40 CFR § 1048.801 - What definitions apply to this part?

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§ 1048.801 What definitions apply to this part?

The following definitions apply to this part. The definitions apply to all subparts unless we note otherwise. All undefined terms have the meaning the Act gives to them. The definitions follow:

Act means the Clean Air Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q.

Adjustable parameter means any device, system, or element of design that someone can adjust (including those which are difficult to access) and that, if adjusted, may affect emissions or engine performance during emission testing or normal in-use operation. This includes, but is not limited to, parameters related to injection timing and fueling rate. You may ask us to exclude a parameter that is difficult to access if it cannot be adjusted to affect emissions without significantly degrading engine performance, or if you otherwise show us that it will not be adjusted in a way that affects emissions during in-use operation.

Aftertreatment means relating to a catalytic converter, particulate filter, or any other system, component, or technology mounted downstream of the exhaust valve (or exhaust port) whose design function is to decrease emissions in the engine exhaust before it is exhausted to the environment. Exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR), turbochargers, and oxygen sensors are not aftertreatment.

Aircraft means any vehicle capable of sustained air travel above treetop heights.

Alcohol-fueled engine means an engine that is designed to run using an alcohol fuel. For purposes of this definition, alcohol fuels do not include fuels with a nominal alcohol content below 25 percent by volume.

All-terrain vehicle has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1051.801.

Amphibious vehicle means a vehicle with wheels or tracks that is designed primarily for operation on land and secondarily for operation in water.

Auxiliary emission-control device means any element of design that senses temperature, motive speed, engine rpm, transmission gear, or any other parameter for the purpose of activating, modulating, delaying, or deactivating the operation of any part of the emission-control system.

Blue Sky Series engine means an engine meeting the requirements of § 1048.140.

Brake power means the usable power output of the engine, not including power required to fuel, lubricate, or heat the engine, circulate coolant to the engine, or to operate aftertreatment devices.

Calibration means the set of specifications and tolerances specific to a particular design, version, or application of a component or assembly capable of functionally describing its operation over its working range.

Carryover means relating to certification based on emission data generated from an earlier model year as described in § 1048.235(d).

Certification means relating to the process of obtaining a certificate of conformity for an engine family that complies with the emission standards and requirements in this part.

Certified emission level means the highest deteriorated emission level in an engine family for a given pollutant from either transient or steady-state testing.

Compression-ignition means relating to a type of reciprocating, internal-combustion engine that is not a spark-ignition engine.

Constant-speed engine means an engine that is certified only for constant-speed operation. This may include engines that allow the operator to adjust the set point for fixing the appropriate governed speed. See subparts B and C of this part for specific provisions related to certifying engines only for constant-speed operation. Engines whose constant-speed governor function is removed or disabled are no longer constant-speed engines.

Constant-speed operation has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001.

Crankcase emissions means airborne substances emitted to the atmosphere from any part of the engine crankcase's ventilation or lubrication systems. The crankcase is the housing for the crankshaft and other related internal parts.

Critical emission-related component means any of the following components:

(1) Electronic control units, aftertreatment devices, fuel-metering components, EGR-system components, crankcase-ventilation valves, all components related to charge-air compression and cooling, and all sensors and actuators associated with any of these components.

(2) Any other component whose primary purpose is to reduce emissions.

Date of manufacture has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30.

Days means calendar days unless otherwise specified. For example, where we specify working days, we mean calendar days excluding weekends and U.S. national holidays.

Designated Compliance Officer means the Manager, Heavy-Duty and Nonroad Engine Group (6405-J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460.

Designated Enforcement Officer means the Director, Air Enforcement Division (2242A), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460.

Deteriorated emission level means the emission level that results from applying the appropriate deterioration factor to the official emission result of the emission-data engine.

Deterioration factor means the relationship between emissions at the end of useful life and emissions at the low-hour test point, expressed in one of the following ways:

(1) For multiplicative deterioration factors, the ratio of emissions at the end of useful life to emissions at the low-hour test point.

(2) For additive deterioration factors, the difference between emissions at the end of useful life and emissions at the low-hour test point.

Discrete-mode means relating to the discrete-mode type of steady-state test described in § 1048.505.

Emission-control system means any device, system, or element of design that controls or reduces the emissions of regulated pollutants from an engine.

Emission-data engine means an engine that is tested for certification. This includes engines tested to establish deterioration factors.

Emission-related maintenance means maintenance that substantially affects emissions or is likely to substantially affect emission deterioration.

Engine has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30. This includes complete and partially complete engines.

Engine configuration means a unique combination of engine hardware and calibration within an engine family. Engines within a single engine configuration differ only with respect to normal production variability or factors unrelated to emissions.

Engine family has the meaning given in § 1048.230.

