40 CFR Appendix P to Part 51, Minimum Emission Monitoring Requirements
1.0 Purpose. This appendix P sets forth the minimum requirements for continuous emission monitoring and recording that each State Implementation Plan must include in order to be approved under the provisions of 40 CFR 51.165(b). These requirements include the source categories to be affected; emission monitoring, recording, and reporting requirements for those sources; performance specifications for accuracy, reliability, and durability of acceptable monitoring systems; and techniques to convert emission data to units of the applicable State emission standard. Such data must be reported to the State as an indication of whether proper maintenance and operating procedures are being utilized by source operators to maintain emission levels at or below emission standards. Such data may be used directly or indirectly for compliance determination or any other purpose deemed appropriate by the State. Though the monitoring requirements are specified in detail, States are given some flexibility to resolve difficulties that may arise during the implementation of these regulations.
1.1 Applicability. The State plan shall require the owner or operator of an emission source in a category listed in this appendix to: (1) Install, calibrate, operate, and maintain all monitoring equipment necessary for continuously monitoring the pollutants specified in this appendix for the applicable source category; and (2) complete the installation and performance tests of such equipment and begin monitoring and recording within 18 months of plan approval or promulgation. The source categories and the respective monitoring requirements are listed below.
1.1.1 Fossil fuel-fired steam generators, as specified in paragraph 2.1 of this appendix, shall be monitored for opacity, nitrogen oxides emissions, sulfur dioxide emissions, and oxygen or carbon dioxide.
1.1.2 Fluid bed catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerators, as specified in paragraph 2.4 of this appendix, shall be monitored for opacity.
1.1.3 Sulfuric acid plants, as specified in paragraph 2.3 of this appendix, shall be monitored for sulfur dioxide emissions.
1.1.4 Nitric acid plants, as specified in paragraph 2.2 of this appendix, shall be monitored for nitrogen oxides emissions.
1.2 Exemptions. The States may include provisions within their regulations to grant exemptions from the monitoring requirements of paragraph 1.1 of this appendix for any source which is:
1.2.1 Subject to a new source performance standard promulgated in 40 CFR part 60 pursuant to section 111 of the Clean Air Act; or
1.2.2 not subject to an applicable emission standard of an approved plan; or
1.2.3 scheduled for retirement within 5 years after inclusion of monitoring requirements for the source in appendix P, provided that adequate evidence and guarantees are provided that clearly show that the source will cease operations prior to such date.
1.3 Extensions. States may allow reasonable extensions of the time provided for installation of monitors for facilities unable to meet the prescribed timeframe (i.e., 18 months from plan approval or promulgation) provided the owner or operator of such facility demonstrates that good faith efforts have been made to obtain and install such devices within such prescribed timeframe.
1.4 Monitoring System Malfunction. The State plan may provide a temporary exemption from the monitoring and reporting requirements of this appendix during any period of monitoring system malfunction, provided that the source owner or operator shows, to the satisfaction of the State, that the malfunction was unavoidable and is being repaired as expeditiously as practicable.
2.0 Minimum Monitoring Requirement. States must, as a minimum, require the sources listed in paragraph 1.1 of this appendix to meet the following basic requirements.
2.1 Fossil fuel-fired steam generators. Each fossil fuel-fired steam generator, except as provided in the following subparagraphs, with an annual average capacity factor of greater than 30 percent, as reported to the Federal Power Commission for calendar year 1974, or as otherwise demonstrated to the State by the owner or operator, shall conform with the following monitoring requirements when such facility is subject to an emission standard of an applicable plan for the pollutant in question.
2.1.1 A continuous monitoring system for the measurement of opacity which meets the performance specifications of paragraph 3.1.1 of this appendix shall be installed, calibrated, maintained, and operated in accordance with the procedures of this appendix by the owner or operator of any such steam generator of greater than 250 million BTU per hour heat input except where:
220.127.116.11 gaseous fuel is the only fuel burned, or
18.104.22.168 oil or a mixture of gas and oil are the only fuels burned and the source is able to comply with the applicable particulate matter and opacity regulations without utilization of particulate matter collection equipment, and where the source has never been found, through any administrative or judicial proceedings, to be in violation of any visible emission standard of the applicable plan.
