of this section, a guaranteed payment is treated as an allocation to the recipient of the guaranteed payment for this purpose. If more than one partner receives positive income allocations (income in excess of expenses) from a CFTE category, which in the aggregate exceed the total net income in the CFTE category, then such partner's CFTE category share of income equals the partner's positive income allocation from the CFTE category, divided by the aggregate positive income allocations from the CFTE category, multiplied by the net income in the CFTE category. Paragraphs (b)(4)(viii)(c)(4)(ii) through (iv) of this section require adjustments to the net income in a CFTE category for purposes of determining the partners' CFTE category share of income if one or more foreign jurisdictions impose a tax that provides for certain exclusions or deductions from the foreign taxable base. Such adjustments apply only with respect to CFTEs attributable to the taxes that allow such exclusions or deductions. Thus, net income in a CFTE category may vary for purposes of applying paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(a)(1) of this section to different CFTEs within that CFTE category.

(ii) Guaranteed payments. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(c)(4)(ii), solely for purposes of applying the safe harbor provisions of paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(a)(1) of this section, net income in the CFTE category from which a guaranteed payment (within the meaning of section 707(c)) is made is increased by the amount of the guaranteed payment that is deductible for U.S. Federal income tax purposes, and such amount is treated as an allocation to the recipient of such guaranteed payment for purposes of determining the partners' CFTE category shares of income. If a foreign tax allows (whether in the current or in a different taxable year) a deduction from its taxable base for a guaranteed payment, then solely for purposes of applying the safe harbor provisions of paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(a)(1) of this section to allocations of CFTEs that are attributable to that foreign tax, net income in the CFTE category is increased only to the extent that the amount of the guaranteed payment that is deductible for U.S. Federal income tax purposes exceeds the amount allowed as a deduction for purposes of the foreign tax, and such excess is treated as an allocation to the recipient of the guaranteed payment for purposes of determining the partners' CFTE category shares of income. See Example 1 in paragraph (b)(6)(i) of this section.

(iii) Preferential allocations. To the extent that a foreign tax allows (whether in the current or in a different taxable year) a deduction from its taxable base for an allocation (or distribution of an allocated amount) to a partner, then solely for purposes of applying the safe harbor provisions of paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(a)(1) of this section to allocations of CFTEs that are attributable to that foreign tax, the net income in the CFTE category from which the allocation is made is reduced by the amount of the allocation, and that amount is not treated as an allocation for purposes of determining the partners' CFTE category shares of income. See Example 1 in paragraph (b)(6)(i) of this section.

(iv) Foreign law exclusions due to status of partner. If a foreign tax excludes an amount from its taxable base as a result of the status of a partner, then solely for purposes of applying the safe harbor provisions of paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(a)(1) of this section to allocations of CFTEs that are attributable to that foreign tax, the net income in the relevant CFTE category is reduced by the excluded amounts that are allocable to such partners. See Example 27 in paragraph (b)(5)(xxvii) of this section.

(v) Adjustments related to section 901(m). If one or more assets owned by a partnership are relevant foreign assets (or RFAs) with respect to a foreign income tax, then, solely for purposes of applying the safe harbor provisions of paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(a)(1) of this section to allocations of CFTEs with respect to that foreign income tax, the net income in a CFTE category that includes partnership items of income, deduction, gain, or loss attributable to the RFA shall be increased by the amount described in paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(c)(4)(vi) of this section and reduced by the amount described in paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(c)(4)(vii) of this section. Similarly, a partner's CFTE category share of income shall be increased by the portion of the amount described in paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(c)(4)(vi) of this section that is allocated to the partner under § 1.901(m)-5(d) and reduced by the portion of the amount described in paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(c)(4)(vii) of this section that is allocated to the partner under § 1.901(m)-5(d). The principles of this paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(c)(4)(v) apply similarly when a partnership owns an RFA indirectly through one or more other partnerships. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(c)(4)(v) and paragraphs (b)(4)(viii)(c)(4)(vi) and (b)(4)(viii)(c)(4)(vii) of this section, basis difference is defined in § 1.901(m)-4, cost recovery amount is defined in § 1.901(m)-5(b)(2), disposition amount is defined in § 1.901(m)-5(c)(2), foreign income tax is defined in § 1.901(m)-1(a)(26), RFA is defined in § 1.901(m)-2(c), U.S. disposition gain is defined in § 1.901(m)-1(a)(52), and U.S. disposition loss is defined in § 1.901(m)-1(a)(53).

