40 CFR § 60.5540 - How do I demonstrate compliance with my CO2 emissions standard and determine excess emissions?

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§ 60.5540 How do I demonstrate compliance with my CO2 emissions standard and determine excess emissions?

(a) In accordance with § 60.5520, if you are subject to an output-based emission standard or you burn non-uniform fuels as specified in § 60.5520(d)(2), you must demonstrate compliance with the applicable CO2 emission standard in table 1 or 2 of this subpart as required in this section. For the initial and each subsequent 12-operating-month rolling average compliance period, you must follow the procedures in paragraphs (a)(1) through (7) of this section to calculate the CO2 mass emissions rate for your affected EGU(s) in units of the applicable emissions standard (i.e., either kg/MWh or lb/MMBtu). You must use the hourly CO2 mass emissions calculated under § 60.5535(b) or (c), as applicable, and either the generating load data from § 60.5535(d)(1) for output-based calculations or the heat input data from § 60.5535(d)(2) for heat-input-based calculations. Combustion turbines firing non-uniform fuels that contain CO2 prior to combustion (e.g., blast furnace gas or landfill gas) may sample the fuel stream to determine the quantity of CO2 present in the fuel prior to combustion and exclude this portion of the CO2 mass emissions from compliance determinations.

(1) Each compliance period shall include only “valid operating hours” in the compliance period, i.e., operating hours for which:

(i) “Valid data” (as defined in § 60.5580) are obtained for all of the parameters used to determine the hourly CO2 mass emissions (kg) and, if a heat input-based standard applies, all the parameters used to determine total heat input for the hour are also obtained; and

(ii) The corresponding hourly gross or net energy output value is also valid data (Note: For hours with no useful output, zero is considered to be a valid value).

(2) You must exclude operating hours in which:

(i) The substitute data provisions of part 75 of this chapter are applied for any of the parameters used to determine the hourly CO2 mass emissions or, if a heat input-based standard applies, for any parameters used to determine the hourly heat input; or

(ii) An exceedance of the full-scale range of a continuous emission monitoring system occurs for any of the parameters used to determine the hourly CO2 mass emissions or, if applicable, to determine the hourly heat input; or

(iii) The total gross or net energy output (Pgross/net) or, if applicable, the total heat input is unavailable.

(3) For each compliance period, at least 95 percent of the operating hours in the compliance period must be valid operating hours, as defined in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(4) You must calculate the total CO2 mass emissions by summing the valid hourly CO2 mass emissions values from § 60.5535 for all of the valid operating hours in the compliance period.

(5) Sources subject to output based standards. For each valid operating hour of the compliance period that was used in paragraph (a)(4) of this section to calculate the total CO2 mass emissions, you must determine Pgross/net (the corresponding hourly gross or net energy output in MWh) according to the procedures in paragraphs (a)(3)(i) and (ii) of this section, as appropriate for the type of affected EGU(s). For an operating hour in which a valid CO2 mass emissions value is determined according to paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section, if there is no gross or net electrical output, but there is mechanical or useful thermal output, you must still determine the gross or net energy output for that hour. In addition, for an operating hour in which a valid CO2 mass emissions value is determined according to paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section, but there is no (i.e., zero) gross electrical, mechanical, or useful thermal output, you must use that hour in the compliance determination. For hours or partial hours where the gross electric output is equal to or less than the auxiliary loads, net electric output shall be counted as zero for this calculation.

(i) Calculate Pgross/net for your affected EGU using the following equation. All terms in the equation must be expressed in units of megawatt-hours (MWh). To convert each hourly gross or net energy output (consistent with § 60.5520) value reported under part 75 of this chapter to MWh, multiply by the corresponding EGU or stack operating time.

${P}_{\mathrm{gross}/\mathrm{net}}=\frac{{\left(\mathrm{Pe}\right)}_{\mathrm{ST}}+{\left(\mathrm{Pe}\right)}_{\mathrm{CT}}+{\left(\mathrm{Pe}\right)}_{\mathrm{IE}}-{\left(\mathrm{Pe}\right)}_{\mathrm{FW}}-{\left(\mathrm{Pe}\right)}_{A}}{\mathrm{TDF}}+\left[{\left(\mathrm{Pt}\right)}_{\mathrm{PS}}+{\left(\mathrm{Pt}\right)}_{\mathrm{HR}}+{\left(\mathrm{Pt}\right)}_{\mathrm{IE}}\right]\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{(Eq. 2)}$

