10 U.S. Code § 130i - Protection of certain facilities and assets from unmanned aircraft

(a) Authority.—
Notwithstanding section 46502 of title 49, or any provision of title 18, the Secretary of Defense may take, and may authorize members of the armed forces and officers and civilian employees of the Department of Defense with assigned duties that include safety, security, or protection of personnel, facilities, or assets, to take, such actions described in subsection (b)(1) that are necessary to mitigate the threat (as defined by the Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation) that an unmanned aircraft system or unmanned aircraft poses to the safety or security of a covered facility or asset.
(b) Actions Described.—
(1) The actions described in this paragraph are the following:
(A)
Detect, identify, monitor, and track the unmanned aircraft system or unmanned aircraft, without prior consent, including by means of intercept or other access of a wire communication, an oral communication, or an electronic communication used to control the unmanned aircraft system or unmanned aircraft.
(B)
Warn the operator of the unmanned aircraft system or unmanned aircraft, including by passive or active, and direct or indirect physical, electronic, radio, and electromagnetic means.
(C)
Disrupt control of the unmanned aircraft system or unmanned aircraft, without prior consent, including by disabling the unmanned aircraft system or unmanned aircraft by intercepting, interfering, or causing interference with wire, oral, electronic, or radio communications used to control the unmanned aircraft system or unmanned aircraft.
(D)
Seize or exercise control of the unmanned aircraft system or unmanned aircraft.
(E)
Seize or otherwise confiscate the unmanned aircraft system or unmanned aircraft.
(F)
Use reasonable force to disable, damage, or destroy the unmanned aircraft system or unmanned aircraft.
(2)
The Secretary of Defense shall develop the actions described in paragraph (1) in coordination with the Secretary of Transportation.
(c) Forfeiture.—
Any unmanned aircraft system or unmanned aircraft described in subsection (a) that is seized by the Secretary of Defense is subject to forfeiture to the United States.
(d) Regulations and Guidance.—
(1)
The Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Transportation may prescribe regulations and shall issue guidance in the respective areas of each Secretary to carry out this section.
(2)
(A)
The Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Transportation shall coordinate in the development of guidance under paragraph (1).
(B)
The Secretary of Defense shall coordinate with the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration before issuing any guidance or otherwise implementing this section if such guidance or implementation might affect aviation safety, civilian aviation and aerospace operations, aircraft airworthiness, or the use of airspace.
(e) Privacy Protection.—The regulations prescribed or guidance issued under subsection (d) shall ensure that—
(1)
the interception or acquisition of, or access to, communications to or from an unmanned aircraft system under this section is conducted in a manner consistent with the fourth amendment to the Constitution and applicable provisions of Federal law;
(2)
communications to or from an unmanned aircraft system are intercepted, acquired, or accessed only to the extent necessary to support a function of the Department of Defense;
(3) records of such communications are not maintained for more than 180 days unless the Secretary of Defense determines that maintenance of such records—
(A)
is necessary to support one or more functions of the Department of Defense; or
(B)
is required for a longer period to support a civilian law enforcement agency or by any other applicable law or regulation; and
(4) such communications are not disclosed outside the Department of Defense unless the disclosure—
(A)
would fulfill a function of the Department of Defense;
(B)
would support a civilian law enforcement agency or the enforcement activities of a regulatory agency of the Federal Government in connection with a criminal or civil investigation of, or any regulatory action with regard to, an action described in subsection (b)(1); or
(C)
is otherwise required by law or regulation.
(f) Budget.—
The Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress, as a part of the defense budget materials for each fiscal year after fiscal year 2018, a consolidated funding display that identifies the funding source for the actions described in subsection (b)(1) within the Department of Defense. The funding display shall be in unclassified form, but may contain a classified annex.
(g) Semiannual Briefings.—
(1) On a semiannual basis during the five-year period beginning March 1, 2018, the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Transportation, shall jointly provide a briefing to the appropriate congressional committees on the activities carried out pursuant to this section. Such briefings shall include—
(A)
policies, programs, and procedures to mitigate or eliminate impacts of such activities to the National Airspace System;
(B)
a description of instances where actions described in subsection (b)(1) have been taken;
(C)
how the Secretaries have informed the public as to the possible use of authorities under this section; and
(D)
how the Secretaries have engaged with Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies to implement and use such authorities.
(2)
Each briefing under paragraph (1) shall be in unclassified form, but may be accompanied by an additional classified briefing.
(h) Rule of Construction.—Nothing in this section may be construed to—
(1)
vest in the Secretary of Defense any authority of the Secretary of Transportation or the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration under title 49; and
(2)
vest in the Secretary of Transportation or the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration any authority of the Secretary of Defense under this title.
(i) Partial Termination.—
(1)
Except as provided by paragraph (2), the authority to carry out this section with respect to the covered facilities or assets specified in clauses (iv) through (viii) of subsection (j)(3)(C) shall terminate on December 31, 2023.
(2)
The President may extend by 180 days the termination date specified in paragraph (1) if before November 15, 2023, the President certifies to Congress that such extension is in the national security interests of the United States.
(j) Definitions.—In this section:
(1) The term “appropriate congressional committees” means—
(A)
the congressional defense committees;
(B)
the Select Committee on Intelligence, the Committee on the Judiciary, and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate; and
(C)
the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, the Committee on the Judiciary, and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives.
(2)
The term “budget”, with respect to a fiscal year, means the budget for that fiscal year that is submitted to Congress by the President under section 1105(a) of title 31.
(3) The term “covered facility or asset” means any facility or asset that—
(A)
is identified by the Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation with respect to potentially impacted airspace, through a risk-based assessment for purposes of this section;
(B)
is located in the United States (including the territories and possessions of the United States); and
(C) directly relates to the missions of the Department of Defense pertaining to—
(i)
nuclear deterrence, including with respect to nuclear command and control, integrated tactical warning and attack assessment, and continuity of government;
(ii)
missile defense;
(iii)
national security space;
(iv)
assistance in protecting the President or the Vice President (or other officer immediately next in order of succession to the office of the President) pursuant to the Presidential Protection Assistance Act of 1976 (18 U.S.C. 3056 note);
(v)
air defense of the United States, including air sovereignty, ground-based air defense, and the National Capital Region integrated air defense system;
(vi)
combat support agencies (as defined in paragraphs (1) through (4) of section 193(f) of this title);
(vii)
special operations activities specified in paragraphs (1) through (9) of section 167(k) of this title;
(viii)
production, storage, transportation, or decommissioning of high-yield explosive munitions, by the Department; or
(ix)
a Major Range and Test Facility Base (as defined in section 196(i) of this title).
(4)
The term “defense budget materials”, with respect to a fiscal year, means the materials submitted to Congress by the Secretary of Defense in support of the budget for that fiscal year.
(6)
The terms “unmanned aircraft” and “unmanned aircraft system” have the meanings given those terms in section 44801 of title 49[1]


