45 CFR § 75.2 - Definitions.

§ 75.2 Definitions.

These are the definitions for terms used in this part. Different definitions may be found in Federal statutes or regulations that apply more specifically to particular program or activities. These definitions could be supplemented by additional instructional information provided in in governmentwide standard information collections.

Acquisition cost means the cost of the asset including the cost to ready the asset for its intended use. Acquisition cost for equipment, for example, means the net invoice price of the equipment, including the cost of any modifications, attachments, accessories, or auxiliary apparatus necessary to make it usable for the purpose for which it is acquired. Acquisition costs for software includes those development costs capitalized in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). Ancillary charges, such as taxes, duty, protective in transit insurance, freight, and installation may be included in or excluded from the acquisition cost in accordance with the non-Federal entity's regular accounting practices.

Advance payment means a payment that a Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity makes by any appropriate payment mechanism, including a predetermined payment schedule, before the non-Federal entity disburses the funds for program purposes.

Allocation means the process of assigning a cost, or a group of costs, to one or more cost objective(s), in reasonable proportion to the benefit provided or other equitable relationship. The process may entail assigning a cost(s) directly to a final cost objective or through one or more intermediate cost objectives.

Audit finding means deficiencies which the auditor is required by § 75.516(a) to report in the schedule of findings and questioned costs.

Auditee means any non-Federal entity that expends Federal awards which must be audited under subpart F-of this part.

Auditor means an auditor who is a public accountant, or a Federal, state, local government, or Indian Tribe audit organization, which meets the general standards specified for external auditors in generally accepted government auditing standards (GAGAS). The term auditor does not include internal auditors of nonprofit organizations.

Awardee (see Non-Federal entity).

Budget means the financial plan for the project or program that the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity approves during the Federal award process or in subsequent amendments to the Federal award. It may include the Federal and non-Federal share or only the Federal share, as determined by the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity.

Capital assets means tangible or intangible assets used in operations having a useful life of more than one year which are capitalized in accordance with GAAP. Capital assets include:

(1) Land, buildings (facilities), equipment, and intellectual property (including software) whether acquired by purchase, construction, manufacture, lease-purchase, exchange, or through capital leases; and

(2) Additions, improvements, modifications, replacements, rearrangements, reinstallations, renovations or alterations to capital assets that materially increase their value or useful life (not ordinary repairs and maintenance).

Capital expenditures means expenditures to acquire capital assets or expenditures to make additions, improvements, modifications, replacements, rearrangements, reinstallations, renovations, or alterations to capital assets that materially increase their value or useful life.

Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) number means the number assigned to a Federal program in the CFDA.

CFDA program title means the title of the program under which the Federal award was funded in the CFDA.

Central service cost allocation plan means the documentation identifying, accumulating, and allocating or developing billing rates based on the allowable costs of services provided by a state, local government, or Indian tribe on a centralized basis to its departments and agencies. The costs of these services may be allocated or billed to users.

Claim means, depending on the context, either:

A written demand or written assertion by one of the parties to a Federal award seeking as a matter of right:

(i) The payment of money in a sum certain;

(ii) The adjustment or interpretation of the terms and conditions of the Federal award; or

(iii) Other relief arising under or relating to a Federal award.

A request for payment that is not in dispute when submitted.

Class of Federal awards means a group of Federal awards either awarded under a specific program or group of programs or to a specific type of non-Federal entity or group of non-Federal entities to which specific provisions or exceptions may apply.

Closeout means the process by which the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity determines that all applicable administrative actions and all required work of the Federal award have been completed and takes actions as described in § 75.381.

Cluster of programs means a grouping of closely related programs that share common compliance requirements. The types of clusters of programs are research and development (R&D), student financial aid (SFA), and other clusters. “Other clusters” are as defined by OMB in the compliance supplement or as designated by a state for Federal awards the state provides to its subrecipients that meet the definition of a cluster of programs. When designating an “other cluster,” a state must identify the Federal awards included in the cluster and advise the subrecipients of compliance requirements applicable to the cluster, consistent with § 75.352(a). A cluster of programs must be considered as one program for determining major programs, as described in § 75.518, and, with the exception of R&D as described in § 75.501(c), whether a program-specific audit may be elected.