2.1.2 A continuous monitoring system for the measurement of sulfur dioxide which meets the performance specifications of paragraph 3.1.3 of this appendix shall be installed, calibrated, maintained, and operated on any fossil fuel-fired steam generator of greater than 250 million BTU per hour heat input which has installed sulfur dioxide pollutant control equipment.
2.1.3 A continuous monitoring system for the measurement of nitrogen oxides which meets the performance specification of paragraph 3.1.2 of this appendix shall be installed, calibrated, maintained, and operated on fossil fuel-fired steam generators of greater than 1000 million BTU per hour heat input when such facility is located in an Air Quality Control Region where the Administrator has specifically determined that a control strategy for nitrogen dioxide is necessary to attain the national standards, unless the source owner or operator demonstrates during source compliance tests as required by the State that such a source emits nitrogen oxides at levels 30 percent or more below the emission standard within the applicable plan.
2.1.4 A continuous monitoring system for the measurement of the percent oxygen or carbon dioxide which meets the performance specifications of paragraphs 3.1.4 or 3.1.5 of this appendix shall be installed, calibrated, operated, and maintained on fossil fuel-fired steam generators where measurements of oxygen or carbon dioxide in the flue gas are required to convert either sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxides continuous emission monitoring data, or both, to units of the emission standard within the applicable plan.
2.2 Nitric acid plants. Each nitric acid plant of greater than 300 tons per day production capacity, the production capacity being expressed as 100 percent acid, located in an Air Quality Control Region where the Administrator has specifically determined that a control strategy for nitrogen dioxide is necessary to attain the national standard shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a continuous monitoring system for the measurement of nitrogen oxides which meets the performance specifications of paragraph 3.1.2 for each nitric acid producing facility within such plant.
2.3 Sulfuric acid plants. Each Sulfuric acid plant of greater than 300 tons per day production capacity, the production being expressed as 100 percent acid, shall install, calibrate, maintain and operate a continuous monitoring system for the measurement of sulfur dioxide which meets the performance specifications of paragraph 3.1.3 for each sulfuric acid producing facility within such plant.
2.4 Fluid bed catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerators at petroleum refineries. Each catalyst regenerator for fluid bed catalytic cracking units of greater than 20,000 barrels per day fresh feed capacity shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a continuous monitoring system for the measurement of opacity which meets the performance specifications of paragraph 3.1.1.
3.0 Minimum specifications. All State plans shall require owners or operators of monitoring equipment installed to comply with this appendix, except as provided in paragraph 3.2, to demonstrate compliance with the following performance specifications.
3.1 Performance specifications. The performance specifications set forth in appendix B of part 60 are incorporated herein by reference, and shall be used by States to determine acceptability of monitoring equipment installed pursuant to this appendix except that (1) where reference is made to the “Administrator” in appendix B, part 60, the term State should be inserted for the purpose of this appendix (e.g., in Performance Specification 1, 1.2, “ * * * monitoring systems subject to approval by the Administrator,” should be interpreted as, “* * * monitoring systems subject to approval by the State”), and (2) where reference is made to the “Reference Method” in appendix B, part 60, the State may allow the use of either the State approved reference method or the Federally approved reference method as published in part 60 of this chapter. The Performance Specifications to be used with each type of monitoring system are listed below.
