# 49 CFR § 571.201 - Standard No. 201; Occupant protection in interior impact.

§ 571.201 Standard No. 201; Occupant protection in interior impact.
Link to an amendment published at 87 FR 18587, Mar. 30, 2022.

S1. Purpose and scope. This standard specifies requirements to afford impact protection for occupants.

S2. Application. This standard applies to passenger cars and to multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses with a GVWR of 4,536 kilograms or less, except that the requirements of S6 do not apply to buses with a GVWR of more than 3,860 kilograms.

S3. Definitions.

A-pillar means any pillar that is entirely forward of a transverse vertical plane passing through the seating reference point of the driver's seat.

Ambulance means a motor vehicle designed exclusively for the purpose of emergency medical care, as evidenced by the presence of a passenger compartment to accommodate emergency medical personnel, one or more patients on litters or cots, and equipment and supplies for emergency care at a location or during transport.

B-pillar means the forwardmost pillar on each side of the vehicle that is, in whole or in part, rearward of a transverse vertical plane passing through the seating reference point of the driver's seat, unless:

(1) There is only one pillar rearward of that plane and it is also a rearmost pillar; or

(2) There is a door frame rearward of the A-pillar and forward of any other pillar or rearmost pillar.

Brace means a fixed diagonal structural member in an open body vehicle that is used to brace the roll-bar and that connects the roll-bar to the main body of the vehicle structure.

Convertible means a vehicle whose A-pillars are not joined with the B-pillars (or rearmost pillars) by a fixed, rigid structural member.

Convertible roof frame means the frame of a convertible roof.

Convertible roof linkage mechanism means any anchorage, fastener, or device necessary to deploy a convertible roof frame.

Daylight opening means, for openings on the side of the vehicle, other than a door opening, the locus of all points where a horizontal line, perpendicular to the vehicle longitudinal centerline, is tangent to the periphery of the opening. For openings on the front and rear of the vehicle, other than a door opening, daylight opening means the locus of all points where a horizontal line, parallel to the vehicle longitudinal centerline, is tangent to the periphery of the opening. If the horizontal line is tangent to the periphery at more than one point at any location, the most inboard point is used to determine the daylight opening.

Door frame means the rearmost perimeter structure, including trim but excluding glass, of the forward door and the forwardmost perimeter structure, including trim but excluding glass, of the rear door of a pair of adjacent side doors that:

(1) Have opposing hinges;

(2) Latch together without engaging or contacting an intervening pillar;

(3) Are forward of any pillar other than the A-pillar on the same side of the vehicle; and

(4) Are rearward of the A-pillar.

Door opening means, for door openings on the side of the vehicle, the locus of all points where a horizontal line, perpendicular to the vehicle longitudinal centerline, is tangent to the periphery of the side door opening. For door openings on the back end of the vehicle, door opening means the locus of all points where a horizontal line, parallel to the vehicle longitudinal centerline, is tangent to the periphery of the back door opening. If the horizontal line is tangent to the periphery at more than one point at any location, the most inboard point is the door opening.

Dynamically deployed upper interior head protection system means a protective device or devices which are integrated into a vehicle and which, when activated by an impact, provide, through means requiring no action from occupants, protection against head impacts with upper interior structures and components of the vehicle in crashes.

Forehead impact zone means the part of the free motion headform surface area that is determined in accordance with the procedure set forth in S8.10.

Free motion headform means a test device which conforms to the specifications of part 572, subpart L of this chapter.

Interior rear quarter panel means a vehicle interior component located between the rear edge of the side door frame, the front edge of the rearmost seat back, and the daylight opening.

Mid-sagittal plane of a dummy means a longitudinal vertical plane passing through the seating reference point of a designated seating position.

Other door frame means the rearmost perimeter structure, including trim but excluding glass, of the forward door and the forwardmost perimeter structure, including trim but excluding glass, of the rear door of a pair of adjacent side doors that:

(1) Have opposing hinges;

(2) Latch together without engaging or contacting an intervening pillar; and

(3) Are rearward of the B-pillar.

Other pillar means any pillar which is not an A-pillar, a B-pillar, or a rearmost pillar.

Pillar means any structure, excluding glazing and the vertical portion of door window frames, but including accompanying moldings, attached components such as safety belt anchorages and coat hooks, which:

(1) Supports either a roof or any other structure (such as a roll-bar) that is above the driver's head, or

(2) Is located along the side edge of a window.

Roll-bar means a fixed overhead structural member, including its vertical support structure, that extends from the left to the right side of the passenger compartment of any open body vehicles and convertibles. It does not include a header.

Seat belt anchorage means any component involved in transferring seat belt loads to the vehicle structure, including, but not limited to, the attachment hardware, but excluding webbing or straps, seat frames, seat pedestals, and the vehicle structure itself, whose failure causes separation of the belt from the vehicle structure.

Seat belt mounting structure means:

(a) A vehicle body or frame component, including trim, that incorporates an upper seat belt anchorage conforming to the requirements of S4.2.1 and S4.3.2 of 49 CFR 571.210, that is located rearward of the rearmost outboard designated seating position, and that extends above a horizontal plane 660 mm above the seating reference point (SgRP) of that seating position; and

(b) A vehicle body or frame component, including trim, that incorporates an upper seat belt anchorage conforming to the requirements of S4.2.1 and S4.3.2 of 49 CFR 571.210, that is located forward of the rearmost outboard designated seating position, and that extends above a horizontal plane 460 mm above the SgRP of that seating position located rearward of the anchorage.

(c) The seat belt mounting structure is not a pillar, roll bar, brace or stiffener, side rail, seat, interior rear quarter panel, or part of the roof.

Sliding door track means a track structure along the upper edge of a side door opening that secures the door in the closed position and guides the door when moving to and from the open position.

Stiffener means a fixed overhead structural member that connects one roll-bar to another roll-bar or to a header of any open body vehicle or convertible.

Upper roof means the area of the vehicle interior that is determined in accordance with the procedure set forth in S8.15.

Windshield trim means molding of any material between the windshield glazing and the exterior roof surface, including material that covers a part of either the windshield glazing or exterior roof surface.

S4 Requirements

S4.1 Except as provided in S4.2, each vehicle shall comply with either:

(a) The requirements specified in S5, or,

(b) The requirements specified in S5 and S6.

S4.2 Vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 1998 shall comply with the requirements of S5 and S6.

S5 Requirements for instrument panels, seat backs, interior compartment doors, sun visors, and armrests. Each vehicle shall comply with the requirements specified in S5.1 through S5.5.2.

S5.1 Instrument panels. Except as provided in S5.1.1, when that area of the instrument panel that is within the head impact area is impacted in accordance with S5.1.2 by a 6.8 kilogram, 165 mm diameter head form at -

(a) A relative velocity of 24 kilometers per hour for all vehicles except those specified in paragraph (b) of this section,

(b) A relative velocity of 19 kilometers per hour for vehicles that meet the occupant crash protection requirements of S5.1 of 49 CFR 571.208 by means of inflatable restraint systems and meet the requirements of S4.1.5.1(a)(3) by means of a Type 2 seat belt assembly at the right front designated seating position, the deceleration of the head form shall not exceed 80 g continuously for more than 3 milliseconds.

S5.1.1 The requirements of S5.1 do not apply to:

(a) Console assemblies;

(b) Areas less than 125 mm inboard from the juncture of the instrument panel attachment to the body side inner structure;

(c) Areas closer to the windshield juncture than those statically contactable by the head form with the windshield in place;

(d) Areas outboard of any point of tangency on the instrument panel of a 165 mm diameter head form tangent to and inboard of a vertical longitudinal plane tangent to the inboard edge of the steering wheel; or

(e) Areas below any point at which a vertical line is tangent to the rearmost surface of the panel.

S5.1.2 Demonstration procedures. Tests shall be performed as described in SAE Recommended Practice J921 (1965) (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5), using the specified instrumentation or instrumentation that meets the performance requirements specified in SAE Recommended Practice J977 (1966) (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5), except that:

(a) The origin of the line tangent to the instrument panel surface shall be a point on a transverse horizontal line through a point 125 mm horizontally forward of the seating reference point of the front outboard passenger designated seating position, displaced vertically an amount equal to the rise which results from a 125 mm forward adjustment of the seat or 19 mm; and

(b) Direction of impact shall be either:

(1) In a vertical plane parallel to the vehicle longitudinal axis; or

(2) In a plane normal to the surface at the point of contact.