(vi) Adjustment amounts for RFAs with a positive basis difference. With respect to RFAs with a positive basis difference, the amount referenced in paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(c)(4)(v) of this section is the sum of any cost recovery amounts and disposition amounts attributable to U.S. disposition loss that correspond to partnership items that are included in the net income in the CFTE category and that are taken into account for the U.S. taxable year of the partnership under § 1.901(m)-5(d).

(vii) Adjustment amounts for RFAs with a negative basis difference. With respect to RFAs with a negative basis difference, the amount referenced in paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(c)(4)(v) of this section is the sum of any cost recovery amounts and disposition amounts attributable to U.S. disposition gain that correspond to partnership items that are included in the net income in the CFTE category and that are taken into account for the U.S. taxable year of the partnership under § 1.901(m)-5(d).

(5) No net income in a CFTE category. If a CFTE is allocated or apportioned to a CFTE category that does not have net income for the year in which the foreign tax is paid or accrued, the CFTE shall be deemed to relate to the aggregate of the net income (disregarding net losses) recognized by the partnership in that CFTE category in each of the three preceding taxable years. Accordingly, except as provided below, such CFTE must be allocated in the current taxable year in the same proportion as the allocation of the aggregate net income for the prior three-year period in order to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(a)(1) of this section. If the partnership does not have net income in the applicable CFTE category in either the current year or any of the previous three taxable years, the CFTE must be allocated in the same proportion that the partnership reasonably expects to allocate the aggregate net income (disregarding net losses) in the CFTE category for the succeeding three taxable years. If the partnership does not reasonably expect to have net income in the CFTE category for the succeeding three years and the partnership has net income in one or more other CFTE categories for the year in which the foreign tax is paid or accrued, the CFTE shall be deemed to relate to such other net income and must be allocated in proportion to the allocations of such other net income. If any CFTE is not allocated pursuant to the above provisions of this paragraph then the CFTE must be allocated in proportion to the partners' outstanding capital contributions.

(d) Allocation and apportionment of CFTEs to CFTE categories. -

(1) In general. CFTEs are allocated and apportioned to CFTE categories in accordance with the principles of § 1.904-6. Under these principles, a CFTE is related to income in a CFTE category if the income is included in the base upon which the foreign tax is imposed. See Examples 2 and 3 in paragraphs (b)(6)(ii) and (iii) of this section, respectively, which illustrate the application of this paragraph in the case of serial disregarded payments subject to withholding tax. In accordance with § 1.904-6(a)(1)(ii) as modified by this paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(d), if the foreign tax base includes income in more than one CFTE category, the CFTEs are apportioned among the CFTE categories based on the relative amounts of taxable income computed under foreign law in each CFTE category. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(d), references in § 1.904-6 to a separate category or separate categories mean “CFTE category” or “CFTE categories” and the rules in § 1.904-6(a)(1)(ii) are modified as follows:

(i) The related party interest expense rule in § 1.904-6(a)(1)(ii) shall not apply in determining the amount of taxable income computed under foreign law in a CFTE category.

(ii) If foreign law does not provide for the direct allocation or apportionment of expenses, losses or other deductions allowed under foreign law to a CFTE category of income, then such expenses, losses or other deductions must be allocated and apportioned to gross income as determined under foreign law in a manner that is consistent with the allocation and apportionment of such items for purposes of determining the net income in the CFTE categories for U.S. tax purposes pursuant to paragraph (b)(4)(viii)(c)(3) of this section.