3.1.1 Continuous monitoring systems for measuring opacity shall comply with Performance Specification 1.
3.1.2 Continuous monitoring systems for measuring nitrogen oxides shall comply with Performance Specification 2.
3.1.3 Continuous monitoring systems for measuring sulfur dioxide shall comply with Performance Specification 2.
3.1.4 Continuous monitoring systems for measuring oxygen shall comply with Performance Specification 3.
3.1.5 Continuous monitoring systems for measuring carbon dioxide shall comply with Performance Specification 3.
3.2 Exemptions. Any source which has purchased an emission monitoring system(s) prior to September 11, 1974, may be exempt from meeting such test procedures prescribed in appendix B of part 60 for a period not to exceed five years from plan approval or promulgation.
3.3 Calibration Gases. For nitrogen oxides monitoring systems installed on fossil fuel-fired steam generators, the pollutant gas used to prepare calibration gas mixtures ( section 6.1, Performance Specification 2, appendix B, part 60 of this chapter) shall be nitric oxide (NO). For nitrogen oxides monitoring systems installed on nitric acid plants, the pollutant gas used to prepare calibration gas mixtures (section 6.1, Performance Specification 2, appendix B, part 60 of this chapter) shall be nitrogen dioxide (NO2). These gases shall also be used for daily checks under paragraph 3.7 of this appendix as applicable. For sulfur dioxide monitoring systems installed on fossil fuel-fired steam generators or sulfuric acid plants, the pollutant gas used to prepare calibration gas mixtures ( section 6.1, Performance Specification 2, appendix B, part 60 of this chapter) shall be sulfur dioxide (SO2). Span and zero gases should be traceable to National Bureau of Standards reference gases whenever these reference gases are available. Every 6 months from date of manufacture, span and zero gases shall be reanalyzed by conducting triplicate analyses using the reference methods in appendix A, part 60 of this chapter as follows: for SO2, use Reference Method 6; for nitrogen oxides, use Reference Method 7; and for carbon dioxide or oxygen, use Reference Method 3. The gases may be analyzed at less frequent intervals if longer shelf lives are guaranteed by the manufacturer.
3.4 Cycling times. Cycling times include the total time a monitoring system requires to sample, analyze and record an emission measurement.
3.4.1 Continuous monitoring systems for measuring opacity shall complete a minimum of one cycle of operation (sampling, analyzing, and data recording) for each successive 10-second period.
3.4.2 Continuous monitoring systems for measuring oxides of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, oxygen, or sulfur dioxide shall complete a minimum of one cycle of operation (sampling, analyzing, and data recording) for each successive 15-minute period.
3.5 Monitor location. State plans shall require all continuous monitoring systems or monitoring devices to be installed such that representative measurements of emissions or process parameters (i.e., oxygen, or carbon dioxide) from the affected facility are obtained. Additional guidance for location of continuous monitoring systems to obtain representative samples are contained in the applicable Performance Specifications of appendix B of part 60 of this chapter.
3.6 Combined effluents. When the effluents from two or more affected facilities of similar design and operating characteristics are combined before being released to the atmosphere, the State plan may allow monitoring systems to be installed on the combined effluent. When the affected facilities are not of similar design and operating characteristics, or when the effluent from one affected facility is released to the atmosphere through more than one point, the State should establish alternate procedures to implement the intent of these requirements.
3.7 Zero and drift. State plans shall require owners or operators of all continuous monitoring systems installed in accordance with the requirements of this appendix to record the zero and span drift in accordance with the method prescribed by the manufacturer of such instruments; to subject the instruments to the manufacturer's recommended zero and span check at least once daily unless the manufacturer has recommended adjustments at shorter intervals, in which case such recommendations shall be followed; to adjust the zero and span whenever the 24-hour zero drift or 24-hour calibration drift limits of the applicable performance specifications in appendix B of part 60 are exceeded; and to adjust continuous monitoring systems referenced by paragraph 3.2 of this appendix whenever the 24-hour zero drift or 24-hour calibration drift exceed 10 percent of the emission standard.
3.8 Span. Instrument span should be approximately 200 per cent of the expected instrument data display output corresponding to the emission standard for the source.