Cognizant agency for audit means the Federal agency designated to carry out the responsibilities described in § 75.513(a). The cognizant agency for audit is not necessarily the same as the cognizant agency for indirect costs. A list of cognizant agencies for audit may be found at the FAC Web site.

Cognizant agency for indirect costs means the Federal agency responsible for reviewing, negotiating, and approving cost allocation plans or indirect cost proposals developed under this part on behalf of all Federal agencies. The cognizant agency for indirect cost is not necessarily the same as the cognizant agency for audit. For assignments of cognizant agencies see the following:

For IHEs: Appendix III to part 75 C.11.

For nonprofit organizations: Appendix IV to part 75 C.2.a.

(3) For state and local governments: Appendix V to part 75 F.1.

(4) For Indian tribes: Appendix VII to part 75 D.1.

Commercial organization means an organization, institution, corporation, or other legal entity, including, but not limited to, partnerships, sole proprietorships, and limited liability companies, that is organized or operated for the profit or benefit of its shareholders or other owners. The term includes small and large businesses and is used interchangeably with “for-profit organization.”

Compliance supplement means appendix XI to part 75 (previously known as the Circular A-133 Compliance Supplement).

Computing devices means machines used to acquire, store, analyze, process, and publish data and other information electronically, including accessories (or “peripherals”) for printing, transmitting and receiving, or storing electronic information. See also Supplies and Information technology systems.

Contract means a legal instrument by which a non-Federal entity purchases property or services needed to carry out the project or program under a Federal award. The term as used in this part does not include a legal instrument, even if the non-Federal entity considers it a contract, when the substance of the transaction meets the definition of a Federal award or subaward (see Subaward).

Contractor means an entity that receives a contract as defined in Contract.

Cooperative agreement means a legal instrument of financial assistance between a Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity and a non-Federal entity that, consistent with 31 U.S.C. 6302-6305:

Is used to enter into a relationship the principal purpose of which is to transfer anything of value from the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity to the non-Federal entity to carry out a public purpose authorized by a law of the United States (see 31 U.S.C. 6101(3)); and not to acquire property or services for the Federal Government or pass-through entity's direct benefit or use;

Is distinguished from a grant in that it provides for substantial involvement between the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity and the non-Federal entity in carrying out the activity contemplated by the Federal award.

The term does not include:

(i) A cooperative research and development agreement as defined in 15 U.S.C. 3710a; or

(ii) An agreement that provides only:

(A) Direct United States Government cash assistance to an individual;

(B) A subsidy;

(C) A loan;

(D) A loan guarantee; or

(E) Insurance

Cooperative audit resolution means the use of audit follow-up techniques which promote prompt corrective action by improving communication, fostering collaboration, promoting trust, and developing an understanding between the Federal agency and the non-Federal entity. This approach is based upon:

A strong commitment by Federal agency and non-Federal entity leadership to program integrity;

Federal agencies strengthening partnerships and working cooperatively with non-Federal entities and their auditors; and non-Federal entities and their auditors working cooperatively with Federal agencies;

A focus on current conditions and corrective action going forward;

Federal agencies offering appropriate relief for past noncompliance when audits show prompt corrective action has occurred; and

(5) Federal agency leadership sending a clear message that continued failure to correct conditions identified by audits which are likely to cause improper payments, fraud, waste, or abuse is unacceptable and will result in sanctions.

Corrective action means action taken by the auditee that:

Corrects identified deficiencies;

Produces recommended improvements; or

Demonstrates that audit findings are either invalid or do not warrant auditee action.

Cost allocation plan means central service cost allocation plan or public assistance cost allocation plan.