(2) Timing and base differences. A foreign tax imposed on an item that would be income under U.S. tax principles in another year (a timing difference) is allocated to the CFTE category that would include the income if the income were recognized for U.S. tax purposes in the year in which the foreign tax is imposed. A foreign tax imposed on an item that would not constitute income under U.S. tax principles in any year (a base difference) is allocated to the CFTE category that includes the partnership items attributable to the activity with respect to which the foreign tax is imposed. See paragraph (b)(5) Example 23 of this section.

(3) Special rules for inter-branch payments. For rules relating to foreign tax paid or accrued in partnership taxable years beginning before January 1, 2012, in respect of certain inter-branch payments, see 26 CFR 1.704-1(b)(4)(viii)(d)(3) (revised as of April 1, 2011).

(ix) Allocations with respect to noncompensatory options -

(a) In general. A partnership agreement may grant to a partner that exercises a noncompensatory option (as defined in § 1.721-2(f)) a right to share in partnership capital that exceeds (or is less than) the sum of the amounts paid to the partnership to acquire and exercise the option. In such a case, allocations of income, gain, loss, and deduction to the partners while the noncompensatory option is outstanding cannot have economic effect because, if the noncompensatory option is exercised, the exercising partner, rather than the existing partners, may receive the economic benefit or bear the economic detriment associated with that income, gain, loss, or deduction. However, allocations of partnership income, gain, loss, and deduction to the partners while the noncompensatory option is outstanding will be deemed to be in accordance with the partners' interests in the partnership only if -

(1) The holder of the noncompensatory option is not treated as a partner under § 1.761-3;

(2) The partnership agreement requires that, while a noncompensatory option is outstanding, the partnership comply with the rules of paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(f) of this section and that, on the exercise of the noncompensatory option, the partnership comply with the rules of paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(s) of this section; and

(3) All material allocations and capital account adjustments under the partnership agreement would be respected under section 704(b) if there were no outstanding noncompensatory options issued by the partnership. See Examples 31 through 35 of paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(b) Substantial economic effect under sections 168(h) and 514(c)(9)(E)(i)(ll). An allocation of partnership income, gain, loss, or deduction to the partners will be deemed to have substantial economic effect for purposes of sections 168(h) and 514(c)(9)(E)(i)(ll) if -

(1) The allocation would meet the substantial economic effect requirements of paragraph (b)(2) of this section if there were no outstanding noncompensatory options issued by the partnership; and

(2) The partnership satisfies the requirements of paragraph (b)(4)(ix)(a)(1), (2), and (3) of this section.

(x) Corrective allocations -

(a) - In general. If partnership capital is reallocated between existing partners and a partner exercising a noncompensatory option under paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(s)(3) of this section (a capital account reallocation), then the partnership must, beginning with the taxable year of the exercise and in all succeeding taxable years until the required allocations are fully taken into account, make corrective allocations so as to take into account the capital account reallocation. A corrective allocation is an allocation (consisting of a pro rata portion of each item) for tax purposes of gross income and gain, or gross loss and deduction, that differs from the partnership's allocation of the corresponding book item. See Example 32 of paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(b) Timing. Section 706 and the regulations and principles thereunder apply in determining the items of income, gain, loss, and deduction that may be subject to corrective allocation.

(c) Allocation of gross income and gain and gross loss and deduction. If the capital account reallocation is from the historic partners to the exercising option holder, then the corrective allocations must first be made with gross income and gain. If an allocation of gross income and gain alone does not completely take into account the capital account reallocation in a given year, then the partnership must also make corrective allocations using a pro rata portion of items of gross loss and deduction as to further take into account the capital account reallocation. Conversely, if the capital account reallocation is from the exercising option holder to the historic partners, then the corrective allocations must first be made with gross loss and deduction. If an allocation of gross loss and deduction alone does not completely take into account the capital account reallocation in a given year, then the partnership must also make corrective allocations using a pro rata portion of items of gross income and gain as to further take into account the capital account reallocation.

