29 CFR 502.10 - Definitions.
(a) Definitions of terms used in this part. For the purpose of this part:
Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) means a person within the Department's Office of Administrative Law Judges appointed pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 3105, or a panel of such persons designated by the Chief Administrative Law Judge from the Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals (BALCA) established by part 656 of this chapter, which will hear and decide appeals as set forth at 20 CFR 655.115.
Administrator, WHD means the Administrator of the Wage and Hour Division (WHD), ESA and such authorized representatives as may be designated to perform any of the functions of the Administrator, WHD under this part.
Adverse effect wage rate (AEWR) means the minimum wage rate that the Administrator of the Office of Foreign Labor Certification (OFLC) has determined must be offered and paid to every H-2A worker employed under the DOL-approved Application for Temporary Employment Certification in a particular occupation and/or area, as well as to U.S. workers hired by employers into corresponding employment during the H-2A recruitment period, to ensure that the wages of similarly employed U.S. workers will not be adversely affected.
Agent means a legal entity or person, such as an association of agricultural employers, or an attorney for an association, that -
(1) Is authorized to act on behalf of the employer for temporary agricultural labor certification purposes;
(2) Is not itself an employer, or a joint employer, as defined in this section, with respect to a specific application; and
(3) Is not under suspension, debarment, expulsion, or disbarment from practice before any court or the Department, the Board of Immigration Appeals, the immigration judges, or DHS under 8 CFR 292.3, 1003.101.
Agricultural association means any nonprofit or cooperative association of farmers, growers, or ranchers (including but not limited to processing establishments, canneries, gins, packing sheds, nurseries, or other fixed-site agricultural employers), incorporated or qualified under applicable State law, that recruits, solicits, hires, employs, furnishes, houses or transports any worker that is subject to sec. 218 of the INA. An agricultural association may act as the agent of an employer for purposes of filing an H-2A Application for Temporary Employment Certification, and may also act as the sole or joint employer of H-2A workers.
Application for Temporary Employment Certification means the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)-approved form submitted by an employer to secure a temporary agricultural labor certification determination from DOL. A complete submission of the Application for Temporary Employment Certification includes the form and the initial recruitment report.
Area of intended employment means the geographic area within normal commuting distance of the place (worksite address) of the job opportunity for which the certification is sought. There is no rigid measure of distance which constitutes a normal commuting area, because there may be widely varying factual circumstances among different areas (e.g., average commuting times, barriers to reaching the worksite, quality of the regional transportation network, etc.). If the place of intended employment is within a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), including a multistate MSA, any place within the MSA is deemed to be within normal commuting distance of the place of intended employment. The borders of MSAs are not controlling in the identification of the normal commuting area; a location outside of an MSA may be within normal commuting distance of a location that is inside (e.g., near the border of) the MSA.
Department of Homeland Security (DHS) means the Federal agency having control over certain immigration functions that, through its sub-agency, United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), makes the determination under the INA on whether to grant visa petitions filed by employers seeking H-2A workers to perform temporary agricultural work in the U.S.
DOL or Department means the United States Department of Labor.
Eligible worker means an individual who is not an unauthorized alien (as defined in sec. 274A(h)(3) of the INA, 8 U.S.C. 1324a(h)(3)) with respect to the employment in which the worker is engaging.
Employee means employee as defined under the general common law of agency. Some of the factors relevant to the determination of employee status include: the hiring party's right to control the manner and means by which the work is accomplished; the skill required to perform the work; the source of the instrumentalities and tools for accomplishing the work; the location of the work; the hiring party's discretion over when and how long to work; and whether the work is part of the regular business of the hiring party. Other applicable factors may be considered and no one factor is dispositive.
Employer means a person, firm, corporation or other association or organization that:
(1) Has a place of business (physical location) in the U.S. and a means by which it may be contacted for employment;
(2) Has an employer relationship with respect to H-2A employees or related U.S. workers under this part; and
(3) Possesses, for purposes of filing an Application for Temporary Employment Certification, a valid Federal Employer Identification Number (FEIN).
Employment Service (ES) refers to the system of Federal and state entities responsible for administration of the labor certification process for temporary and seasonal agricultural employment of nonimmigrant foreign workers. This includes the SWAs and OFLC, including the National Processing Centers (NPCs).
Employment Standards Administration (ESA) means the agency within DOL that includes the WHD, and which is charged with carrying out certain investigative and enforcement functions of the Secretary under the INA.
Employment and Training Administration (ETA) means the agency within the DOL that includes OFLC.