Cost objective means a program, function, activity, award, organizational subdivision, contract, or work unit for which cost data are desired and for which provision is made to accumulate and measure the cost of processes, products, jobs, capital projects, etc. A cost objective may be a major function of the non-Federal entity, a particular service or project, a Federal award, or an indirect (Facilities & Administrative (F&A)) cost activity, as described in subpart E of this part. See also Final cost objective and Intermediate cost objective.

Cost sharing or matching means the portion of project costs not paid by Federal funds (unless otherwise authorized by Federal statute). This may include the value of allowable third party in-kind contributions, as well as expenditures by the recipient. See also § 75.306.

Cross-cutting audit finding means an audit finding where the same underlying condition or issue affects Federal awards of more than one Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity.

Departmental Appeals Board means the independent office established in the Office of the Secretary with delegated authority from the Secretary to review and decide certain disputes between recipients of HHS funds and HHS awarding agencies under 45 CFR part 16 and to perform other review, adjudication and mediation services as assigned.

Disallowed costs means those charges to a Federal award that the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity determines to be unallowable, in accordance with the applicable Federal statutes, regulations, or the terms and conditions of the Federal award.

Equipment means tangible personal property (including information technology systems) having a useful life of more than one year and a per-unit acquisition cost which equals or exceeds the lesser of the capitalization level established by the non-Federal entity for financial statement purposes, or $5,000. See also Capital assets, Computing devices, General purpose equipment, Information technology systems, Special purpose equipment, and Supplies.

Excess property means property acquired in whole or in part under the control of any Federal awarding agency that, as determined by the head of the awarding agency or his/her delegate, is no longer required for the agency's needs or the discharge of its responsibilities.

Expenditure report means:

For non-construction awards, the SF-425 Federal Financial Report (FFR) (or other OMB-approved equivalent report);

For construction awards, the SF-271 “Outlay Report and Request for Reimbursement” (or other OMB-approved equivalent report).

Expenditures means charges made by a non-Federal entity to a project or program for which a Federal award was received.

The charges may be reported on a cash or accrual basis, as long as the methodology is disclosed and is consistently applied.

For reports prepared on a cash basis, expenditures are the sum of:

(i) Cash disbursements for direct charges for property and services;

(ii) The amount of indirect expense charged;

(iii) The value of third-party in-kind contributions applied; and

(iv) The amount of cash advance payments and payments made to subrecipients.

For reports prepared on an accrual basis, expenditures are the sum of:

Cash disbursements for direct charges for property and services;

The amount of indirect expense incurred;

(iii) The value of third-party in-kind contributions applied; and

(iv) The net increase or decrease in the amounts owed by the non-Federal entity for:

(A) Goods and other property received;

(B) Services performed by employees, contractors, subrecipients, and other payees;

(C) Programs for which no current services or performance are required such as annuities, insurance claims, or other benefit payments.

Federal agency means an “agency” as defined at 5 U.S.C. 551(1) and further clarified by 5 U.S.C. 552(f).

Federal Audit Clearinghouse (FAC) means the clearinghouse designated by OMB as the repository of record where non-Federal entities are required to transmit the reporting packages required by subpart F of this part. The mailing address of the FAC is Federal Audit Clearinghouse, Bureau of the Census, 1201 E. 10th Street, Jeffersonville, IN 47132 and the web address is: http://harvester.census.gov/sac/. Any future updates to the location of the FAC may be found at the OMB Web site.

Federal award has the meaning, depending on the context, in either paragraph (1) or (2) of this definition:

The Federal financial assistance that a non-Federal entity receives directly from a Federal awarding agency or indirectly from a pass-through entity, as described in § 75.101; or

The cost-reimbursement contract under the Federal Acquisition Regulations that a non-Federal entity receives directly from a Federal awarding agency or indirectly from a pass-through entity, as described in § 75.101.

The instrument setting forth the terms and conditions. The instrument is the grant agreement, cooperative agreement, other agreement for assistance covered in paragraph (2) of Federal financial assistance, or the cost-reimbursement contract awarded under the Federal Acquisition Regulations.