(5) Examples. The operation of the rules in this paragraph is illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.
(i) A and B form a general partnership with cash contributions of $40,000 each, which cash is used to purchase depreciable personal property at a cost of $80,000. The partnership elects under section 48(q)(4) to reduce the amount of investment tax credit in lieu of adjusting the tax basis of such property. The partnership agreement provides that A and B will have equal shares of taxable income and loss (computed without regard to cost recovery deductions) and cash flow and that all cost recovery deductions on the property will be allocated to A. The agreement further provides that the partners' capital accounts will be determined and maintained in accordance with paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of the section, but that upon liquidation of the partnership, distributions will be made equally between the partners (regardless of capital account balances) and no partner will be required to restore the deficit balance in his capital account for distribution to partners with positive capital accounts balances. In the partnership's first taxable year, it recognizes operating income equal to its operating expenses and has an additional $20,000 cost recovery deduction, which is allocated entirely to A. That A and B will be entitled to equal distributions on liquidation, even through A is allocated the entire $20,000 cost recovery deduction, indicates A will not bear the full risk of the economic loss corresponding to such deduction if such loss occurs. Under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, the allocation lacks economic effect and will be disregarded. The partners made equal contributions to the partnership, share equally in other taxable income and loss and in cash flow, and will share equally in liquidation proceeds, indicating that their actual economic arrangement is to bear the risk imposed by the potential decrease in the value of the property equally. Thus, under paragraph (b)(3) of this section the partners' interests in the partnership are equal, and the cost recovery deduction will be reallocated equally between A and B.

(ii) Assume the same facts as in (i) except that the partnership agreement provides that liquidation proceeds will be distributed in accordance with capital account balances if the partnership is liquidated during the first five years of its existence but that liquidation proceeds will be distributed equally if the partnership is liquidated thereafter. Since the partnership agreement does not provide for the requirement contained in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b)(2) of this section to be satisfied throughout the term of the partnership, the partnership allocations do not have economic effect. Even if the partnership agreement provided for the requirement contained in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b)(2) to be satisfied throughout the term of the partnership, such allocations would not have economic effect unless the requirement contained in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b)(3) of this section or the alternate economic effect test contained in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(d) of this section were satisfied.

(iii) Assume the same facts as in (i) except that distributions in liquidation of the partnership (or any partner's interest) are to be made in accordance with the partners' positive capital account balances throughout the term of the partnership (as set forth in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(b)(2) of this section). Assume further that the partnership agreement contains a qualified income offset (as defined in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(d) of this section) and that, as of the end of each partnership taxable year, the items described in paragraphs (b)(2)(ii)(d)(4), (5), and (6) of this section are not reasonably expected to cause or increase a deficit balance in A's capital account.

A B
Capital account upon formation $40,000 $40,000
Less: year 1 cost recovery deduction (20,000) 0
Capital account at end of year 1 $20,000 $40,000
Under the alternate economic effect test contained in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(d) of this section, the allocation of the $20,000 cost recovery deduction to A has economic effect.
(iv) Assume the same facts as in (iii) and that in the partnership's second taxable year it recognizes operating income equal to its operating expenses and has a $25,000 cost recovery deduction which, under the partnership agreement, is allocated entirely to A.
A B
Capital account at beginning of year 2 $20,000 $40,000
Less: year 2 cost recovery deduction (25,000) 0
Capital account at end of year 2 ($5,000) $40,000
The allocation of the $25,000 cost recovery deduction to A satisfies that alternate economic effect test contained in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(d) of this section only to the extent of $20,000. Therefore, only $20,000 of such allocation has economic effect, and the remaining $5,000 must be reallocated in accordance with the partners' interests in the partnership. Under the partnership agreement, if the property were sold immediately following the end of the partnership's second taxable year for $35,000 (its adjusted tax basis), the $35,000 would be distributed to B. Thus, B, and not A, bears the economic burden corresponding to $5,000 of the $25,000 cost recovery deduction allocated to A. Under paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section, $5,000 of such cost recovery deduction will be reallocated to B.

(v) Assume the same facts as in (iv) except that the cost recovery deduction for the partnership's second taxable year is $20,000 instead of $25