40 CFR § 60.5535 - How do I monitor and collect data to demonstrate compliance?

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§ 60.5535 How do I monitor and collect data to demonstrate compliance?

(a) Combustion turbines qualifying under § 60.5520(d)(1) are not subject to any requirements in this section other than the requirement to maintain fuel purchase records for permitted fuel(s). If your combustion turbine uses non-uniform fuels as specified under § 60.5520(d)(2), you must monitor heat input in accordance with paragraph (c)(1) of this section, and you must monitor CO2 emissions in accordance with either paragraph (b), (c)(2), or (c)(5) of this section. For all other affected sources, you must prepare a monitoring plan to quantify the hourly CO2 mass emission rate (tons/h), in accordance with the applicable provisions in § 75.53(g) and (h) of this chapter. The electronic portion of the monitoring plan must be submitted using the ECMPS Client Tool and must be in place prior to reporting emissions data and/or the results of monitoring system certification tests under this subpart. The monitoring plan must be updated as necessary. Monitoring plan submittals must be made by the Designated Representative (DR), the Alternate DR, or a delegated agent of the DR (see § 60.5555(c)).

(b) You must determine the hourly CO2 mass emissions in kilograms (kg) from your affected EGU(s) according to paragraphs (b)(1) through (5) of this section, or, if applicable, as provided in paragraph (c) of this section.

(1) For an affected coal-fired EGU or for an IGCC unit you must, and for all other affected EGUs you may, install, certify, operate, maintain, and calibrate a CO2continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) to directly measure and record hourly average CO2 concentrations in the affected EGU exhaust gases emitted to the atmosphere, and a flow monitoring system to measure hourly average stack gas flow rates, according to § 75.10(a)(3)(i) of this chapter. As an alternative to direct measurement of CO2 concentration, provided that your EGU does not use carbon separation (e.g., carbon capture and storage), you may use data from a certified oxygen (O2) monitor to calculate hourly average CO2 concentrations, in accordance with § 75.10(a)(3)(iii) of this chapter. If you measure CO2 concentration on a dry basis, you must also install, certify, operate, maintain, and calibrate a continuous moisture monitoring system, according to § 75.11(b) of this chapter. Alternatively, you may either use an appropriate fuel-specific default moisture value from § 75.11(b) or submit a petition to the Administrator under § 75.66 of this chapter for a site-specific default moisture value.

(2) For each continuous monitoring system that you use to determine the CO2 mass emissions, you must meet the applicable certification and quality assurance procedures in § 75.20 of this chapter and appendices A and B to part 75 of this chapter.

(3) You must use only unadjusted exhaust gas volumetric flow rates to determine the hourly CO2 mass emissions rate from the affected EGU; you must not apply the bias adjustment factors described in Section 7.6.5 of appendix A to part 75 of this chapter to the exhaust gas flow rate data.

(4) You must select an appropriate reference method to setup (characterize) the flow monitor and to perform the on-going RATAs, in accordance with part 75 of this chapter. If you use a Type-S pitot tube or a pitot tube assembly for the flow RATAs, you must calibrate the pitot tube or pitot tube assembly; you may not use the 0.84 default Type-S pitot tube coefficient specified in Method 2.

(5) Calculate the hourly CO2 mass emissions (kg) as described in paragraphs (b)(5)(i) through (iv) of this section. Perform this calculation only for “valid operating hours”, as defined in § 60.5540(a)(1).

(i) Begin with the hourly CO2 mass emission rate (tons/h), obtained either from Equation F-11 in appendix F to part 75 of this chapter (if CO2 concentration is measured on a wet basis), or by following the procedure in section 4.2 of appendix F to part 75 of this chapter (if CO2 concentration is measured on a dry basis).

(ii) Next, multiply each hourly CO2 mass emission rate by the EGU or stack operating time in hours (as defined in § 72.2 of this chapter), to convert it to tons of CO2.

(iii) Finally, multiply the result from paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section by 909.1 to convert it from tons of CO2 to kg. Round off to the nearest kg.

(iv) The hourly CO2 tons/h values and EGU (or stack) operating times used to calculate CO2 mass emissions are required to be recorded under § 75.57(e) of this chapter and must be reported electronically under § 75.64(a)(6) of this chapter. You must use these data to calculate the hourly CO2 mass emissions.

(c) If your affected EGU exclusively combusts liquid fuel and/or gaseous fuel, as an alternative to complying with paragraph (b) of this section, you may determine the hourly CO2 mass emissions according to paragraphs (c)(1) through (4) of this section. If you use non-uniform fuels as specified in § 60.5520(d)(2), you may determine CO2 mass emissions during the compliance period according to paragraph (c)(5) of this section.

(1) If you are subject to an output-based standard and you do not install CEMS in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section, you must implement the applicable procedures in appendix D to part 75 of this chapter to determine hourly EGU heat input rates (MMBtu/h), based on hourly measurements of fuel flow rate and periodic determinations of the gross calorific value (GCV) of each fuel combusted.