Federal award does not include other contracts that a Federal agency uses to buy goods or services from a contractor or a contract to operate Federal Government owned, contractor operated facilities (GOCOs).

See also definitions of Federal financial assistance, grant agreement, and cooperative agreement.

Federal award date means the date when the Federal award is signed by the authorized official of the Federal awarding agency.

Federal awarding agency means the Federal agency that provides a Federal award directly to a non-Federal entity.

Federal financial assistance means:

Assistance that non-Federal entities receive or administer in the form of:

Grants;

Cooperative agreements;

Non-cash contributions or donations of property (including donated surplus property);

(iv) Direct appropriations;

(v) Food commodities; and

(vi) Other financial assistance (except assistance listed in paragraph (b) of this section).

For § 75.202 and subpart F of this part, Federal financial assistance also includes assistance that non-Federal entities receive or administer in the form of:

Loans;

Loan Guarantees;

Interest subsidies; and

Insurance.

Federal financial assistance does not include amounts received as reimbursement for services rendered to individuals as described in § 75.502(h) and (i).

Federal interest means, for purposes of § 75.343 or when used in connection with the acquisition or improvement of real property, equipment, or supplies under a Federal award, the dollar amount that is the product of the:

Federal share of total project costs; and

Current fair market value of the property, improvements, or both, to the extent the costs of acquiring or improving the property were included as project costs.

Federal program means:

All Federal awards which are assigned a single number in the CFDA.

When no CFDA number is assigned, all Federal awards to non-Federal entities from the same agency made for the same purpose must be combined and considered one program.

Notwithstanding paragraphs (1) and (2) of this definition, a cluster of programs. The types of clusters of programs are:

Research and development (R&D);

Student financial aid (SFA); and

“Other clusters,” as described in the definition of Cluster of Programs

Federal share means the portion of total project costs that are paid by Federal funds.

Final cost objective means a cost objective which has allocated to it both direct and indirect costs and, in the non-Federal entity's accumulation system, is one of the final accumulation points, such as a particular award, internal project, or other direct activity of a non-Federal entity. See also Cost objective and Intermediate cost objective.

Fixed amount awards means a type of grant agreement under which the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity provides a specific level of support without regard to actual costs incurred under the Federal award. This type of Federal award reduces some of the administrative burden and record-keeping requirements for both the non-Federal entity and Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity. Accountability is based primarily on performance and results. See §§ 75.201(b) and 75.353.

Foreign organization means an entity that is:

A public or private organization located in a country other than the United States and its territories that is subject to the laws of the country in which it is located, irrespective of the citizenship of project staff or place of performance;

A private nongovernmental organization located in a country other than the United States that solicits and receives cash contributions from the general public;

A charitable organization located in a country other than the United States that is nonprofit and tax exempt under the laws of its country of domicile and operation, and is not a university, college, accredited degree-granting institution of education, private foundation, hospital, organization engaged exclusively in research or scientific activities, church, synagogue, mosque or other similar entities organized primarily for religious purposes; or

An organization located in a country other than the United States not recognized as a Foreign Public Entity.

Foreign public entity means:

A foreign government or foreign governmental entity;

A public international organization, which is an organization entitled to enjoy privileges, exemptions, and immunities as an international organization under the International Organizations Immunities Act (22 U.S.C. 288-288f);

An entity owned (in whole or in part) or controlled by a foreign government; or

Any other entity consisting wholly or partially of one or more foreign governments or foreign governmental entities.

General purpose equipment means equipment which is not limited to research, medical, scientific or other technical activities. Examples include office equipment and furnishings, modular offices, telephone networks, information technology equipment and systems, air conditioning equipment, reproduction and printing equipment, and motor vehicles. See also Equipment and Special Purpose Equipment.

Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) has the meaning specified in accounting standards issued by the Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB) and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB).

Generally Accepted Government Auditing Standards (GAGAS), also known as the Yellow Book, means generally accepted government auditing standards issued by the Comptroller General of the United States, which are applicable to financial audits.