S5.2 Seat Backs. Except as provided in S5.2.1, when that area of the seat back that is within the head impact area is impacted in accordance with S5.2.2 by a 6.8 kilogram, 165 mm diameter head form at a relative velocity of 24 kilometers per hour, the deceleration of the head form shall not exceed 80g continuously for more than 3 milliseconds.

S5.2.1 The requirements of S5.2 do not apply to seats installed in school buses which comply with the requirements of Standard No. 222, School Bus Passenger Seating and Occupant Protection (49 CFR 571.222) or to rearmost side-facing, back-to-back, folding auxiliary jump, and temporary seats.

S5.2.2 Demonstration procedures. Tests shall be performed as described in SAE Recommended Practice J921 (1965) (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5), using the specified instrumentation or instrumentation that meets the performance requirements specified in SAE Recommended Practice J977 (1966) (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5), except that:

(a) The origin of the line tangent to the uppermost seat back frame component shall be a point on a transverse horizontal line through the seating reference point of the right rear designated seating position, with adjustable forward seats in their rearmost design driving position and reclinable forward seat backs in their nominal design driving position;

(b) Direction of impact shall be either:

(1) In a vertical plane parallel to the vehicle longitudinal axis; or

(2) In a plane normal to the surface at the point of contact.

(c) For seats without head restraints installed, tests shall be performed for each individual split or bucket seat back at points within 100 mm left and right of its centerline, and for each bench seat back between points 100 mm outboard of the centerline of each outboard designated seating position;

(d) For seats having head restraints installed, each test shall be conducted with the head restraints in place at its lowest adjusted position, at a point on the head restraint centerline; and

(e) For a seat that is installed in more than one body style, tests conducted at the fore and aft extremes identified by application of subparagraph (a) shall be deemed to have demonstrated all intermediate conditions.

S5.3 Interior compartment doors. Each interior compartment door assembly located in an instrument panel, console assembly, seat back, or side panel adjacent to a designated seating position shall remain closed when tested in accordance with either S5.3.1(a) and S5.3.1(b) or S5.3.1(a) and S5.3.1(c). Additionally, any interior compartment door located in an instrument panel or seat back shall remain closed when the instrument panel or seat back is tested in accordance with S5.1 and S5.2. All interior compartment door assemblies with a locking device must be tested with the locking device in an unlocked position.

S5.3.1 Demonstration procedures.

(a) Subject the interior compartment door latch system to an inertia load of 10g in a horizontal transverse direction and an inertia load of 10g in a vertical direction in accordance with the procedure described in section 5 of SAE Recommended Practice J839b (1965) (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5), or an approved equivalent.

(b) Impact the vehicle perpendicularly into a fixed collision barrier at a forward longitudinal velocity of 48 kilometers per hour.

(c) Subject the interior compartment door latch system to a horizontal inertia load of 30g in a longitudinal direction in accordance with the procedure described in section 5 of SAE Recommended Practice J839b (1965) (incorporated by reference, see § 571.5), or an approved equivalent.

S5.4 Sun visors.

S5.4.1 A sun visor that is constructed of or covered with energy-absorbing material shall be provided for each front outboard designated seating position.

S5.4.2 Each sun visor mounting shall present no rigid material edge radius of less than 3.2 mm that is statically contactable by a spherical 165 mm diameter head form.

S5.5 Armrests.

S5.5.1 General. Each installed armrest shall conform to at least one of the following:

(a) It shall be constructed with energy-absorbing material and shall deflect or collapse laterally at least 50 mm without permitting contact with any underlying rigid material.

(b) It shall be constructed with energy-absorbing material that deflects or collapses to within 32 mm of a rigid test panel surface without permitting contact with any rigid material. Any rigid material between 13 and 32 mm from the panel surface shall have a minimum vertical height of not less than 25 mm.

(c) Along not less than 50 continuous mm of its length, the armrest shall, when measured vertically in side elevation, provide at least 50 mm of coverage within the pelvic impact area.

S5.5.2 Folding armrests. Each armrest that folds into the seat back or between two seat backs shall either:

(a) Meet the requirements of S5.5.1; or

(b) Be constructed of or covered with energy-absorbing material.

S6 Requirements for upper interior components.

S6.1 Vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 1998. Except as provided in S6.3 and S6.1.4, for vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 1998 and before September 1, 2002, a percentage of the manufacturer's production, as specified in S6.1.1, S6.1.2, or S6.1.3 shall conform, at the manufacturer's option, to either S6.1(a) or S6.1(b). For vehicles manufactured by final stage manufacturers on or after September 1, 1998 and before September 1, 2006, a percentage of the manufacturer's production as specified in S6.1.4 shall, except as provided in S6.3, conform, to either S6.1(a) or S6.1(b). The manufacturer shall select the option by the time it certifies the vehicle and may not thereafter select a different option for the vehicle.

(a) When tested under the conditions of S8, comply with the requirements specified in S7 at the target locations specified in S10 when impacted by the free motion headform specified in S8.9 at any speed up to and including 24 km/h (15 mph). The requirements do not apply to any target that cannot be located using the procedures of S10.

(b) When equipped with a dynamically deployed upper interior head protection system and tested under the conditions of S8, comply with the requirements specified in S7 at the target locations specified in S10 as follows:

(1) Targets that are not located over any point inside the area measured along the contour of the vehicle surface within 50 mm (2.0 inch) of the periphery of the stowed system projected perpendicularly onto the vehicle interior surface, including mounting and inflation components but exclusive of any cover or covers, shall be impacted by the free motion headform specified in S8.9 at any speed up to and including 24 km/h (15 mph). The requirements do not apply to any targets that can not be located by using the procedures of S10.

(2) Targets that are over any point inside the area measured along the contour of the vehicle interior within 50 mm (2.0 inch) of the periphery of the stowed system projected perpendicularly onto the vehicle interior surface, including mounting and inflation components but exclusive of any cover or covers, when the dynamically deployed upper interior head protection system is not deployed, shall be impacted by the free motion headform specified in S8.9 at any speed up to and including 19 km/h (12 mph) with the system undeployed. The requirements do not apply to any target that can not be located using the procedures of S10.

(3) Each vehicle shall, when equipped with a dummy test device specified in Part 572, subpart M, and tested as specified in S8.16 through S8.28, comply with the requirements specified in S7 when crashed into a fixed, rigid pole of 254 mm in diameter, at any velocity between 24 kilometers per hour (15 mph) and 29 kilometers per hour (18 mph).

S6.1.1 Phase-in Schedule #1

S6.1.1.1 Vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 1998 and before September 1, 1999. Subject to S6.1.5(a), for vehicles manufactured by a manufacturer on or after September 1, 1998 and before September 1, 1999, the amount of vehicles complying with S7 shall be not less than 10 percent of:

(a) The manufacturer's average annual production of vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 1996 and before September 1, 1999, or

(b) The manufacturer's production on or after September 1, 1998 and before September 1, 1999.

S6.1.1.2 Vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 1999 and before September 1, 2000. Subject to S6.1.5(b), for vehicles manufactured by a manufacturer on or after September 1, 1999 and before September 1, 2000, the amount of vehicles complying with S7 shall be not less than 25 percent of:

(a) The manufacturer's average annual production of vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 1997 and before September 1, 2000, or

(b) The manufacturer's production on or after September 1, 1999 and before September 1, 2000.

S6.1.1.3 Vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 2000 and before September 1, 2001. Subject to S6.1.5(c), for vehicles manufactured by a manufacturer on or after September 1, 2000 and before September 1, 2001, the amount of vehicles complying with S7 shall be not less than 40 percent of:

(a) The manufacturer's average annual production of vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 1998 and before September 1, 2001, or

(b) The manufacturer's production on or after September 1, 2000 and before September 1, 2001.

S6.1.1.4 Vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 2001 and before September 1, 2002. Subject to S6.1.5(d), for vehicles manufactured by a manufacturer on or after September 1, 2001 and before September 1, 2002, the amount of vehicles complying with S7 shall be not less than 70 percent of:

(a) The manufacturer's average annual production of vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 1999 and before September 1, 2002, or

(b) The manufacturer's production on or after September 1, 2001 and before September 1, 2002.

S6.1.2 Phase-in Schedule #2

S6.1.2.1 Vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 1998 and before September 1, 1999. Subject to S6.1.5(a), for vehicles manufactured by a manufacturer on or after September 1, 1998 and before September 1, 1999, the amount of vehicles complying with S7 shall be not less than seven percent of:

(a) The manufacturer's average annual production of vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 1996 and before September 1, 1999, or

(b) The manufacturer's production on or after September 1, 1998 and before September 1, 1999.