Federal holiday means a legal public holiday as defined at 5 U.S.C. 6103.
Fixed-site employer means any person engaged in agriculture who meets the definition of an employer as those terms are defined in this part who owns or operates a farm, ranch, processing establishment, cannery, gin, packing shed, nursery, or other similar fixed-site location where agricultural activities are performed and who recruits, solicits, hires, employs, houses, or transports any worker subject to sec. 218 of the INA or these regulations as incident to or in conjunction with the owner's or operator's own agricultural operation. For purposes of this part, person includes any individual, partnership, association, corporation, cooperative, joint stock company, trust, or other organization with legal rights and duties.
H-2A Labor Contractor (H-2ALC) means any person who meets the definition of employer in this section and is not a fixed-site employer, an agricultural association, or an employee of a fixed-site employer or agricultural association, as those terms are used in this part, who recruits, solicits, hires, employs, furnishes, houses, or transports any worker subject to sec. 218 of the INA or these regulations.
H-2A worker means any temporary foreign worker who is lawfully present in the U.S. to perform agricultural labor or services of a temporary or seasonal nature pursuant to sec. 101(a)(15)(H)(ii)(a) of the INA, as amended.
INA/Act means the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended, 8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.
Job offer means the offer made by an employer or potential employer of H-2A workers to eligible workers describing all the material terms and conditions of employment, including those relating to wages, working conditions, and other benefits.
Job opportunity means a job opening for temporary, full-time employment at a place in the U.S. to which a U.S. worker can be referred.
Joint employment means that where two or more employers each have sufficient definitional indicia of employment to be considered the employer of an employee, those employers will be considered to jointly employ that employee. Each employer in a joint employment relationship to an employee is considered a “joint employer” of that employee.
Office of Foreign Labor Certification (OFLC) means the organizational component of the ETA that provides national leadership and policy guidance and develops regulations and procedures to carry out the responsibilities of the Secretary under the INA concerning the admission of foreign workers to the U.S. to perform work described in sec. 101(a)(15)(H)(ii)(a) of the INA, as amended.
Positive recruitment means the active participation of an employer or its authorized hiring agent in recruiting and interviewing qualified and eligible individuals in the area where the employer's job opportunity is located and any other State designated by the Secretary as an area of traditional or expected labor supply with respect to the area where the employer's job opportunity is located, in an effort to fill specific job openings with U.S. workers.
Prevailing means with respect to practices engaged in by employers and benefits other than wages provided by employers, that:
(1) Fifty percent or more of employers in an area and for an occupation engage in the practice or offer the benefit; but only if
(2) This 50 percent or more of employers also employs in aggregate 50 percent or more of U.S. workers in the occupation and area (including H-2A and non-H-2A employers for purposes of determinations concerning the provision of family housing, frequency of wage payments, and workers supplying their own bedding, but non-H-2A employers only for determinations concerning the provision of advance transportation and the utilization of H-2ALCs).
Prevailing hourly wage means the hourly wage determined by the SWA to be prevailing in the area in accordance with State-based wage surveys.
Prevailing piece rate means that amount that is typically paid to an agricultural worker per piece (which includes, but is not limited to, a load, bin, pallet, bag, bushel, etc.) to be determined by the SWA according to a methodology published by the Department. As is currently the case, the unit of production will be required to be clearly described; e.g., a field box of oranges (1 1/2 bushels), a bushel of potatoes, and Eastern apple box (1 1/2 metric bushels), a flat of strawberries (twelve quarts), etc.
Representative means a person or entity employed by, or duly authorized to act on behalf of, the employer with respect to activities entered into for, and/or attestations made with respect to, the Application for Temporary Employment Certification.
Secretary means the Secretary of the United States Department of Labor or the Secretary's designee.
State Workforce Agency (SWA) means the State government agency that receives funds pursuant to the Wagner-Peyser Act to administer the public labor exchange delivered through the State's One-Stop delivery system in accordance with the Wagner-Peyser Act, 29 U.S.C. 49, et seq. Separately, SWAs receive ETA grants, administered by OFLC, to assist them in performing certain activities related to foreign labor certification, including conducting housing inspections.