Grant agreement means a legal instrument of financial assistance between a Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity and a non-Federal entity that, consistent with 31 U.S.C. 6302, 6304:

Is used to enter into a relationship the principal purpose of which is to transfer anything of value from the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity to the non-Federal entity to carry out a public purpose authorized by a law of the United States (see 31 U.S.C. 6101(3)); and not to acquire property or services for the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity's direct benefit or use;

Is distinguished from a cooperative agreement in that it does not provide for substantial involvement between the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity and the non-Federal entity in carrying out the activity contemplated by the Federal award.

Does not include an agreement that provides only:

Direct United States Government cash assistance to an individual;

A subsidy;

A loan;

A loan guarantee; or

(v) Insurance.

Grantee (see Recipient)

HHS awarding agency means any organization component of HHS that is authorized to make and administer awards.

Hospital means a facility licensed as a hospital under the law of any state or a facility operated as a hospital by the United States, a state, or a subdivision of a state.

Improper payment:

Means any payment that should not have been made or that was made in an incorrect amount (including overpayments and underpayments) under statutory, contractual, administrative, or other legally applicable requirements; and

Includes any payment to an ineligible party, any payment for an ineligible good or service, any duplicate payment, any payment for a good or service not received (except for such payments where authorized by law), any payment that does not account for credit for applicable discounts, and any payment where insufficient or lack of documentation prevents a reviewer from discerning whether a payment was proper.

Indian tribe means any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community, including any Alaska Native village or regional or village corporation as defined in or established pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. Chapter 33), which is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians (25 U.S.C. 450b(e)). See annually published Bureau of Indian Affairs list of Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible to Receive Services.

Indirect cost rate proposal means the documentation prepared by a non-Federal entity to substantiate its request for the establishment of an indirect cost rate as described in appendix III through appendix VII, and appendix IX of this part.

Indirect (Facilities and Administration or F&A) costs means costs incurred for a common or joint purpose benefitting more than one cost objective, and not readily assignable to the cost objectives specifically benefitted, without effort disproportionate to the results achieved. To facilitate equitable distribution of indirect expenses to the cost objectives served, it may be necessary to establish a number of pools of indirect (F&A) costs. Indirect (F&A) cost pools must be distributed to benefitted cost objectives on bases that will produce an equitable result in consideration of relative benefits derived.

Information technology systems means computing devices, ancillary equipment, software, firmware, and similar procedures, services (including support services), and related resources. See also Computing devices and Equipment.

Institution of Higher Education (IHE) is defined at 20 U.S.C. 1001.

Intangible property means property having no physical existence, such as trademarks, copyrights, patents and patent applications and property, such as loans, notes and other debt instruments, lease agreements, stock and other instruments of property ownership (whether the property is tangible or intangible).

Intermediate cost objective means a cost objective that is used to accumulate indirect costs or service center costs that are subsequently allocated to one or more indirect cost pools or final cost objectives. See also Cost objective and Final cost objective.

Internal control over compliance requirements for Federal awards means a process implemented by a non-Federal entity designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of the following objectives for Federal awards:

Transactions are properly recorded and accounted for, in order to:

Permit the preparation of reliable financial statements and Federal reports;

Maintain accountability over assets; and

Demonstrate compliance with Federal statutes, regulations, and the terms and conditions of the Federal award;

Transactions are executed in compliance with:

Federal statutes, regulations, and the terms and conditions of the Federal award that could have a direct and material effect on a Federal program; and

Any other Federal statutes and regulations that are identified in the Compliance Supplement; and

Funds, property, and other assets are safeguarded against loss from unauthorized use or disposition.

Internal controls means a process, implemented by a non-Federal entity, designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of objectives in the following categories:

Effectiveness and efficiency of operations;

Reliability of reporting for internal and external use; and

Compliance with applicable laws and regulations.

Loan means a Federal loan or loan guarantee received or administered by a non-Federal entity, except as used in the definition of Program income.