3.9 Alternative procedures and requirements. In cases where States wish to utilize different, but equivalent, procedures and requirements for continuous monitoring systems, the State plan must provide a description of such alternative procedures for approval by the Administrator. Some examples of situations that may require alternatives follow:
3.9.1 Alternative monitoring requirements to accommodate continuous monitoring systems that require corrections for stack moisture conditions (e.g., an instrument measuring steam generator SO2 emissions on a wet basis could be used with an instrument measuring oxygen concentration on a dry basis if acceptable methods of measuring stack moisture conditions are used to allow accurate adjustments of the measured SO2 concentration to dry basis.)
3.9.2 Alternative locations for installing continuous monitoring systems or monitoring devices when the owner or operator can demonstrate that installation at alternative locations will enable accurate and representative measurements.
3.9.3 Alternative procedures for performing calibration checks (e.g., some instruments may demonstrate superior drift characteristics that require checking at less frequent intervals).
3.9.4 Alternative monitoring requirements when the effluent from one affected facility or the combined effluent from two or more identical affected facilities is released to the atmosphere through more than one point (e.g., an extractive, gaseous monitoring system used at several points may be approved if the procedures recommended are suitable for generating accurate emission averages).
3.9.5 Alternative continuous monitoring systems that do not meet the spectral response requirements in Performance Specification 1, appendix B of part 60, but adequately demonstrate a definite and consistent relationship between their measurements and the opacity measurements of a system complying with the requirements in Performance Specification 1. The State may require that such demonstration be performed for each affected facility.
4.0 Minimum data requirements. The following paragraphs set forth the minimum data reporting requirements necessary to comply with § 51.214(d) and (e).
4.1 The State plan shall require owners or operators of facilities required to install continuous monitoring systems to submit a written report of excess emissions for each calendar quarter and the nature and cause of the excess emissions, if known. The averaging period used for data reporting should be established by the State to correspond to the averaging period specified in the emission test method used to determine compliance with an emission standard for the pollutant/source category in question. The required report shall include, as a minimum, the data stipulated in this appendix.
4.2 For opacity measurements, the summary shall consist of the magnitude in actual percent opacity of all one-minute (or such other time period deemed appropriate by the State) averages of opacity greater than the opacity standard in the applicable plan for each hour of operation of the facility. Average values may be obtained by integration over the averaging period or by arithmetically averaging a minimum of four equally spaced, instantaneous opacity measurements per minute. Any time period exempted shall be considered before determining the excess averages of opacity (e.g., whenever a regulation allows two minutes of opacity measurements in excess of the standard, the State shall require the source to report all opacity averages, in any one hour, in excess of the standard, minus the two-minute exemption). If more than one opacity standard applies, excess emissions data must be submitted in relation to all such standards.
4.3 For gaseous measurements the summary shall consist of emission averages, in the units of the applicable standard, for each averaging period during which the applicable standard was exceeded.
4.4 The date and time identifying each period during which the continuous monitoring system was inoperative, except for zero and span checks, and the nature of system repairs or adjustments shall be reported. The State may require proof of continuous monitoring system performance whenever system repairs or adjustments have been made.
4.5 When no excess emissions have occurred and the continuous monitoring system(s) have not been inoperative, repaired, or adjusted, such information shall be included in the report.
4.6 The State plan shall require owners or operators of affected facilities to maintain a file of all information reported in the quarterly summaries, and all other data collected either by the continuous monitoring system or as necessary to convert monitoring data to the units of the applicable standard for a minimum of two years from the date of collection of such data or submission of such summaries.
5.0 Data Reduction. The State plan shall require owners or operators of affected facilities to use the following procedures for converting monitoring data to units of the standard where necessary.