S6.1.2.2 Vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 1999 and before September 1, 2000. Subject to S6.1.5(b), for vehicles manufactured by a manufacturer on or after September 1, 1999 and before September 1, 2000, the amount of vehicles complying with S7 shall be not less than 31 percent of:

(a) The manufacturer's average annual production of vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 1997 and before September 1, 2000, or

(b) The manufacturer's production on or after September 1, 1999 and before September 1, 2000.

S6.1.2.3 Vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 2000 and before September 1, 2001. Subject to S6.1.5(c), for vehicles manufactured by a manufacturer on or after September 1, 2000 and before September 1, 2001, the amount of vehicles complying with S7 shall be not less than 40 percent of:

(a) The manufacturer's average annual production of vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 1998 and before September 1, 2001, or

(b) The manufacturer's production on or after September 1, 2000 and before September 1, 2001.

S6.1.2.4 Vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 2001 and before September 1, 2002. Subject to S6.1.5(d), for vehicles manufactured by a manufacturer on or after September 1, 2001 and before September 1, 2002, the amount of vehicles complying with S7 shall be not less than 70 percent of:

(a) The manufacturer's average annual production of vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 1999 and before September 1, 2002, or

(b) The manufacturer's production on or after September 1, 2001 and before September 1, 2002.

S6.1.3 Phase-in Schedule #3

S6.1.3.1 Vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 1998 and before September 1, 1999 are not required to comply with the requirements specified in S7.

S6.1.3.2 Vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 1999 shall comply with the requirements specified in S7.

S6.1.4 Phase-in Schedule #4 A final stage manufacturer or alterer may, at its option, comply with the requirements set forth in S6.1.4.1 and S6.1.4.2.

S6.1.4.1 Vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 1998 and before September 1, 2009 are not required to comply with the requirements specified in S7.

S6.1.4.2 Vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 2009 shall comply with the requirements specified in S7.

S6.1.5 Calculation of complying vehicles.

(a) For the purposes of complying with S6.1.1.1 or S6.1.2.1, a manufacturer may count a vehicle if it is manufactured on or after May 8, 1997, but before September 1, 1999.

(b) For the purposes of complying with S6.1.1.2 or S6.1.2.2, a manufacturer may count a vehicle if it:

(1) Is manufactured on or after May 8, 1997, but before September 1, 2000, and

(2) Is not counted toward compliance with S6.1.1.1 or S6.1.2.1, as appropriate.

(c) For the purposes of complying with S6.1.1.3 or S6.1.2.3, a manufacturer may count a vehicle if it:

(1) Is manufactured on or after May 8, 1997, but before September 1, 2001, and

(2) Is not counted toward compliance with S6.1.1.1, S6.1.1.2, S6.1.2.1, or S6.1.2.2, as appropriate.

(d) For the purposes of complying with S6.1.1.4 or S6.1.2.4, a manufacturer may count a vehicle if it:

(1) Is manufactured on or after May 8, 1997, but before September 1, 2002, and

(2) Is not counted toward compliance with S6.1.1.1, S6.1.1.2, S6.1.1.3, S6.1.2.1, S6.1.2.2, or S6.1.2.3, as appropriate.

S6.1.6 Vehicles produced by more than one manufacturer.

S6.1.6.1 For the purpose of calculating average annual production of vehicles for each manufacturer and the number of vehicles manufactured by each manufacturer under S6.1.1 through S6.1.4, a vehicle produced by more than one manufacturer shall be attributed to a single manufacturer as follows, subject to S6.1.6.2.

(a) A vehicle which is imported shall be attributed to the importer.

(b) A vehicle manufactured in the United States by more than one manufacturer, one of which also markets the vehicle, shall be attributed to the manufacturer which markets the vehicle.

S6.1.6.2 A vehicle produced by more than one manufacturer must be attributed to any one of the vehicle's manufacturers specified by an express written contract, reported to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration under 49 CFR part 585, between the manufacturer so specified and the manufacturer to which the vehicle would otherwise be attributed under S6.1.6.1.

S6.2 Vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 2002 and vehicles built in two or more stages manufactured after September 1, 2006. Except as provided in S6.1.4 and S6.3, vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 2002 shall, when tested under the conditions of S8, conform, at the manufacturer's option, to either S6.2(a) or S6.2(b). Vehicles manufactured by final stage manufacturers on or after September 1, 2006 shall, except as provided in S6.3, when tested under the conditions of S8, conform, at the manufacturer's option, to either S6.2(a) or S6.2(b). The manufacturer shall select the option by the time it certifies the vehicle and may not thereafter select a different option for the vehicle.

(a) When tested under the conditions of S8, comply with the requirements specified in S7 at the target locations specified in S10 when impacted by the free motion headform specified in S8.9 at any speed up to and including 24 km/h (15 mph). The requirements do not apply to any target that cannot be located using the procedures of S10.

(b) When equipped with a dynamically deployed upper interior head protection system and tested under the conditions of S8, comply with the requirements specified in S7 at the target locations specified in S10 as follows:

(1) Targets that are not located over any point inside the area measured along the contour of the vehicle surface within 50 mm (2.0 inch) of the periphery of the stowed system projected perpendicularly onto the vehicle interior surface, including mounting and inflation components but exclusive of any cover or covers, shall be impacted by the free motion headform specified in S8.9 at any speed up to and including 24 km/h (15 mph). The requirements do not apply to any targets that cannot be located by using the procedures of S10.

(2) Targets that are over any point inside the area measured along the contour of the vehicle interior within 50 mm (2.0 inch) of the periphery of the stowed system projected perpendicularly onto the vehicle interior surface, including mounting and inflation components but exclusive of any cover or covers, when the dynamically deployed upper interior head protection system is not deployed, shall be impacted by the free motion headform specified in S8.9 at any speed up to and including 19 km/h (12 mph) with the system undeployed. The requirements do not apply to any target that cannot be located using the procedures of S10.

(3) Except as provided in S6.2(b)(4), each vehicle shall, when equipped with a dummy test device specified in 49 CFR part 572, subpart M, and tested as specified in S8.16 through S8.28, comply with the requirements specified in S7 when crashed into a fixed, rigid pole of 254 mm in diameter, at any velocity between 24 kilometers per hour (15 mph) and 29 kilometers per hour (18 mph).

(4) Vehicles certified as complying with the vehicle-to-pole requirements of S9 of 49 CFR 571.214, Side Impact Protection, need not comply with the pole test requirements specified in S6.2(b)(3) of this section.

S6.3 A vehicle need not meet the requirements of S6.1 through S6.2 for:

(a) Any target located on a convertible roof frame or a convertible roof linkage mechanism.

(b) Any target located rearward of a vertical plane 600 mm behind the seating reference point of the rearmost designated seating position. For altered vehicles and vehicles built in two or more stages, including ambulances and motor homes, any target located rearward of a vertical plane 300 mm behind the seating reference point of the driver's designated seating position (tests for altered vehicles and vehicles built in two or more stages do not include, within the time period for measuring HIC(d), any free motion headform contact with components rearward of this plane). If an altered vehicle or vehicle built in two or more stages is equipped with a transverse vertical partition positioned between the seating reference point of the driver's designated seating position and a vertical plane 300 mm behind the seating reference point of the driver's designated seating position, any target located rearward of the vertical partition is excluded.

(c) Any target in a vehicle manufactured in two or more stages that is delivered to a final stage manufacturer without an occupant compartment. Note: Motor homes, ambulances, and other vehicles manufactured using a chassis cab, a cut-away van, or any other incomplete vehicle delivered to a final stage manufacturer with a furnished front compartment are not excluded under this S6.3(c).

(d) Any target in a walk-in van-type vehicles.

(e) Any target located on the seat belt mounting structures, door frames and other door frames before December 1, 2005.

S7 Performance Criterion. The HIC(d) shall not exceed 1000 when calculated in accordance with the following formula:

$\mathrm{HIC}={\left[\frac{1}{\left({t}_{2}-{t}_{1}\right)}{\int }_{{t}_{1}}^{{t}_{2}}\mathrm{adt}\right]}^{2.5}\left({t}_{2}-{t}_{1}\right)$

Where the term a is the resultant head acceleration expressed as a multiple of g (the acceleration of gravity), and t1 and t2 are any two points in time during the impact which are separated by not more than a 36 millisecond time interval.