[1]  So in original. Probably should be followed by a period.
References in Text

The Presidential Protection Assistance Act of 1976, referred to in subsec. (j)(3)(C)(iv), is Pub. L. 94–524, Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2475, which enacted and amended provisions set out as notes under section 3056 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 116–92, § 1694(a), substituted “2023” for “2020” in two places.

Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 116–92, § 1731(a)(6)(A), inserted “(C)” after “subsection (j)(3)”.

Pub. L. 116–92, § 1694(b)(1), which directed substitution of “of subsection (j)(3)(C)” for “of subsection (j)(3)”, resulted in no change in text because of prior execution of amendment by Pub. L. 116–92, § 1731(a)(6)(A). See Amendment note above and Coordination of Amendments by Pub. L. 116–92 note below.

Subsec. (j)(6). Pub. L. 116–92, § 1731(a)(6)(B), substituted “44802” for “40101”.

Pub. L. 116–92, § 1694(b)(2), substituted “in section 44801 of title 49” for “in section 331 of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (Public Law 112–95; 49 U.S.C. 44802 note).”

2017—Pub. L. 115–91 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to protection of certain facilities and assets from unmanned aircraft and consisted of provisions relating to authority of Secretary of Defense, authorized actions, forfeiture, regulations, and definitions.

Coordination of Amendments by Pub. L. 116–92

Amendments to this section by section 1731 of Pub. L. 116–92 to be treated as having been enacted immediately before amendments by other provisions of Pub. L. 116–92, see section 1731(f) of Pub. L. 116–92, set out as a Coordination of Certain Sections of an Act With Other Provisions of That Act note under section 101 of this title.