5.1 For fossil fuel-fired steam generators the following procedures shall be used to convert gaseous emission monitoring data in parts per million to g/million cal (lb/million BTU) where necessary:
5.1.1 When the owner or operator of a fossil fuel-fired steam generator elects under paragraph 2.1.4 of this appendix to measure oxygen in the flue gases, the measurements of the pollutant concentration and oxygen concentration shall each be on a dry basis and the following conversion procedure used:
5.1.2 When the owner or operator elects under paragraph 2.1.4 of this appendix to measure carbon dioxide in the flue gases, the measurement of the pollutant concentration and the carbon dioxide concentration shall each be on a consistent basis (wet or dry) and the following conversion procedure used:
5.1.3 The values used in the equations under paragraph 5.1 are derived as follows:
E = pollutant emission, g/million cal (lb/million BTU),
C = pollutant concentration, g/dscm (lb/dscf), determined by multiplying the average concentration (ppm) for each hourly period by 4.16 × 10−5 M g/dscm per ppm (2.64 × 10−9 M lb/dscf per ppm) where M = pollutant molecular weight, g/g-mole (lb/lb-mole). M = 64 for sulfur dioxide and 46 for oxides of nitrogen.
%O2, %CO2 = Oxygen or carbon dioxide volume (expressed as percent) determined with equipment specified under paragraphs 3.1.4 and 3.1.5 of this appendix.
5.2 For sulfuric acid plants the owner or operator shall:
5.2.1 establish a conversion factor three times daily according to the procedures to § 60.84(b) of this chapter;
5.2.2 multiply the conversion factor by the average sulfur dioxide concentration in the flue gases to obtain average sulfur dioxide emissions in Kg/metric ton (lb/short ton); and
5.2.3 report the average sulfur dioxide emission for each averaging period in excess of the applicable emission standard in the quarterly summary.
5.3 For nitric acid plants the owner or operator shall:
5.3.1 establish a conversion factor according to the procedures of § 60.73(b) of this chapter;
5.3.2 multiply the conversion factor by the average nitrogen oxides concentration in the flue gases to obtain the nitrogen oxides emissions in the units of the applicable standard;
5.3.3 report the average nitrogen oxides emission for each averaging period in excess of the applicable emission standard, in the quarterly summary.
5.4 Any State may allow data reporting or reduction procedures varying from those set forth in this appendix if the owner or operator of a source shows to the satisfaction of the State that his procedures are at least as accurate as those in this appendix. Such procedures may include but are not limited to, the following:
5.4.1 Alternative procedures for computing emission averages that do not require integration of data (e.g., some facilities may demonstrate that the variability of their emissions is sufficiently small to allow accurate reduction of data based upon computing averages from equally spaced data points over the averaging period).
5.4.2 Alternative methods of converting pollutant concentration measurements to the units of the emission standards.
6.0 Special Consideration. The State plan may provide for approval, on a case-by-case basis, of alternative monitoring requirements different from the provisions of parts 1 through 5 of this appendix if the provisions of this appendix (i.e., the installation of a continuous emission monitoring system) cannot be implemented by a source due to physical plant limitations or extreme economic reasons. To make use of this provision, States must include in their plan specific criteria for determining those physical limitations or extreme economic situations to be considered by the State. In such cases, when the State exempts any source subject to this appendix by use of this provision from installing continuous emission monitoring systems, the State shall set forth alternative emission monitoring and reporting requirements (e.g., periodic manual stack tests) to satisfy the intent of these regulations. Examples of such special cases include, but are not limited to, the following:
6.1 Alternative monitoring requirements may be prescribed when installation of a continuous monitoring system or monitoring device specified by this appendix would not provide accurate determinations of emissions (e.g., condensed, uncombined water vapor may prevent an accurate determination of opacity using commercially available continuous monitoring systems).
6.2 Alternative monitoring requirements may be prescribed when the affected facility is infrequently operated (e.g., some affected facilities may operate less than one month per year).
6.3 Alternative monitoring requirements may be prescribed when the State determines that the requirements of this appendix would impose an extreme economic burden on the source owner or operator.
6.4 Alternative monitoring requirements may be prescribed when the State determines that monitoring systems prescribed by this appendix cannot be installed due to physical limitations at the facility.