Engine manufacturer means the manufacturer of the engine. See the definition of “manufacturer” in this section.

Equipment manufacturer means a manufacturer of nonroad equipment. All nonroad equipment manufacturing entities under the control of the same person are considered to be a single nonroad equipment manufacturer.

Excluded means relating to an engine that either:

(1) Has been determined not to be a nonroad engine, as specified in 40 CFR 1068.30; or

(2) Is a nonroad engine that, according to § 1048.5, is not subject to this part 1048.

Exempted has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30.

Exhaust-gas recirculation means a technology that reduces emissions by routing exhaust gases that had been exhausted from the combustion chamber(s) back into the engine to be mixed with incoming air before or during combustion. The use of valve timing to increase the amount of residual exhaust gas in the combustion chamber(s) that is mixed with incoming air before or during combustion is not considered exhaust-gas recirculation for the purposes of this part.

Fuel system means all components involved in transporting, metering, and mixing the fuel from the fuel tank to the combustion chamber(s), including the fuel tank, fuel tank cap, fuel pump, fuel filters, fuel lines, carburetor or fuel-injection components, and all fuel-system vents.

Fuel type means a general category of fuels such as gasoline or natural gas. There can be multiple grades within a single fuel type, such as winter-grade and summer-grade gasoline.

Good engineering judgment has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30. See 40 CFR 1068.5 for the administrative process we use to evaluate good engineering judgment.

High-cost warranted part means a component covered by the emission-related warranty with a replacement cost (at the time of certification) exceeding $400 (in 1998 dollars). Adjust this value using the most recent annual average consumer price index information published by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. For this definition, replacement cost includes the retail cost of the part plus labor and standard diagnosis.

High-load engine means an engine for which the engine manufacturer can provide clear evidence that operation below 75 percent of maximum load in its final application will be rare.

Hydrocarbon (HC) means the hydrocarbon group on which the emission standards are based for each fuel type, as described in § 1048.101(e).

Identification number means a unique specification (for example, a model number/serial number combination) that allows someone to distinguish a particular engine from other similar engines.

Intermediate test speed has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001.

Low-hour means relating to an engine with stabilized emissions and represents the undeteriorated emission level. This would generally involve less than 125 hours of operation.

Manufacturer has the meaning given in section 216(1) of the Act. In general, this term includes any person who manufactures an engine, vehicle, or piece of equipment for sale in the United States or otherwise introduces a new nonroad engine into commerce in the United States. This includes importers who import engines, equipment, or vehicles for resale.

Marine engine means a nonroad engine that is installed or intended to be installed on a marine vessel. This includes a portable auxiliary engine only if its fueling, cooling, or exhaust system is an integral part of the vessel. There are two kinds of marine engines:

(1) Propulsion marine engine means a marine engine that moves a vessel through the water or directs the vessel's movement.

(2) Auxiliary marine engine means a marine engine not used for propulsion.

Marine vessel has the meaning given in 1 U.S.C. 3, except that it does not include amphibious vehicles. The definition in 1 U.S.C. 3 very broadly includes every craft capable of being used as a means of transportation on water.

Maximum engine power has one of the following meanings:

(1) For engines at or below 100 kW, maximum engine power has the meaning given in 40 CFR 90.3 for 2010 and earlier model years and in 40 CFR 1054.140 for 2011 and later model years.

(2) For engines above 100 kW, maximum engine power has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1039.140.

Maximum test speed has one of the following meanings:

(1) For variable-speed engines, maximum test speed has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001.

(2) For transient testing of constant-speed engines, maximum test speed means the highest speed at which the engine produces zero torque.

(3) For steady-state testing of constant-speed engines, maximum test speed means the speed at which the engine produces peak torque.

Maximum test torque has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001.

Model year means one of the following things:

(1) For freshly manufactured equipment and engines (see definition of “new nonroad engine,” paragraph (1)), model year means one of the following:

(i) Calendar year.

(ii) Your annual new model production period if it is different than the calendar year.

This must include January 1 of the calendar year for which the model year is named. It may not begin before January 2 of the previous calendar year and it must end by December 31 of the named calendar year.

(2) For an engine that is converted to a nonroad engine after being placed into service as a stationary engine, or being certified and placed into service as a motor vehicle engine, model year means the calendar year in which the engine was originally produced. For a motor vehicle engine that is converted to be a nonroad engine without having been certified, model year means the calendar year in which the engine becomes a new nonroad engine. (See definition of “new nonroad engine,” paragraph (2)).

(3) For a nonroad engine excluded under § 1048.5 that is later converted to operate in an application that is not excluded, model year means the calendar year in which the engine was originally produced (see definition of “new nonroad engine,” paragraph (3)).

(4) For engines that are not freshly manufactured but are installed in new nonroad equipment, model year means the calendar year in which the engine is installed in the new nonroad equipment (see definition of “new nonroad engine,” paragraph (4)).