The term “direct loan” means a disbursement of funds by the Federal Government to a non-Federal borrower under a contract that requires the repayment of such funds with or without interest. The term includes the purchase of, or participation in, a loan made by another lender and financing arrangements that defer payment for more than 90 days, including the sale of a Federal Government asset on credit terms. The term does not include the acquisition of a federally guaranteed loan in satisfaction of default claims or the price support loans of the Commodity Credit Corporation.

The term “direct loan obligation” means a binding agreement by a Federal awarding agency to make a direct loan when specified conditions are fulfilled by the borrower.

The term “loan guarantee” means any Federal Government guarantee, insurance, or other pledge with respect to the payment of all or a part of the principal or interest on any debt obligation of a non-Federal borrower to a non-Federal lender, but does not include the insurance of deposits, shares, or other withdrawable accounts in financial institutions.

The term “loan guarantee commitment” means a binding agreement by a Federal awarding agency to make a loan guarantee when specified conditions are fulfilled by the borrower, the lender, or any other party to the guarantee agreement.

Local government means any unit of government within a state, including a:

County;

Borough;

Municipality;

City;

Town;

(6) Township;

(7) Parish;

(8) Local public authority, including any public housing agency under the United States Housing Act of 1937;

(9) Special district;

(10) School district;

(11) Intrastate district;

(12) Council of governments, whether or not incorporated as a nonprofit corporation under state law; and

(13) Any other agency or instrumentality of a multi-, regional, or intra-state or local government.

Major program means a Federal program determined by the auditor to be a major program in accordance with § 75.518 or a program identified as a major program by a Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity in accordance with § 75.503(e).

Management decision means the evaluation by the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity of the audit findings and corrective action plan and the issuance of a written decision to the auditee as to what corrective action is necessary.

Micro-purchase means a purchase of supplies or services using simplified acquisition procedures, the aggregate amount of which does not exceed the micro-purchase threshold. Micro-purchase procedures comprise a subset of a non-Federal entity's small purchase procedures. The non-Federal entity uses such procedures in order to expedite the completion of its lowest-dollar small purchase transactions and minimize the associated administrative burden and cost. The micro-purchase threshold is set by the Federal Acquisition Regulation at 48 CFR Subpart 2.1 (Definitions). It is $3,000 except as otherwise discussed in subpart 2.1 of that regulation, but this threshold is periodically adjusted for inflation.

Modified Total Direct Cost (MTDC) means all direct salaries and wages, applicable fringe benefits, materials and supplies, services, travel, and up to the first $25,000 of each subaward (regardless of the period of performance of the subawards under the award). MTDC excludes equipment, capital expenditures, charges for patient care, rental costs, tuition remission, scholarships and fellowships, participant support costs and the portion of each subaward in excess of $25,000. Other items may only be excluded when necessary to avoid a serious inequity in the distribution of indirect costs, and with the approval of the cognizant agency for indirect costs.

Non-Federal entity means a state, local government, Indian tribe, institution of higher education (IHE), or nonprofit organization that carries out a Federal award as a recipient or subrecipient.

Nonprofit organization means any corporation, trust, association, cooperative, or other organization, not including IHEs, that:

Is operated primarily for scientific, educational, service, charitable, or similar purposes in the public interest;

Is not organized primarily for profit; and

Uses net proceeds to maintain, improve, or expand the operations of the organization.

Obligations, when used in connection with a non-Federal entity's utilization of funds under a Federal award, obligations means orders placed for property and services, contracts and subawards made, and similar transactions during a given period that require payment by the non-Federal entity during the same or a future period.

Office of Management and Budget (OMB) means the Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget.

Oversight agency for audit means the Federal awarding agency that provides the predominant amount of funding directly to a non-Federal entity not assigned a cognizant agency for audit. When there is no direct funding, the Federal awarding agency which is the predominant source of pass-through funding must assume the oversight responsibilities. The duties of the oversight agency for audit and the process for any reassignments are described in § 75.513(b).

Participant support costs means direct costs for items such as stipends or subsistence allowances, travel allowances, and registration fees paid to or on behalf of participants or trainees (but not employees) in connection with conferences, or training projects.