(a) For the free motion headform; HIC(d) = 0.75446 (free motion headform HIC) + 166.4.

(b) For the part 572, subpart M, anthropomorphic test dummy; HIC(d) = HIC.

S8 Target location and test conditions. The vehicle shall be tested and the targets specified in S10 located under the following conditions.

S8.1 Vehicle test attitude.

(a) The vehicle is supported off its suspension at an attitude determined in accordance with S8.1(b).

(b) Directly above each wheel opening, determine the vertical distance between a level surface and a standard reference point on the test vehicle's body under the conditions of S8.1(b)(1) through S8.1(b)(3).

(1) The vehicle is loaded to its unloaded vehicle weight, plus its rated cargo and luggage capacity or 136 kg, whichever is less, secured in the luggage area. The load placed in the cargo area is centered over the longitudinal centerline of the vehicle.

(2) The vehicle is filled to 100 percent of all fluid capacities.

(3) All tires are inflated to the manufacturer's specifications listed on the vehicle's tire placard.

S8.2 Windows and Sunroofs.

(a) Movable vehicle windows are placed in the fully open position.

(b) For testing, any window on the opposite side of the longitudinal centerline of the vehicle from the target to be impacted may be removed.

(c) For testing, movable sunroofs are placed in the fully open position.

S8.3 Convertible tops. The top, if any, of convertibles and open-body type vehicles is in the closed passenger compartment configuration.

S8.4 Doors.

(a) Except as provided in S8.4(b) or S8.4(c), doors, including any rear hatchback or tailgate, are fully closed and latched but not locked.

(b) During testing, any side door on the opposite side of the longitudinal centerline of the vehicle from the target to be impacted may be open or removed.

(c) During testing, any rear hatchback or tailgate may be open or removed for testing any target except targets on the rear header, rearmost pillars, or the rearmost other side rail on either side of the vehicle.

S8.5 Sun visors. Each sun visor shall be placed in any position where one side of the visor is in contact with the vehicle interior surface (windshield, side rail, front header, roof, etc.).

S8.6 Steering wheel and seats.

(a) During targeting, the steering wheel and seats may be placed in any position intended for use while the vehicle is in motion.

(b) During testing, the steering wheel and seats may be removed from the vehicle.

S8.7 Seat belt anchorages. If a target is on a seat belt anchorage, and if the seat belt anchorage is adjustable, tests are conducted with the anchorage adjusted to a point midway between the two extreme adjustment positions. If the anchorage has distinct adjustment positions, none of which is midway between the two extreme positions, tests are conducted with the anchorage adjusted to the nearest position above the midpoint of the two extreme positions.

S8.8 Temperature and humidity.

(a) The ambient temperature is between 19 degrees C. and 26 degrees C., at any relative humidity between 10 percent and 70 percent.

(b) Tests are not conducted unless the headform specified in S8.9 is exposed to the conditions specified in S8.8(a) for a period not less than four hours.

S8.9 Headform. The headform used for testing conforms to the specifications of part 572, subpart L of this chapter.

S8.10 Forehead impact zone. The forehead impact zone of the headform is determined according to the procedure specified in (a) through (f).

(a) Position the headform so that the baseplate of the skull is horizontal. The midsagittal plane of the headform is designated as Plane S.

(b) From the center of the threaded hole on top of the headform, draw a 69 mm line forward toward the forehead, coincident with Plane S, along the contour of the outer skin of the headform. The front end of the line is designated as Point P. From Point P, draw a 100 mm line forward toward the forehead, coincident with Plane S, along the contour of the outer skin of the headform. The front end of the line is designated as Point O.

(c) Draw a 125 mm line which is coincident with a horizontal plane along the contour of the outer skin of the forehead from left to right through Point O so that the line is bisected at Point O. The end of the line on the left side of the headform is designated as Point a and the end on the right as Point b.

(d) Draw another 125 mm line which is coincident with a vertical plane along the contour of the outer skin of the forehead through Point P so that the line is bisected at Point P. The end of the line on the left side of the headform is designated as Point c and the end on the right as Point d.

(e) Draw a line from Point a to Point c along the contour of the outer skin of the headform using a flexible steel tape. Using the same method, draw a line from Point b to Point d.

(f) The forehead impact zone is the surface area on the FMH forehead bounded by lines a-O-b and c-P-d, and a-c and b-d.

S8.11 Target circle. The area of the vehicle to be impacted by the headform is marked with a solid circle 12.7 mm in diameter, centered on the targets specified in S10, using any transferable opaque coloring medium.

S8.12 Location of head center of gravity.

(a) Location of head center of gravity for front outboard designated seating positions (CG-F). For determination of head center of gravity, all directions are in reference to the seat orientation.

(1) Location of rearmost CG-F (CG-F2). For front outboard designated seating positions, the head center of gravity with the seat in its rearmost normal design driving or riding position (CG-F2) is located 160 mm rearward and 660 mm upward from the seating reference point.

(2) Location of forwardmost CG-F (CG-F1). For front outboard designated seating positions, the head center of gravity with the seat in its forwardmost adjustment position (CG-F1) is located horizontally forward of CG-F2 by the distance equal to the fore-aft distance of the seat track.

(b) Location of head center of gravity for rear outboard designated seating positions (CG-R). For rear outboard designated seating positions, the head center of gravity (CG-R) is located 160 mm rearward, relative to the seat orientation, and 660 mm upward from the seating reference point.

S8.13 Impact configuration.

S8.13.1 The headform is launched from any location inside the vehicle which meets the conditions of S8.13.4. At the time of launch, the midsagittal plane of the headform is vertical and the headform is upright.

S8.13.2 The headform travels freely through the air, along a velocity vector that is perpendicular to the headform's skull cap plate, not less than 25 mm before making any contact with the vehicle.

S8.13.3 At the time of initial contact between the headform and the vehicle interior surface, some portion of the forehead impact zone of the headform must contact some portion of the target circle.

S8.13.4 Approach angles. The headform launching angle is as specified in Table 1. For components for which Table 1 specifies a range of angles, the headform launching angle is within the limits determined using the procedures specified in S8.13.4.1 and S8.13.4.2, and within the range specified in Table 1, using the orthogonal reference system specified in S9.

Table 1 - Approach Angle Limits (in Degrees)

Target component Horizontal Angle Vertical angle
Rear Header 0 or 360 0-50
Left Side Rail 270 0-50
Right Side Rail 90 0-50
Left Sliding Door Track 270 0-50
Right Sliding Door Track 90 0-50
Left A-Pillar 195-255 −5-50
Right A-Pillar 105-165 −5-50
Left B-Pillar 195-345 −10-50
Right B-Pillar 15-165 −10-50
Left Door Frame 195-345 −10-50
Right Door Frame 15-165 −10-50
Other Left Pillars 270 −10-50
Other Right Pillars 90 −10-50
Other Left Door Frame 270 −10-50
Other Right Door Frame 90 −10-50
Left Rearmost Pillar 270-345 −10-50
Right Rearmost Pillar 15-90 −10-50
Upper Roof Any 0-50
Overhead Rollbar 0 or 180 0-50
Brace or Stiffener 90 or 270 0-50
Left Seat Belt Mounting Structure 195-345 −10-50
Right Seat Belt Mounting Structure 15-165 −10-50
Seat Belt Anchorages Any 0-50

S8.13.4.1 Horizontal Approach Angles for Headform Impacts.

(a) Left A-Pillar Horizontal Approach Angles.

(1) Locate a line formed by the shortest horizontal distance between CG-F1 for the left seat and the right A-pillar. The maximum horizontal approach angle for the left A-pillar equals 360 degrees minus the angle formed by that line and the X-axis of the vehicle, measured counterclockwise.

(2) Locate a line formed by the shortest horizontal distance between CG-F2 for the left seat and the left A-pillar. The minimum horizontal approach angle for the left A-pillar impact equals the angle formed by that line and the X-axis of the vehicle, measured counterclockwise.

(b) Right A-Pillar Horizontal Approach Angles.

(1) Locate a line formed by the shortest horizontal distance between CG-F1 for the right seat and the left A-pillar. The minimum horizontal approach angle for the right A-pillar equals 360 degrees minus the angle formed by that line and the X-axis of the vehicle, measured counterclockwise.

(2) Locate a line formed by the shortest horizontal distance between CG-F2 for the right seat and the right A-pillar. The maximum horizontal approach angle for the right A-pillar impact equals the angle formed by that line and the X-axis of the vehicle measured counterclockwise.