(5) For imported engines:

(i) For imported engines described in paragraph (5)(i) of the definition of “new nonroad engine,” model year has the meaning given in paragraphs (1) through (4) of this definition.

(ii) For imported engines described in paragraph (5)(ii) of the definition of “new nonroad engine,” model year means the calendar year in which the engine is modified.

(iii) For imported engines described in paragraph (5)(iii) of the definition of “new nonroad engine,” model year means the calendar year in which the engine is assembled in its imported configuration, unless specified otherwise in this part or in 40 CFR part 1068.

Motor vehicle has the meaning given in 40 CFR 85.1703(a).

New nonroad engine means any of the following things:

(1) A freshly manufactured nonroad engine for which the ultimate purchaser has never received the equitable or legal title. This kind of engine might commonly be thought of as “brand new.” In the case of this paragraph (1), the engine is new from the time it is produced until the ultimate purchaser receives the title or the product is placed into service, whichever comes first.

(2) An engine originally manufactured as a motor vehicle engine or a stationary engine that is later used or intended to be used in a piece of nonroad equipment. In this case, the engine is no longer a motor vehicle or stationary engine and becomes a “new nonroad engine.” The engine is no longer new when it is placed into nonroad service. This paragraph (2) applies if a motor vehicle engine or a stationary engine is installed in nonroad equipment, or if a motor vehicle or a piece of stationary equipment is modified (or moved) to become nonroad equipment.

(3) A nonroad engine that has been previously placed into service in an application we exclude under § 1048.5, when that engine is installed in a piece of equipment that is covered by this part 1048. The engine is no longer new when it is placed into nonroad service covered by this part 1048. For example, this would apply to a marine-propulsion engine that is no longer used in a marine vessel but is instead installed in a piece of nonroad equipment subject to the provisions of this part.

(4) An engine not covered by paragraphs (1) through (3) of this definition that is intended to be installed in new nonroad equipment. This generally includes installation of used engines in new equipment. The engine is no longer new when the ultimate purchaser receives a title for the equipment or the product is placed into service, whichever comes first.

(5) An imported nonroad engine, subject to the following provisions:

(i) An imported nonroad engine covered by a certificate of conformity issued under this part that meets the criteria of one or more of paragraphs (1) through (4) of this definition, where the original engine manufacturer holds the certificate, is new as defined by those applicable paragraphs.

(ii) An imported engine covered by a certificate of conformity issued under this part, where someone other than the original engine manufacturer holds the certificate (such as when the engine is modified after its initial assembly), is a new nonroad engine when it is imported. It is no longer new when the ultimate purchaser receives a title for the engine or it is placed into service, whichever comes first.

(iii) An imported nonroad engine that is not covered by a certificate of conformity issued under this part at the time of importation is new. This addresses uncertified engines and equipment initially placed into service that someone seeks to import into the United States. Importation of this kind of engine (or equipment containing such an engine) is generally prohibited by 40 CFR part 1068. However, the importation of such an engine is not prohibited if the engine has a model year before 2004, since it is not subject to standards.

New nonroad equipment means either of the following things:

(1) A nonroad piece of equipment for which the ultimate purchaser has never received the equitable or legal title. The product is no longer new when the ultimate purchaser receives this title or the product is placed into service, whichever comes first.

(2) An imported nonroad piece of equipment with an engine not covered by a certificate of conformity issued under this part at the time of importation and manufactured after January 1, 2004.

Noncommercial fuel means a combustible product that is not marketed as a commercial fuel, but is used as a fuel for nonroad engines. For example, this includes methane that is produced and released from landfills or oil wells, or similar unprocessed fuels that are not intended to meet any otherwise applicable fuel specifications. See § 1048.625 for provisions related to engines designed to burn noncommercial fuels.

Noncompliant engine means an engine that was originally covered by a certificate of conformity, but is not in the certified configuration or otherwise does not comply with the conditions of the certificate.

Nonconforming engine means an engine not covered by a certificate of conformity that would otherwise be subject to emission standards.

Nonmethane hydrocarbon has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001.

Nonroad means relating to nonroad engines or equipment that includes nonroad engines.

Nonroad engine has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30. In general this means all internal-combustion engines except motor vehicle engines, stationary engines, engines used solely for competition, or engines used in aircraft. This part does not apply to all nonroad engines (see § 1048.5).

Nonroad equipment means a piece of equipment that is powered by one or more nonroad engines.

Off-highway motorcycle has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1051.801. (Note: highway motorcycles are regulated under 40 CFR part 86.)

Official emission result means the measured emission rate for an emission-data engine on a given duty cycle before the application of any deterioration factor.