Pass-through entity means a non-Federal entity that provides a subaward to a subrecipient to carry out part of a Federal program.

Performance goal means a target level of performance expressed as a tangible, measurable objective, against which actual achievement can be compared, including a goal expressed as a quantitative standard, value, or rate. In some instances (e.g., discretionary research awards), this may be limited to the requirement to submit technical performance reports (to be evaluated in accordance with agency policy).

Period of performance means the time during which the non-Federal entity may incur new obligations to carry out the work authorized under the Federal award. The Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity must include start and end dates of the period of performance in the Federal award (see §§ 75.210(a)(5) and 75.352(a)(1)(v)).

Personal property means property of any kind except real property. It may be tangible, having physical existence, or intangible, such as copyrights, patents, or securities.

Personally Identifiable Information (PII) means information that can be used to distinguish or trace an individual's identity, either alone or when combined with other personal or identifying information that is linked or linkable to a specific individual. Some information that is considered to be PII is available in public sources such as telephone books, public Web sites, and university listings. This type of information is considered to be Public PII and includes, for example, first and last name, address, work telephone number, email address, home telephone number, and general educational credentials. The definition of PII is not anchored to any single category of information or technology. Rather, it requires a case-by-case assessment of the specific risk that an individual can be identified. Non-PII can become PII whenever additional information is made publicly available, in any medium and from any source, that, when combined with other available information, could be used to identify an individual.

Principal Investigator/Program Director (PI/PD) means the individual (s) designated by the recipient to direct the project or program being supported by the grant. The PI/PD is responsible and accountable to officials of the recipient organization for the proper conduct of the project, program, or activity.

Prior approval means written approval by an authorized HHS official evidencing prior consent before a recipient undertakes certain activities or incurs specific costs.

Program income means gross income earned by the non-Federal entity that is directly generated by a supported activity or earned as a result of the Federal award during the period of performance except as provided in § 75.307(f). (See Period of performance.) Program income includes but is not limited to income from fees for services performed, the use or rental or real or personal property acquired under Federal awards, the sale of commodities or items fabricated under a Federal award, license fees and royalties on patents and copyrights, and principal and interest on loans made with Federal award funds. Interest earned on advances of Federal funds is not program income. Except as otherwise provided in Federal statutes, regulations, or the terms and conditions of the Federal award, program income does not include rebates, credits, discounts, and interest earned on any of them. See also §§ 75.307, 75.407 and 35 U.S.C. 200-212 (applies to inventions made under Federal awards).

Project costs means total allowable costs incurred under a Federal award and all required cost sharing and voluntary committed cost sharing, including third-party contributions.

Project period (see Period of performance).

Property means real property or personal property.

Protected Personally Identifiable Information (Protected PII) Protected PII means an individual's first name or first initial and last name in combination with any one or more of types of information, including, but not limited to, social security number, passport number, credit card numbers, clearances, bank numbers, biometrics, date and place of birth, mother's maiden name, criminal, medical and financial records, educational transcripts. This does not include PII that is required by law to be disclosed. (See also Personally Identifiable Information (PII)).

Questioned cost means a cost that is questioned by the auditor because of an audit finding:

Which resulted from a violation or possible violation of a statute, regulation, or the terms and conditions of a Federal award, including for funds used to match Federal funds;

Where the costs, at the time of the audit, are not supported by adequate documentation; or

Where the costs incurred appear unreasonable and do not reflect the actions a prudent person would take in the circumstances.

Real property means land, including land improvements, structures and appurtenances thereto, but excludes moveable machinery and equipment.

Recipient means an entity, usually but not limited to non-Federal entities, that receives a Federal award directly from a Federal awarding agency to carry out an activity under a Federal program. The term recipient does not include subrecipients. See also Non-Federal entity.

Research is defined as a systematic study directed toward fuller scientific knowledge or understanding of the subject studied. “Development” is the systematic use of knowledge and understanding gained from research directed toward the production of useful materials, devices, systems, or methods, including design and development of prototypes and processes.