(c) Left B-Pillar Horizontal Approach Angles.

(1) Locate a line formed by the shortest horizontal distance between CG-F2 for the left seat and the left B-pillar. The maximum horizontal approach angle for the left B-pillar equals the angle formed by that line and the X-axis of the vehicle measured counterclockwise, or 270 degrees, whichever is greater.

(2) Locate a line formed by the shortest horizontal distance between CG-R for the left seat and the left B-pillar. The minimum horizontal approach angle for the left B-pillar equals the angle formed by that line and the X-axis of the vehicle measured counterclockwise.

(d) Right B-Pillar Horizontal Approach Angles.

(1) Locate a line formed by the shortest horizontal distance between CG-F2 for the right seat and the right B-pillar. The minimum horizontal approach angle for the right B-pillar equals the angle formed by that line and the X-axis of the vehicle measured counterclockwise, or 90 degrees, whichever is less.

(2) Locate a line formed by the shortest horizontal distance between CG-R for the right seat and the right B-pillar. The maximum horizontal approach angle for the right B-pillar equals the angle between that line and the X-axis of the vehicle measured counterclockwise.

(e) Left door frame horizontal approach angles.

(1) Locate a line formed by the shortest horizontal distance between CG-F2 for the left seat and the left door frame. The maximum horizontal approach angle for the left door frame equals the angle formed by that line and the X-axis of the vehicle measured counterclockwise, or 270 degrees, whichever is greater.

(2) Locate a line formed by the shortest horizontal distance between CG-R for the left seat and the left door frame. The minimum horizontal approach angle for the left door frame equals the angle formed by that line and the X-axis of the vehicle measured counterclockwise.

(f) Right door frame horizontal approach angles.

(1) Locate a line formed by the shortest horizontal distance between CG-F2 for the right seat and the right door frame. The minimum horizontal approach angle for the right door frame equals the angle formed by that line and the X-axis of the vehicle measured counterclockwise, or 90 degrees, whichever is less.

(2) Locate a line formed by the shortest horizontal distance between CG-R for the right seat and the right door frame. The maximum horizontal approach angle for the right door frame equals the angle formed by that line and the X-axis of the vehicle measured counterclockwise

(g) Left seat belt mounting structure horizontal approach angles.

(1) Locate a line formed by the shortest horizontal distance between CG-F2 for the left seat and the left seat belt mounting structure. If the seat belt mounting structure is below a horizontal plane passing through CG-F2 for the left seat, locate the point 200 mm directly below CG-F2 and locate a line formed by the shortest horizontal distance between that point and the left seat belt mounting structure. The maximum horizontal approach angle for the left seat belt mounting structure equals the angle formed by that line and the X-axis of the vehicle measured counterclockwise, or 270 degrees, whichever is greater.

(2) Locate a line formed by the shortest horizontal distance between CG-R for the left seat and the left seat belt mounting structure. If the seat belt mounting structure is below a horizontal plane passing through CG-R for the left seat, locate the point 200 mm directly below CG-R and locate a line formed by the shortest horizontal distance between that point and the left seat belt mounting structure. The minimum horizontal approach angle for the left seat belt mounting structure equals the angle formed by that line and the X-axis of the vehicle measured counterclockwise. If the CG-R does not exist, or is forward of the seat belt mounting structure, the maximum horizontal approach angle is 270 degrees.

(h) Right seat belt mounting structure horizontal approach angles.

(1) Locate a line formed by the shortest horizontal distance between CG-F2 for the right seat and the right seat belt mounting structure. If the seat belt mounting structure is below a horizontal plane passing through CG-F2 for the right seat, locate the point 200 mm directly below that CG-F2 and locate a line formed by the shortest horizontal distance between that point and the right seat belt mounting structure. The minimum horizontal approach angle for the right seat belt mounting structure equals the angle formed by that line and the X-axis of the vehicle measured counterclockwise, or 90 degrees, whichever is less.

(2) Locate a line formed by the shortest horizontal distance between CG-R for the right seat and the right seat belt mounting structure. If the seat belt mounting structure is below a horizontal plane passing through CG-R, locate the point 200 mm directly below CG-R and locate a line formed by the shortest horizontal distance between that point and the right seat belt mounting structure. The maximum horizontal approach angle for the right seat belt mounting structure equals the angle formed by that line and the X-axis of the vehicle measured counterclockwise. If the CG-R does not exist, or is forward of the seat belt mounting structure, the maximum horizontal approach angle is 90 degrees.

S8.13.4.2 Vertical Approach Angles

(a) Position the forehead impact zone in contact with the selected target at the prescribed horizontal approach angle. If a range of horizontal approach angles is prescribed, position the forehead impact zone in contact with the selected target at any horizontal approach angle within the range which may be used for testing.

(b) Keeping the forehead impact zone in contact with the target, rotate the FMH upward until the lip, chin or other part of the FMH contacts the component or other portion of the vehicle interior.

(1) Except as provided in S8.13.4.2(b)(2), keeping the forehead impact zone in contact with the target, rotate the FMH downward by 5 degrees for each target to determine the maximum vertical angle.

(2) For all pillars, except A-pillars, and all door frames and seat belt mounting structures, keeping the forehead impact zone in contact with the target, rotate the FMH downward by 10 degrees for each target to determine the maximum vertical angle.

S8.14 Multiple impacts.

(a) A vehicle being tested may be impacted multiple times, subject to the limitations in S8.14(b), (c), (d) and (e).

(b) As measured as provided in S8.14(d), impacts within 300 mm of each other may not occur less than 30 minutes apart.

(c) As measured as provided in S8.14(d), no impact may occur within 150 mm of any other impact.

(d) For S8.14(b) and S8.14(c), the distance between impacts is the distance between the center of the target circle specified in S8.11 for each impact, measured along the vehicle interior.

(e) No impact may occur within the “exclusion zone” of any pillar target specified in S10.1 through S10.4, door frame target specified in S10.14 and S10.15, upper roof target specified in S10.9, or seat belt mounting structure target specified in S10.16. The “exclusion zone” is determined according to the procedure in S8.14(f) through S8.14(k).

(f) Locate the point, Point X, at the center of the target circle specified in S8.11 for the tested target.

(g) Determine two spheres centered on Point X. Radii of these spheres are 150 mm and 200 mm, respectively.

(h) Locate a horizontal plane passing through Point X. Determine the intersection points, if they exist, of the small sphere surface, the horizontal plane, and the vehicle interior surface. Relative to Point X, the point on the left is Point L and the point on the right is Point R.

(i) Locate a vertical plane, Plane Z, passing through Point X and coincident (within ±5°) with the horizontal approach angle used or intended for use in testing the target centered on Point X.

(j) If either Point L or Point R does not exist, extend Line LX and/or Line RX, as appropriate, perpendicular to Plane Z beyond Point X by 150 mm. The end of the line is designated as Point L or Point R, as appropriate.

(k) Locate a vertical plane, Plane ZL, passing through Point L and parallel to Plane Z. Locate another vertical plane, Plane ZR, passing through Point R and parallel to Plane Z. The “exclusion zone” is the vehicle interior surface area between Plane ZL and Plane ZR below the upper boundary of the smaller sphere and above the lower boundary of the larger sphere. Points on the intersection of the vehicle interior surface and the large sphere below the target, the small sphere above the target, Plane ZL and Plane ZR are not included in the “exclusion zone.”

S8.15 Upper Roof. The upper roof of a vehicle is determined according to the procedure specified in S8.15 (a) through (h).

(a) Locate the transverse vertical plane A at the forwardmost point where it contacts the interior roof (including trim) at the vehicle centerline.

(b) Locate the transverse vertical plane B at the rearmost point where it contacts the interior roof (including trim) at the vehicle centerline.

(c) Measure the horizontal distance (D1) between Plane A and Plane B.

(d) Locate the vertical longitudinal plane C at the leftmost point at which a vertical transverse plane, located 300 mm rearward of the A-pillar reference point described in S10.1(a), contacts the interior roof (including trim).

(e) Locate the vertical longitudinal plane D at the rightmost point at which a vertical transverse plane, located 300 mm rearward of the A-pillar reference point described in S10.1(a), contacts the interior roof (including trim).

(f) Measure the horizontal distance (D2) between Plane C and Plane D.

(g) Locate a point (Point M) on the interior roof surface, midway between Plane A and Plane B along the vehicle longitudinal centerline.