Where:
Pgross/net = In accordance with § 60.5520, gross or net energy output of your affected EGU for each valid operating hour (as defined in § 60.5540(a)(1)) in MWh.
(Pe)ST = Electric energy output plus mechanical energy output (if any) of steam turbines in MWh.
(Pe)CT = Electric energy output plus mechanical energy output (if any) of stationary combustion turbine(s) in MWh.
(Pe)IE = Electric energy output plus mechanical energy output (if any) of your affected EGU's integrated equipment that provides electricity or mechanical energy to the affected EGU or auxiliary equipment in MWh.
(Pe)FW = Electric energy used to power boiler feedwater pumps at steam generating units in MWh. Not applicable to stationary combustion turbines, IGCC EGUs, or EGUs complying with a net energy output based standard.
(Pe)A = Electric energy used for any auxiliary loads in MWh. Not applicable for determining Pgross.
(Pt)PS = Useful thermal output of steam (measured relative to SATP conditions, as applicable) that is used for applications that do not generate additional electricity, produce mechanical energy output, or enhance the performance of the affected EGU. This is calculated using the equation specified in paragraph (a)(5)(ii) of this section in MWh.
(Pt)HR = Non steam useful thermal output (measured relative to SATP conditions, as applicable) from heat recovery that is used for applications other than steam generation or performance enhancement of the affected EGU in MWh.
(Pt)IE = Useful thermal output (relative to SATP conditions, as applicable) from any integrated equipment is used for applications that do not generate additional steam, electricity, produce mechanical energy output, or enhance the performance of the affected EGU in MWh.
TDF = Electric Transmission and Distribution Factor of 0.95 for a combined heat and power affected EGU where at least on an annual basis 20.0 percent of the total gross or net energy output consists of electric or direct mechanical output and 20.0 percent of the total gross or net energy output consists of useful thermal output on a 12-operating-month rolling average basis, or 1.0 for all other affected EGUs.

(ii) If applicable to your affected EGU (for example, for combined heat and power), you must calculate (Pt)PS using the following equation:

${\left(\mathrm{Pt}\right)}_{\mathrm{PS}}=\frac{{Q}_{m}×H}{\mathrm{CF}}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{(Eq. 3)}$

Where:
Qm = Measured steam flow in kilograms (kg) (or pounds (lb)) for the operating hour.
H = Enthalpy of the steam at measured temperature and pressure (relative to SATP conditions or the energy in the condensate return line, as applicable) in Joules per kilogram (J/kg) (or Btu/lb).
CF = Conversion factor of 3.6 × 10 9 J/MWh or 3.413 × 10 6 Btu/MWh.

(6) Calculation of annual basis for standard. Sources complying with energy output-based standards must calculate the basis (i.e., denominator) of their actual annual emission rate in accordance with paragraph (a)(6)(i) of this section. Sources complying with heat input based standards must calculate the basis of their actual annual emission rate in accordance with paragraph (a)(6)(ii) of this section.

(i) In accordance with § 60.5520 if you are subject to an output-based standard, you must calculate the total gross or net energy output for the affected EGU's compliance period by summing the hourly gross or net energy output values for the affected EGU that you determined under paragraph (a)(5) of this section for all of the valid operating hours in the applicable compliance period.

(ii) If you are subject to a heat input-based standard, you must calculate the total heat input for each fuel fired during the compliance period. The calculation of total heat input for each individual fuel must include all valid operating hours and must also be consistent with any fuel-specific procedures specified within your selected monitoring option under § 60.5535(d)(2).

(7) If you are subject to an output-based standard, you must calculate the CO2 mass emissions rate for the affected EGU(s) (kg/MWh) by dividing the total CO2 mass emissions value calculated according to the procedures in paragraph (a)(4) of this section by the total gross or net energy output value calculated according to the procedures in paragraph (a)(6)(i) of this section. Round off the result to two significant figures if the calculated value is less than 1,000; round the result to three significant figures if the calculated value is greater than 1,000. If you are subject to a heat input-based standard, you must calculate the CO2 mass emissions rate for the affected EGU(s) (lb/MMBtu) by dividing the total CO2 mass emissions value calculated according to the procedures in paragraph (a)(4) of this section by the total heat input calculated according to the procedures in paragraph (a)(6)(ii) of this section. Round off the result to two significant figures.

(b) In accordance with § 60.5520, to demonstrate compliance with the applicable CO2 emission standard, for the initial and each subsequent 12-operating-month compliance period, the CO2 mass emissions rate for your affected EGU must be determined according to the procedures specified in paragraph (a)(1) through (7) of this section and must be less than or equal to the applicable CO2 emissions standard in table 1 or 2 of this part, or the emissions standard calculated in accordance with § 60.5525(a)(2).