Research and Development (R&D) means all research activities, both basic and applied, and all development activities that are performed by HHS award recipients. The term research also includes activities involving the training of individuals in research techniques where such activities utilize the same facilities as other research and development activities and where such activities are not included in the instruction function.

Simplified acquisition threshold means the dollar amount below which a non-Federal entity may purchase property or services using small purchase methods. Non-Federal entities adopt small purchase procedures in order to expedite the purchase of items costing less than the simplified acquisition threshold. The simplified acquisition threshold is set by the Federal Acquisition Regulation at 48 CFR subpart 2.1 and in accordance with 41 U.S.C. 1908. As of the publication of this part, the simplified acquisition threshold is $150,000, but this threshold is periodically adjusted for inflation. See also Micro-purchase.

Special purpose equipment means equipment which is used only for research, medical, scientific, or other technical activities. Examples of special purpose equipment include microscopes, x-ray machines, surgical instruments, and spectrometers. See also Equipment and General purpose equipment.

State means any state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and any agency or instrumentality thereof exclusive of local governments.

Student Financial Aid (SFA) means Federal awards under those programs of general student assistance, such as those authorized by Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, (20 U.S.C. 1070-1099d), which are administered by the U.S. Department of Education, and similar programs provided by other Federal agencies. It does not include Federal awards under programs that provide fellowships or similar Federal awards to students on a competitive basis, or for specified studies or research.

Subaward means an award provided by a pass-through entity to a subrecipient for the subrecipient to carry out part of a Federal award received by the pass-through entity. It does not include payments to a contractor or payments to an individual that is a beneficiary of a Federal program. A subaward may be provided through any form of legal agreement, including an agreement that the pass-through entity considers a contract.

Subrecipient means a non-Federal entity that receives a subaward from a pass-through entity to carry out part of a Federal program; but does not include an individual that is a beneficiary of such program. A subrecipient may also be a recipient of other Federal awards directly from a Federal awarding agency.

Supplies means all tangible personal property other than those described in Equipment. A computing device is a supply if the acquisition cost is less than the lesser of the capitalization level established by the non-Federal entity for financial statement purposes or $5,000, regardless of the length of its useful life. See also Computing devices and Equipment.

Surplus property (see Excess property)

Suspension of award activities means an action by the HHS awarding agency requiring the recipient to cease all activities on the award pending corrective action by the recipient. It is a separate action from suspension under HHS regulations (2 CFR part 376) implementing Executive Orders 12549 and 12689.

Termination means the ending of a Federal award, in whole or in part at any time prior to the planned end of period of performance.

Third-party in-kind contributions means the value of non-cash contributions (i.e., property or services) that:

Benefit a federally assisted project or program; and

Are contributed by non-Federal third parties, without charge, to a non-Federal entity under a Federal award.

Total Costs (see § 75.402).

Unliquidated obligations means, for financial reports prepared on a cash basis, obligations incurred by the non-Federal entity that have not been paid (liquidated). For reports prepared on an accrual expenditure basis, these are obligations incurred by the non-Federal entity for which an expenditure has not been recorded.

Unobligated balance means the amount of funds authorized under a Federal award that the non-Federal entity has not obligated. The amount is computed by subtracting the cumulative amount of the non-Federal entity's unliquidated obligations and expenditures of funds under the Federal award from the cumulative amount of the funds that the Federal awarding agency or pass-through entity authorized the non-Federal entity to obligate.

Voluntary committed cost sharing means cost sharing specifically pledged on a voluntary basis in the proposal's budget or the Federal award on the part of the non-Federal entity and that becomes a binding requirement of Federal award.

Working capital advance means a procedure whereby funds are advanced to the recipient to cover its estimated disbursement needs for a given initial period.

[79 FR 75889, Dec. 19, 2014, as amended at 81 FR 3012, Jan. 20, 2016; 81 FR 19044, Apr. 4, 2016]