(h) The upper roof zone is the area of the vehicle upper interior surface bounded by the four planes described in S8.15(h)(1) and S8.15(h)(2):

(1) A transverse vertical plane E located at a distance of (.35 D1) forward of Point M and a transverse vertical plane F located at a distance of (.35 D1) rearward of Point M, measured horizontally.

(2) A longitudinal vertical plane G located at a distance of (.35 D2) to the left of Point M and a longitudinal vertical plane H located at a distance of (.35 D2) to the right of Point M, measured horizontally.

S8.16 Test weight - vehicle to pole test. Each vehicle shall be loaded to its unloaded vehicle weight, plus 136 kilograms (300 pounds) or its rated cargo and luggage capacity (whichever is less), secured in the luggage or load-carrying area, plus the weight of the necessary anthropomorphic test dummy. Any added test equipment shall be located away from impact areas in secure places in the vehicle.

S8.17 Vehicle test attitude - vehicle to pole test. Determine the distance between a level surface and a standard reference point on the test vehicle's body, directly above each wheel opening, when the vehicle is in its “as delivered” condition. The “as delivered” condition is the vehicle as received at the test site, filled to 100 percent of all fluid capacities and with all tires inflated to the manufacturer's specifications listed on the vehicle's tire placard. Determine the distance between the same level surface and the same standard reference points in the vehicle's “fully loaded condition.” The “fully loaded condition” is the test vehicle loaded in accordance with S8.16. The load placed in the cargo area shall be centered over the longitudinal centerline of the vehicle. The pretest vehicle attitude shall be the same as either the “as delivered” or “fully loaded” attitude or is between the “as delivered” attitude and the “fully loaded” attitude. If the test configuration requires that the vehicle be elevated off the ground, the pretest vehicle attitude must be maintained.

S8.18 Adjustable seats - vehicle to pole test. Initially, adjustable seats shall be adjusted as specified in S8.3.2.1 of Standard 214 (49 CFR 571.214).

S8.19 Adjustable seat back placement - vehicle to pole test. Initially, position adjustable seat backs in the manner specified in S8.3.2.2 of Standard 214 (49 CFR 571.214).

S8.20 Adjustable steering wheels - vehicle to pole test. Adjustable steering controls shall be adjusted so that the steering wheel hub is at the geometric center of the locus it describes when it is moved through its full range of driving positions.

S8.21 Windows and sunroof - vehicle to pole test. Movable windows and vents shall be placed in the fully open position. Any sunroof shall be placed in the fully closed position.

S8.22 Convertible tops - vehicle to pole test. The top, if any, of convertibles and open-body type vehicles shall be in the closed passenger compartment configuration.

S8.23 Doors - vehicle to pole test. Doors, including any rear hatchback or tailgate, shall be fully closed and latched but not locked.

S8.24 Impact reference line - vehicle to pole test. On the striking side of the vehicle, place an impact reference line at the intersection of the vehicle exterior and a transverse vertical plane passing through the center of gravity of the head of the dummy seated in accordance with S8.28, in the front outboard designated seating position.

S8.25 Rigid Pole - vehicle to pole test. The rigid pole is a vertical metal structure beginning no more than 102 millimeters (4 inches) above the lowest point of the tires on the striking side of the test vehicle when the vehicle is loaded as specified in S8.16 and extending above the highest point of the roof of the test vehicle. The pole is 254 mm ±3 mm (10 inches) in diameter and set off from any mounting surface, such as a barrier or other structure, so that the test vehicle will not contact such a mount or support at any time within 100 milliseconds of the initiation of vehicle to pole contact.

S8.26 Impact configuration - vehicle to pole test. The rigid pole shall be stationary. The test vehicle shall be propelled sideways so that its line of forward motion forms an angle of 90 degrees (±3 degrees) with the vehicle's longitudinal center line. The impact reference line shall be aligned with the center line of the rigid pole so that, when the vehicle-to-pole contact occurs, the center line of the pole contacts the vehicle area bounded by two transverse vertical planes 38 mm (1.5 inches) forward and aft of the impact reference line.

S8.27 Anthropomorphic test dummy - vehicle to pole test.

S8.27.1 The anthropomorphic test dummy used for evaluation of a vehicle's head impact protection shall conform to the requirements of subpart M of part 572 of this chapter (49 CFR part 572, subpart M). In a test in which the test vehicle is striking its left side, the dummy is to be configured and instrumented to strike on its left side, in accordance with subpart M of part 572. In a test in which the test vehicle is striking its right side, the dummy is to be configured and instrumented to strike its right side, in accordance with subpart M of part 572.

S8.27.2 The part 572, subpart M, test dummy specified is clothed in form fitting cotton stretch garments with short sleeves and midcalf length pants. Each foot of the test dummy is equipped with a size 11EEE shoe, which meets the configuration size, sole, and heel thickness specifications of MIL-S-13192 (1976) and weighs 0.57 ±0.09 kilograms (1.25 ±0.2 pounds).

S8.27.3 Limb joints shall be set at between 1 and 2 g's. Leg joints are adjusted with the torso in the supine position.

S8.27.4 The stabilized temperature of the test dummy at the time of the side impact test shall be at any temperature between 20.6 degrees C. and 22.2 degrees C.

S8.27.5 The acceleration data from the accelerometers installed inside the skull cavity of the test dummy are processed according to the practices set forth in SAE Recommended Practice J211, March 1995, “Instrumentation for Impact Tests,” Class 1000.

S8.28 Positioning procedure for the Part 572 Subpart M test dummy - vehicle to pole test. The part 572, subpart M, test dummy is initially positioned in the front outboard seating position on the struck side of the vehicle in accordance with the provisions of S12.1 of Standard 214 (49 CFR 571.214), and the vehicle seat is positioned as specified in S8.3.2.1 and S8.3.2.2 of that standard. The position of the dummy is then measured as follows. Locate the horizontal plane passing through the dummy head center of gravity. Identify the rearmost point on the dummy head in that plane. Construct a line in the plane that contains the rearward point of the front door daylight opening and is perpendicular to the longitudinal vehicle centerline. Measure the longitudinal distance between the rearmost point on the dummy head and this line. If this distance is less than 50 mm (2 inches) or the point is not forward of the line, then the seat and/or dummy positions is adjusted as follows. First, the seat back angle is adjusted, a maximum of 5 degrees, until a 50 mm (2 inches) distance is achieved. If this is not sufficient to produce the 50 mm (2 inches) distance, the seat is moved forward until the 50 mm (2 inches) distance is achieved or until the knees of the dummy contact the dashboard or knee bolster, whichever comes first. If the required distance cannot be achieved through movement of the seat, the seat back angle is adjusted even further forward until the 50 mm (2 inches) distance is obtained or until the seat back is in its fully upright locking position.

S9. Orthogonal Reference System. The approach angles specified in S8.13.4 are determined using the reference system specified in S9.1 through S9.4.

S9.1 An orthogonal reference system consisting of a longitudinal X axis and a transverse Y axis in the same horizontal plane and a vertical Z axis through the intersection of X and Y is used to define the horizontal direction of approach of the headform. The X-Z plane is the vertical longitudinal zero plane and is parallel to the longitudinal centerline of the vehicle. The X-Y plane is the horizontal zero plane parallel to the ground. The Y-Z plane is the vertical transverse zero plane that is perpendicular to the X-Y and X-Z planes. The X coordinate is negative forward of the Y-Z plane and positive to the rear. The Y coordinate is negative to the left of the X-Z plane and positive to the right. The Z coordinate is negative below the X-Y plane and positive above it. (See Figure 1.)

S9.2 The origin of the reference system is the center of gravity of the headform at the time immediately prior to launch for each test.

S9.3 The horizontal approach angle is the angle between the X axis and the headform impact velocity vector projected onto the horizontal zero plane, measured in the horizontal zero plane in the counter-clockwise direction. A 0 degree horizontal vector and a 360 degree horizontal vector point in the positive X direction; a 90 degree horizontal vector points in the positive Y direction; a 180 degree horizontal vector points in the negative X direction; and a 270 horizontal degree vector points in the negative Y direction. (See Figure 2.)

S9.4 The vertical approach angle is the angle between the horizontal plane and the velocity vector, measured in the midsagittal plane of the headform. A 0 degree vertical vector in Table I coincides with the horizontal plane and a vertical vector of greater than 0 degrees in Table I makes an upward angle of the same number of degrees with that plane.