Owners manual means a document or collection of documents prepared by the engine manufacturer for the owner or operator to describe appropriate engine maintenance, applicable warranties, and any other information related to operating or keeping the engine. The owners manual is typically provided to the ultimate purchaser at the time of sale. The owners manual may be in paper or electronic format.

Oxides of nitrogen has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001.

Piece of equipment means any vehicle, vessel, or other type of equipment using engines to which this part applies.

Placed into service means put into initial use for its intended purpose.

Point of first retail sale means the location at which the initial retail sale occurs. This generally means an equipment dealership, but may also include an engine seller or distributor in cases where loose engines are sold to the general public for uses such as replacement engines.

Ramped-modal means relating to the ramped-modal type of steady-state test described in § 1048.505.

Rated speed means the maximum full-load governed speed for governed engines and the speed of maximum power for ungoverned engines.

Revoke has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30.

Round has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001, unless otherwise specified.

Scheduled maintenance means adjusting, repairing, removing, disassembling, cleaning, or replacing components or systems periodically to keep a part or system from failing, malfunctioning, or wearing prematurely. It also may mean actions you expect are necessary to correct an overt indication of failure or malfunction for which periodic maintenance is not appropriate.

Sealed has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1060.801.

Severe-duty application includes concrete saws, concrete pumps, and any other application where an engine manufacturer can provide clear evidence that the majority of installations need air-cooled engines as a result of operation in a severe-duty environment.

Severe-duty engine means an engine from an engine family in which the majority of engines are installed in severe-duty applications.

Small-volume engine manufacturer means a company meeting either of the following characteristics:

(1) An engine manufacturer with U.S.-directed production volumes of engines subject to the requirements of this part totaling no more than 2,000 units in any year. This includes engines produced by parent or subsidiary companies.

(2) An engine manufacturer with fewer than 200 employees. This includes any employees working for parent or subsidiary companies.

Snowmobile has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1051.801.

Spark-ignition means relating to a gasoline-fueled engine or any other type of engine with a spark plug (or other sparking device) and with operating characteristics significantly similar to the theoretical Otto combustion cycle. Spark-ignition engines usually use a throttle to regulate intake air flow to control power during normal operation.

Steady-state has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001.

Stoichiometric means relating to the particular ratio of air and fuel such that if the fuel were fully oxidized, there would be no remaining fuel or oxygen. For example, stoichiometric combustion in a gasoline-fueled engine typically occurs at an air-fuel mass ratio of about 14.7.

Suspend has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30.

Test engine means an engine in a test sample.

Test sample means the collection of engines selected from the population of an engine family for emission testing. This may include testing for certification, production-line testing, or in-use testing.

Tier 1 means relating to the emission standards and other requirements that apply beginning with the 2004 model year.

Tier 2 means relating to the emission standards and other requirements that apply beginning with the 2007 model year.

Total hydrocarbon has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001. This generally means the combined mass of organic compounds measured by the specified procedure for measuring total hydrocarbon, expressed as a hydrocarbon with a hydrogen-to-carbon mass ratio of 1.85:1.

Total hydrocarbon equivalent has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001.

Ultimate purchaser means, with respect to any new nonroad equipment or new nonroad engine, the first person who in good faith purchases such new nonroad equipment or new nonroad engine for purposes other than resale.

United States has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30.

Upcoming model year means for an engine family the model year after the one currently in production.

U.S.-directed production volume means the number of engine units, subject to the requirements of this part, produced by a manufacturer for which the manufacturer has a reasonable assurance that sale was or will be made to ultimate purchasers in the United States.

Useful life means the period during which the engine is designed to properly function in terms of reliability and fuel consumption, without being remanufactured, specified as a number of hours of operation or calendar years, whichever comes first. It is the period during which a nonroad engine is required to comply with all applicable emission standards. See § 1048.101(g). If an engine has no hour meter, the specified number of hours does not limit the period during which an in-use engine is required to comply with emission standards unless the degree of service accumulation can be verified separately.

Variable-speed engine means an engine that is not a constant-speed engine.

Variable-speed operation means engine operation that does not meet the definition of constant-speed operation.

Void has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30.

Volatile liquid fuel means any fuel other than diesel or biodiesel that is a liquid at atmospheric pressure and has a Reid Vapor Pressure higher than 2.0 pounds per square inch.

Wide-open throttle means maximum throttle opening. Unless this is specified at a given speed, it refers to maximum throttle opening at maximum speed. For electronically controlled or other engines with multiple possible fueling rates, wide-open throttle also means the maximum fueling rate at maximum throttle opening under test conditions.

We (us, our) means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and any authorized representatives.

[70 FR 40482, July 13, 2005, as amended at 73 FR 59242, Oct. 8, 2008; 74 FR 8426, Feb. 24, 2009; 75 FR 23023, Apr. 30, 2010]