Successor in interest means that, in determining whether an employer is a successor in interest, the factors used under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act and the Vietnam Era Veterans' Readjustment Assistance Act will be considered. When considering whether an employer is a successor for purposes of this part, the primary consideration will be the personal involvement of the firm's ownership, management, supervisors, and others associated with the firm in the violations resulting in a debarment recommendation. Normally, wholly new management or ownership of the same business operation, one in which the former management or owner does not retain a direct or indirect interest, will not be deemed to be a successor in interest for purposes of debarment. A determination of whether or not a successor in interest exists is based on the entire circumstances viewed in their totality. The factors to be considered include:
(1) Substantial continuity of the same business operations;
(2) Use of the same facilities;
(3) Continuity of the work force;
(4) Similarity of jobs and working conditions;
(5) Similarity of supervisory personnel;
(6) Similarity in machinery, equipment, and production methods;
(7) Similarity of products and services; and
(8) The ability of the predecessor to provide relief.
Temporary agricultural labor certification means the certification made by the Secretary with respect to an employer seeking to file with DHS a visa petition to employ one or more foreign nationals as an H-2A worker, pursuant to secs. 101(a)(15)(H)(ii)(a), 214(a) and (c), and 218 of the INA that:
(1) There are not sufficient workers who are able, willing, and qualified, and who will be available at the time and place needed, to perform the agricultural labor or services involved in the petition, and
(2) The employment of the foreign worker in such agricultural labor or services will not adversely affect the wages and working conditions of workers in the U.S. similarly employed as stated at 8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(15)(H)(ii)(a), 1184(a) and (c), and 1188.
United States (U.S.), when used in a geographic sense, means the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the territories of Guam, the Virgin Islands, and, as of the transition program effective date, as defined in the Consolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008, Public Law 110-229, Title VII, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
U.S. worker means a worker who is:
(1) A citizen or national of the U.S., or;
(2) An alien who is lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the U.S., is admitted as a refugee under sec. 207 of the INA, is granted asylum under sec. 208 of the INA, or is an immigrant otherwise authorized (by the INA or by DHS) to be employed in the U.S.
Wages means all forms of cash remuneration to a worker by an employer in payment for personal services.
Work contract means all the material terms and conditions of employment relating to wages, hours, working conditions, and other benefits, required by the applicable regulations in subpart B of 20 CFR part 655, Labor Certification for Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the U.S. (H-2A Workers), or these regulations, including those terms and conditions attested to by the H-2A employer, which contract between the employer and the worker may be in the form of a separate written document. In the absence of a separate written work contract incorporating the required terms and conditions of employment, agreed to by both the employer and the worker, the work contract at a minimum shall be the terms of the job order, as provided in 20 CFR part 653, subpart F, and covered provisions of the work contract shall be enforced in accordance with these regulations.
(b) Definition of agricultural labor or services of a temporary or seasonal nature. For the purposes of this part, agricultural labor or services of a temporary or seasonal nature means the following:
(1) Agricultural labor or services, pursuant to sec. 101(a)(15)(H)(ii)(a) of the INA (8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(15)(H)(ii)(a)), is defined as:
(i) Agricultural labor as defined and applied in sec. 3121(g) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 at 26 U.S.C. 3121(g);
(ii) Agriculture as defined and applied in sec. 3(f) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA) at 29 U.S.C. 203(f) (Work performed by H-2A workers, or workers in corresponding employment, that is not defined as agriculture in sec. 3(f) is subject to the provisions of the FLSA as provided therein, including the overtime provisions in sec. 7(a) at 29 U.S.C. 207(a));
(iii) The pressing of apples for cider on a farm;
(iv) Logging employment; or
(v) Handling, planting, drying, packing, packaging, processing, freezing, grading, storing, or delivering to storage or to market or to a carrier for transportation to market, in its unmanufactured state, any agricultural or horticultural commodity while in the employ of the operator of a farm where no H-2B workers are employed to perform the same work at the same establishment; or
(vi) Other work typically performed on a farm that is not specifically listed on the Application for Temporary Employment Certification and is minor (i.e., less than 20 percent of the total time worked on the job duties and activities that are listed on the Application for Temporary Employment Certification) and incidental to the agricultural labor or services for which the H-2A worker was sought.
(2) An occupation included in either of the statutory definitions cited in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section is agricultural labor or services, notwithstanding the exclusion of that occupation from the other statutory definition.