S10 Target Locations.

(a) The target locations specified in S10.1 through S10.16 are located on both sides of the vehicle and, except as specified in S10(b), are determined using the procedures specified in those paragraphs.

(b) Except as specified in S10(c), if there is no combination of horizontal and vertical angles specified in S8.13.4 at which the forehead impact zone of the free motion headform can contact one of the targets located using the procedures in S10.1 through S10.16, the center of that target is moved to any location within a sphere with a radius of 25 mm, centered on the center of the original target, which the forehead impact zone can contact at one or more combination of angles.

(c) If there is no point within the sphere specified in S10(b) which the forehead impact zone of the free motion headform can contact at one or more combination of horizontal and vertical angles specified in S8.13.4, the radius of the sphere is increased by 25 mm increments until the sphere contains at least one point that can be contacted at one or more combination of angles.

S10.1 A-pillar targets

(a) A-pillar reference point and target AP1. On the vehicle exterior, locate a transverse vertical plane (Plane 1) which contacts the rearmost point of the windshield trim. The intersection of Plane 1 and the vehicle exterior surface is Line 1. Measuring along the vehicle exterior surface, locate a point (Point 1) on Line 1 that is 125 mm inboard of the intersection of Line 1 and a vertical plane tangent to the vehicle at the outboardmost point on Line 1 with the vehicle side door open. Measuring along the vehicle exterior surface in a longitudinal vertical plane (Plane 2) passing through Point 1, locate a point (Point 2) 50 mm rearward of Point 1. Locate the A-pillar reference point (Point APR) at the intersection of the interior roof surface and a line that is perpendicular to the vehicle exterior surface at Point 2. Target AP1 is located at point APR.

(b) Target AP2. Locate the horizontal plane (Plane 3) which intersects point APR. Locate the horizontal plane (Plane 4) which is 88 mm below Plane 3. Target AP2 is the point in Plane 4 and on the A-pillar which is closest to CG-F2 for the nearest seating position.

(c) Target AP3. Locate the horizontal plane (Plane 5) containing the highest point at the intersection of the dashboard and the A-pillar. Locate a horizontal plane (Plane 6) half-way between Plane 3 and Plane 5. Target AP3 is the point on Plane 6 and the A-pillar which is closest to CG-F1 for the nearest seating position.

S10.2 B-pillar targets.

(a) B-pillar reference point and target BP1. Locate the point (Point 3) on the vehicle interior at the intersection of the horizontal plane passing through the highest point of the forwardmost door opening and the centerline of the width of the B-pillar, as viewed laterally. Locate a transverse vertical plane (Plane 7) which passes through Point 3. Locate the point (Point 4) at the intersection of the interior roof surface, Plane 7, and the plane, described in S8.15(h), defining the nearest edge of the upper roof. The B-pillar reference point (Point BPR) is the point located at the middle of the line from Point 3 to Point 4 in Plane 7, measured along the vehicle interior surface. Target BP1 is located at Point BPR.

(b) Target BP2. If a seat belt anchorage is located on the B-pillar, Target BP2 is located at any point on the anchorage.

(c) Target BP3. Target BP3 is located in accordance with this paragraph. Locate a horizontal plane (Plane 8) which intersects Point BPR. Locate a horizontal plane (Plane 9) which passes through the lowest point of the daylight opening forward of the pillar. Locate a horizontal plane (Plane 10) half-way between Plane 8 and Plane 9. Target BP3 is the point located in Plane 10 and on the interior surface of the B-pillar, which is closest to CG-F(2) for the nearest seating position.

(d) Target BP4. Locate a horizontal plane (Plane 11) half-way between Plane 9 and Plane 10. Target BP4 is the point located in Plane 11 and on the interior surface of the B-pillar which is closest to CG-R for the nearest seating position.

S10.3 Other pillar targets.

(a) Target OP1.

(1) Except as provided in S10.3(a)(2), target OP1 is located in accordance with this paragraph. Locate the point (Point 5), on the vehicle interior, at the intersection of the horizontal plane through the highest point of the highest adjacent door opening or daylight opening (if no adjacent door opening) and the centerline of the width of the other pillar, as viewed laterally. Locate a transverse vertical plane (Plane 12) passing through Point 5. Locate the point (Point 6) at the intersection of the interior roof surface, Plane 12 and the plane, described in S8.15(h), defining the nearest edge of the upper roof. The other pillar reference point (Point OPR) is the point located at the middle of the line between Point 5 and Point 6 in Plane 12, measured along the vehicle interior surface. Target OP1 is located at Point OPR.

(2) If a seat belt anchorage is located on the pillar, Target OP1 is any point on the anchorage.

(b) Target OP2. Locate the horizontal plane (Plane 13) intersecting Point OPR. Locate a horizontal plane (Plane 14) passing through the lowest point of the daylight opening forward of the pillar. Locate a horizontal plane (Plane 15) half-way between Plane 13 and Plane 14. Target OP2 is the point located on the interior surface of the pillar at the intersection of Plane 15 and the centerline of the width of the pillar, as viewed laterally.

S10.4 Rearmost pillar targets

(a) Rearmost pillar reference point and target RP1. Locate the point (Point 7) at the corner of the upper roof nearest to the pillar. The distance between Point M, as described in S8.15(g), and Point 7, as measured along the vehicle interior surface, is D. Extend the line from Point M to Point 7 along the vehicle interior surface in the same vertical plane by (3*D/7) beyond Point 7 or until the edge of a daylight opening, whichever comes first, to locate Point 8. The rearmost pillar reference point (Point RPR) is at the midpoint of the line between Point 7 and Point 8, measured along the vehicle interior. Target RP1 is located at Point RPR.

(b) Target RP2.

(1) Except as provided in S10.4(b)(2), target RP2 is located in accordance with this paragraph. Locate the horizontal plane (Plane 16) through Point RPR. Locate the horizontal plane (Plane 17) 150 mm below Plane 16. Target RP2 is located in Plane 17 and on the pillar at the location closest to CG-R for the nearest designated seating position.

(2) If a seat belt anchorage is located on the pillar, Target RP2 is any point on the anchorage.

(a) Target FH1. Locate the contour line (Line 2) on the vehicle interior trim which passes through the APR and is parallel to the contour line (Line 3) at the upper edge of the windshield on the vehicle interior. Locate the point (Point 9) on Line 2 that is 125 mm inboard of the APR, measured along that line. Locate a longitudinal vertical plane (Plane 18) that passes through Point 9. Target FH1 is located at the intersection of Plane 18 and the upper vehicle interior, halfway between a transverse vertical plane (Plane 19) through Point 9 and a transverse vertical plane (Plane 20) through the intersection of Plane 18 and Line 3.

(b) Target FH2.

(1) Except as provided in S10.5(b)(2), target FH2 is located in accordance with this paragraph. Locate a point (Point 10) 275 mm inboard of Point APR, along Line 2. Locate a longitudinal vertical plane (Plane 21) that passes through Point 10. Target FH2 is located at the intersection of Plane 21 and the upper vehicle interior, halfway between a transverse vertical plane (Plane 22) through Point 10 and a transverse vertical plane (Plane 23) through the intersection of Plane 21 and Line 3.

(2) If a sun roof opening is located forward of the front edge of the upper roof and intersects the mid-sagittal plane of a dummy seated in either front outboard seating position, target FH2 is the nearest point that is forward of a transverse vertical plane (Plane 24) through CG-F(2) and on the intersection of the mid-sagittal plane and the interior sunroof opening.

S10.6 Targets on the side rail between the A-pillar and the B-pillar or rearmost pillar in vehicles with only two pillars on each side of the vehicle.

(a) Target SR1. Locate a transverse vertical plane (Plane 25) 150 mm rearward of Point APR. Locate the point (Point 11) at the intersection of Plane 25 and the upper edge of the forwardmost door opening. Locate the point (Point 12) at the intersection of the interior roof surface, Plane 25 and the plane, described in S8.15(h), defining the nearest edge of the upper roof. Target SR1 is located at the middle of the line between Point 11 and Point 12 in Plane 25, measured along the vehicle interior.

(b) Target SR2. Locate a transverse vertical plane (Plane 26) 300 mm rearward of the APR or 300 mm forward of the BPR (or the RPR in vehicles with no B-pillar). Locate the point (Point 13) at the intersection of Plane 26 and the upper edge of the forwardmost door opening. Locate the point (Point 14) at the intersection of the interior roof surface, Plane 26 and the plane, described in S8.15(h), defining the nearest edge of the upper roof. Target SR2 is located at the middle of the line between Point 13 and Point 14 in Plane 26, measured along the vehicle interior.