(2) For each measured hourly heat input rate, use Equation G-4 in appendix G to part 75 of this chapter to calculate the hourly CO2 mass emission rate (tons/h). You may determine site-specific carbon-based F-factors (Fc) using Equation F-7b in section 3.3.6 of appendix F to part 75 of this chapter, and you may use these Fc values in the emissions calculations instead of using the default Fc values in the Equation G-4 nomenclature.

(3) For each “valid operating hour” (as defined in § 60.5540(a)(1), multiply the hourly tons/h CO2 mass emission rate from paragraph (c)(2) of this section by the EGU or stack operating time in hours (as defined in § 72.2 of this chapter), to convert it to tons of CO2. Then, multiply the result by 909.1 to convert from tons of CO2 to kg. Round off to the nearest two significant figures.

(4) The hourly CO2 tons/h values and EGU (or stack) operating times used to calculate CO2 mass emissions are required to be recorded under § 75.57(e) of this chapter and must be reported electronically under § 75.64(a)(6) of this chapter. You must use these data to calculate the hourly CO2 mass emissions.

(5) If you operate a combustion turbine firing non-uniform fuels, as an alternative to following paragraphs (c)(1) through (4) of this section, you may determine CO2 emissions during the compliance period using one of the following methods:

(i) Units firing fuel gas may determine the heat input during the compliance period following the procedure under § 60.107a(d) and convert this heat input to CO2 emissions using Equation G-4 in appendix G to part 75 of this chapter.

(ii) You may use the procedure for determining CO2 emissions during the compliance period based on the use of the Tier 3 methodology under § 98.33(a)(3) of this chapter.

(d) Consistent with § 60.5520, you must determine the basis of the emissions standard that applies to your affected source in accordance with either paragraph (d)(1) or (2) of this section, as applicable:

(1) If you operate a source subject to an emissions standard established on an output basis (e.g., lb of CO2 per gross or net MWh of energy output), you must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a sufficient number of watt meters to continuously measure and record the hourly gross electric output or net electric output, as applicable, from the affected EGU(s). These measurements must be performed using 0.2 class electricity metering instrumentation and calibration procedures as specified under ANSI Standards No. C12.20 (incorporated by reference, see § 60.17). For a combined heat and power (CHP) EGU, as defined in § 60.5580, you must also install, calibrate, maintain, and operate meters to continuously (i.e., hour-by-hour) determine and record the total useful thermal output. For process steam applications, you will need to install, calibrate, maintain, and operate meters to continuously determine and record the hourly steam flow rate, temperature, and pressure. Your plan shall ensure that you install, calibrate, maintain, and operate meters to record each component of the determination, hour-by-hour.

(2) If you operate a source subject to an emissions standard established on a heat-input basis (e.g., lb CO2/MMBtu) and your affected source uses non-uniform heating value fuels as delineated under § 60.5520(d), you must determine the total heat input for each fuel fired during the compliance period in accordance with one of the following procedures:

(i) Appendix D to part 75 of this chapter;

(ii) The procedures for monitoring heat input under § 60.107a(d);

(iii) If you monitor CO2 emissions in accordance with the Tier 3 methodology under § 98.33(a)(3) of this chapter, you may convert your CO2 emissions to heat input using the appropriate emission factor in table C-1 of part 98 of this chapter. If your fuel is not listed in table C-1, you must determine a fuel-specific carbon-based F-factor (Fc) in accordance with section 12.3.2 of EPA Method 19 of appendix A-7 to this part, and you must convert your CO2 emissions to heat input using Equation G-4 in appendix G to part 75 of this chapter.

(e) Consistent with § 60.5520, if two or more affected EGUs serve a common electric generator, you must apportion the combined hourly gross or net energy output to the individual affected EGUs according to the fraction of the total steam load contributed by each EGU. Alternatively, if the EGUs are identical, you may apportion the combined hourly gross or net electrical load to the individual EGUs according to the fraction of the total heat input contributed by each EGU.

(f) In accordance with §§ 60.13(g) and 60.5520, if two or more affected EGUs that implement the continuous emission monitoring provisions in paragraph (b) of this section share a common exhaust gas stack and are subject to the same emissions standard in Table 1 or 2 of this subpart, you may monitor the hourly CO2 mass emissions at the common stack in lieu of monitoring each EGU separately. If you choose this option, the hourly gross or net energy output (electric, thermal, and/or mechanical, as applicable) must be the sum of the hourly loads for the individual affected EGUs and you must express the operating time as “stack operating hours” (as defined in § 72.2 of this chapter). If you attain compliance with the applicable emissions standard in § 60.5520 at the common stack, each affected EGU sharing the stack is in compliance.

(g) In accordance with §§ 60.13(g) and 60.5520 if the exhaust gases from an affected EGU that implements the continuous emission monitoring provisions in paragraph (b) of this section are emitted to the atmosphere through multiple stacks (or if the exhaust gases are routed to a common stack through multiple ducts and you elect to monitor in the ducts), you must monitor the hourly CO2 mass emissions and the “stack operating time” (as defined in § 72.2 of this chapter) at each stack or duct separately. In this case, you must determine compliance with the applicable emissions standard in Table 1 or 2 of this subpart by summing the CO2 mass emissions measured at the individual stacks or ducts and dividing by the total gross or net energy output for the affected EGU.