(i) Agricultural labor for purposes of paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section means all services performed:
(A) On a farm, in the employ of any person, in connection with cultivating the soil, or in connection with raising or harvesting any agricultural or horticultural commodity, including the raising, shearing, feeding, caring for, training, and management of livestock, bees, poultry, and furbearing animals and wildlife;
(B) In the employ of the owner or tenant or other operator of a farm, in connection with the operation or maintenance of such farm and its tools and equipment, or in salvaging timber or clearing land of brush and other debris left by a hurricane, if the major part of such service is performed on a farm;
(C) In connection with the production or harvesting of any commodity defined as an agricultural commodity in sec. 15(g) of the Agricultural Marketing Act, as amended at 12 U.S.C. 1141j, or in connection with the ginning of cotton, or in connection with the operation or maintenance of ditches, canals, reservoirs, or waterways, not owned or operated for profit, used exclusively for supplying and storing water for farming purposes;
(D)(1) In the employ of the operator of a farm in handling, planting, drying, packing, packaging, processing, freezing, grading, storing, or delivering to storage or to market or to a carrier for transportation to market, in its unmanufactured state, any agricultural or horticultural commodity, but only if such operator produced more than one-half of the commodity with respect to which such service is performed;
(2) In the employ of a group of operators of farms (other than a cooperative organization) in the performance of service described in paragraph (b)(2)(i)(A) of this section, but only if such operators produced all of the commodity with respect to which such service is performed. For purposes of this paragraph, any unincorporated group of operators will be deemed a cooperative organization if the number of operators comprising such group is more than 20 at any time during the calendar quarter in which such service is performed;
(3) The provisions of paragraphs (b)(2)(i)(D)(1) and (2) of this section do not apply to services performed in connection with commercial canning or commercial freezing or in connection with any agricultural or horticultural commodity after its delivery to a terminal market for distribution for consumption; or
(4) On a farm operated for profit if such service is not in the course of the employer's trade or business and is not domestic service in a private home of the employer.
(E) For the purposes of this section, the term farm includes stock, dairy, poultry, fruit, fur-bearing animals, and truck farms, plantations, ranches, nurseries, ranges, greenhouses or other similar structures used primarily for the raising of agricultural or horticultural commodities, and orchards. See sec. 3121(g) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 3121(g)).
(ii) Agriculture. For purposes of paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section agriculture means farming in all its branches and among other things includes the cultivation and tillage of the soil, dairying, the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of any agricultural or horticultural commodities (including commodities as defined as agricultural commodities in 12 U.S.C. 1141j(g)), the raising of livestock, bees, fur-bearing animals, or poultry, and any practices (including any forestry or lumbering operations) performed by a farmer or on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with such farming operations, including preparation for market, delivery to storage or to market or to carriers for transportation to market. See sec. 29 U.S.C. 203(f), as amended.
(iii) Agricultural commodity. For purposes of paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section, agricultural commodity includes, in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree, and gum spirits of turpentine and gum rosin as processed by the original producer of the crude gum (oleoresin) from which derived. Gum spirits of turpentine means spirits of turpentine made from gum (oleoresin) from a living tree and gum rosin means rosin remaining after the distillation of gum spirits of turpentine. See 12 U.S.C. 1141j(g) (sec. 15(g) of the Agricultural Marketing Act, as amended), and 7 U.S.C. 92.
(3) Of a temporary or seasonal nature - (i) On a seasonal or other temporary basis. For the purposes of this part, of a temporary or seasonal nature means on a seasonal or other temporary basis, as defined in the WHD's regulation at 29 CFR 500.20 under the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act (MSPA).
(ii) MSPA definition. The definition of on a seasonal or other temporary basis found in MSPA is summarized as follows:
(A) Labor is performed on a seasonal basis where, ordinarily, the employment pertains to or is of the kind exclusively performed at certain seasons or periods of the year and which, from its nature, may not be continuous or carried on throughout the year. A worker who moves from one seasonal activity to another, while employed in agriculture or performing agricultural labor, is employed on a seasonal basis even though the worker may continue to be employed during a major portion of the year.
(B) A worker is employed on other temporary basis where the worker is employed for a limited time only or the worker's performance is contemplated for a particular piece of work, usually of short duration. Generally, employment which is contemplated to continue indefinitely is not temporary.
(C) On a seasonal or other temporary basis does not include
(1) The employment of any foreman or other supervisory employee who is employed by a specific agricultural employer or agricultural association essentially on a year round basis; or
(2) The employment of any worker who is living at his or her permanent place of residence, when that worker is employed by a specific agricultural employer or agricultural association on essentially a year round basis to perform a variety of tasks for his or her employer and is not primarily employed to do field work.
(iii) Temporary. For the purposes of this part, the definition of temporary in paragraph (b)(3) of this section refers to any job opportunity covered by this part where the employer needs a worker for a position for a limited period of time, including, but not limited, to a peakload need, which is generally less than 1 year, unless the original temporary agricultural labor certification is extended pursuant to 20 CFR 655.110.