S10.7 Other side rail target (target SR3).

(a) Except as provided in S10.7(b), target SR3 is located in accordance with this paragraph. Locate a transverse vertical plane (Plane 27) 150 mm rearward of either Point BPR or Point OPR. Locate the point (Point 15) as provided in either S10.7(a)(1) or S10.7(a)(2), as appropriate. Locate the point (Point 16) at the intersection of the interior roof surface, Plane 27 and the plane, described in S8.15(h), defining the nearest edge of the upper roof. Target SR3 is located at the middle of the line between Point 15 and Point 16 in Plane 27, measured along the vehicle interior surface.

(1) If Plane 27 intersects a door or daylight opening, the Point 15 is located at the intersection of Plane 27 and the upper edge of the door opening or daylight opening.

(2) If Plane 27 does not intersect a door or daylight opening, the Point 15 is located on the vehicle interior at the intersection of Plane 27 and the horizontal plane through the highest point of the door or daylight opening nearest Plane 27. If the adjacent door(s) or daylight opening(s) are equidistant to Plane 27, Point 15 is located on the vehicle interior at the intersection of Plane 27 and either horizontal plane through the highest point of each door or daylight opening.

(b) Except as provided in S10.7(c), if a grab handle is located on the side rail, target SR3 is located at any point on the anchorage of the grab-handle. Folding grab-handles are in their stowed position for testing.

(c) If a seat belt anchorage is located on the side rail, target SR3 is located at any point on the anchorage.

S10.8 Rear header target (target RH). Locate the point (Point 17) at the intersection of the surface of the upper vehicle interior, the mid-sagittal plane (Plane 28) of the outboard rearmost dummy and the plane, described in S8.15(h), defining the rear edge of the upper roof. Locate the point (Point 18) as provided in S10.8(a) or S10.8(b), as appropriate. Except as provided in S10.8(c), Target RH is located at the mid-point of the line that is between Point 17 and Point 18 and is in Plane 28, as measured along the surface of the vehicle interior.

(a) If Plane 28 intersects a rear door opening or daylight opening, then Point 18 is located at the intersection of Plane 28 and the upper edge of the door opening or the daylight opening (if no door opening).

(b) If Plane 28 does not intersect a rear door opening or daylight opening, then Point 18 is located on the vehicle interior at the intersection of Plane 28 and a horizontal plane through the highest point of the door or daylight opening nearest to Plane 28. If the adjacent door(s) or daylight opening(s) are equidistant to Plane 28, Point 18 is located on the vehicle interior at the intersection of Plane 28 and either horizontal plane through the highest point of each door or daylight opening.

(c) If Target RH is more than 112 mm from Point 18 on the line that is between Point 17 and Point 18 and is in Plane 28, as measured along the surface of the vehicle interior, then Target RH is the point on that line which is 112 mm from Point 18.

S10.9 Upper roof target (target UR). Target UR is any point on the upper roof.

S10.10 Sliding door track target (target SD). Locate the transverse vertical plane (Plane 29) passing through the middle of the widest opening of the sliding door, measured horizontally and parallel to the vehicle longitudinal centerline. Locate the point (Point 19) at the intersection of the surface of the upper vehicle interior, Plane 29 and the plane, described in S8.15(h), defining the nearest edge of the upper roof. Locate the point (Point 20) at the intersection of Plane 29 and the upper edge of the sliding door opening. Target SD is located at the middle of the line between Point 19 and Point 20 in Plane 29, measured along the vehicle interior.

S10.11 Roll-bar targets.

(a) Target RB1. Locate a longitudinal vertical plane (Plane 30) at the mid-sagittal plane of a dummy seated in any outboard designated seating position. Target RB1 is located on the roll-bar and in Plane 30 at the location closest to either CG-F2 or CG-R, as appropriate, for the same dummy.

(b) Target RB2. If a seat belt anchorage is located on the roll-bar, Target RB2 is any point on the anchorage.

S10.12 Stiffener targets.

(a) Target ST1. Locate a transverse vertical plane (Plane 31) containing either CG-F2 or CG-R, as appropriate, for any outboard designated seating position. Target ST1 is located on the stiffener and in Plane 31 at the location closest to either CG-F2 or CG-R, as appropriate.

(b) Target ST2. If a seat belt anchorage is located on the stiffener, Target ST2 is any point on the anchorage.

S10.13 Brace target (target BT) Target BT is any point on the width of the brace as viewed laterally from inside the passenger compartment.

S10.14 Door frame targets.

(a) Target DF 1. Locate the point (Point 21) on the vehicle interior at the intersection of the horizontal plane passing through the highest point of the forward door opening and a transverse vertical plane (Plane 32 ) tangent to the rearmost edge of the forward door, as viewed laterally with the adjacent door open. Locate the point (Point 22) at the intersection of the interior roof surface, Plane 32, and the plane, described in S8.15(h), defining the nearest edge of the upper roof. The door frame reference point (Point DFR) is the point located at the middle of the line from Point 21 to Point 22 in Plane 32, measured along the vehicle interior surface. Target DF1 is located at Point DFR.

(b) Target DF2. If a seat belt anchorage is located on the door frame, Target DF2 is located at any point on the anchorage.

(c) Target DF3. Locate a horizontal plane (Plane 33) which intersects Point DFR. Locate a horizontal plane (Plane 34) that passes through the lowest point of the adjacent daylight opening forward of the door frame. Locate a horizontal plane (Plane 35) half-way between Plane 33 and Plane 34. Target DF3 is the point located in Plane 35 and on the interior surface of the door frame, which is closest to CG-F2 for the nearest seating position.

(d) Target DF4. Locate a horizontal plane (Plane 36) half-way between Plane 34 and Plane 35. Target DF4 is the point located in Plane 36 and on the interior surface of the door frame that is closest to CG-R for the nearest seating position.

S10.15 Other door frame targets.

(a) Target OD1.

(1) Except as provided in S10.15(a)(2), target OD1 is located in accordance with this paragraph. Locate the point (Point 23) on the vehicle interior, at the intersection of the horizontal plane through the highest point of the highest adjacent door opening or daylight opening (if there is no adjacent door opening) and the center line of the width of the other door frame, as viewed laterally with the doors in the closed position. Locate a transverse vertical plane (Plane 37) passing through Point 23. Locate the point (Point 24) at the intersection of the interior roof surface, Plane 37 and the plane, described in S8.15(h), defining the nearest edge of the upper roof. The other door frame reference point (Point ODR) is the point located at the middle of the line between Point 23 and Point 24 in Plane 37, measured along the vehicle interior surface. Target OD1 is located at Point ODR.

(2) If a seat belt anchorage is located on the door frame, Target OD1 is any point on the anchorage.

(b) Target OD2. Locate the horizontal plane (Plane 38) intersecting Point ODR. Locate a horizontal plane (Plane 39) passing through the lowest point of the daylight opening forward of the door frame. Locate a horizontal plane (Plane 40) half-way between Plane 38 and Plane 39. Target OD2 is the point located on the interior surface of the door frame at the intersection of Plane 40 and the center line of the width of the door frames, as viewed laterally, with the doors in the closed position.

S10.16 Seat belt mounting structure targets.

(a) Target SB1. Target SB1 is located at any point on the seat belt anchorage mounted on the seat belt mounting structure.

(b) Target SB2. Locate a horizontal plane (Plane 41), containing either CG-F2 or CG-R, as appropriate, for any outboard designated seating position whose seating reference point, SgRP, is forward of and closest to, the vertical center line of the width of the seat belt mounting structure as viewed laterally. Target SB2 is located on the seat belt mounting structure and in Plane 41 at the location closest to either CG-F2 or CG-R, as appropriate.

(c) Target SB3. Locate a horizontal plane (Plane 42), containing CG-R for any outboard designated seating position rearward of the forwardmost designated seating position or positions whose seating reference point, SgRP, is rearward of and closest to, the vertical center line of the width of the seat belt mounting structure, as viewed laterally. Locate a horizontal plane (Plane 43) 200 mm below Plane 42. Target SB3 is located on the seat belt mounting structure and in Plane 43 at the location closest to CG-R, as appropriate.

[62 FR 16725, Apr. 8, 1997]
Editorial Note:
For Federal Register citations affecting § 571.201, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.govinfo.gov.