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10 U.S. Code § 4001 - Research and development projects

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(a) Authority.—The Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of a military department may engage in basic research, applied research, advanced research, and development projects that—
(1)
are necessary to the responsibilities of such Secretary’s department in the field of research and development; and
(2) either—
(A)
relate to weapon systems and other military needs; or
(B)
are of potential interest to the Department of Defense.
(b) Authorized Means.—The Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of a military department may perform research and development projects—
(1)
by contract, cooperative agreement, or grant, in accordance with chapter 63 of title 31;
(2)
through one or more military departments;
(3)
by using employees and consultants of the Department of Defense;
(4)
by mutual agreement with the head of any other department or agency of the Federal Government;
(5)
by transactions (other than contracts, cooperative agreements, and grants) entered into pursuant to section 4021 or 4022 of this title; or
(6)
by purchases through procurement for experimental purposes pursuant to section 4023 of this title.
(c) Requirement of Potential Department of Defense Interest.—
Funds appropriated to the Department of Defense or to a military department may not be used to finance any research project or study unless the project or study is, in the opinion of the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of that military department, respectively, of potential interest to the Department of Defense or to such military department, respectively.
(d) Additional Provisions Applicable to Cooperative Agreements.—
Additional authorities, conditions, and requirements relating to certain cooperative agreements authorized by this section are provided in sections 4021 and 4026 of this title.

Historical and Revision Notes

1962 Act

Revised section

Source (U.S. Code)

Source (Statutes at Large)

2358

5:171c(b)(2), (3).

July 26, 1947, ch. 343, § 203(b)(2), (3); added Aug. 6, 1958, Pub. L. 85–599, § 9(a) (3d and 4th pars.), 72 Stat. 520.

5 U.S.C. 171c(b)(3) is omitted as unnecessary since the authorization for appropriations is implied in 5 U.S.C. 171c(b)(2).

1988 Act

In the existing text of 10 U.S.C. 2358, the bill would in two instances strike the phrase “or his designee” appearing after “Secretary of Defense” (section 1(g)(3)). The change is made for consistency in the Code, and no substantive change is intended. The committee notes that the Secretary of Defense has general authority to delegate functions under 10 U.S.C. 113(d).

Subsection (b) is based on Pub. L. 91–441, title II, § 204, Oct. 7, 1970, 84 Stat. 908.

Editorial Notes
Amendments

2021—Pub. L. 116–283, § 1841(b)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 117–81, § 1701(u)(2)(B), renumbered section 2358 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 116–283, § 1841(b)(2)(A)(i), as amended by Pub. L. 117–81, § 1701(u)(2)(C), substituted “section 4021 or 4022” for “section 2371 or 2371b”.

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 116–283, § 1841(b)(2)(A)(ii), as amended by Pub. L. 117–81, § 1701(u)(2)(F)(i)(I), substituted “section 4023” for “section 2373”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 116–283, § 1841(b)(2)(A)(iii), as amended by Pub. L. 117–81, § 1701(u)(2)(F)(i)(II), substituted “sections 4021 and 4026” for “sections 2371 and 2371a”.

2017—Subsec. (b)(5), (6). Pub. L. 115–91 added pars. (5) and (6).

1996—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–201 substituted “sections 2371 and 2371a” for “section 2371”.

1994—Pub. L. 103–355 amended section generally, inserting reference to development projects in section catchline, and in text specifying that relevant Secretary may perform research and development projects in accordance with chapter 63 of title 31, and adding subsec. (d) relating to additional provisions applicable to cooperative agreements.

1993—Pub. L. 103–160 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows:

“(a) In General.—Subject to approval by the President, the Secretary of Defense may engage in basic and applied research projects that are necessary to the responsibilities of the Department of Defense in the field of basic and applied research and development and that relate to weapons systems and other military needs. Subject to approval by the President, the Secretary may perform assigned research and development projects—

“(1) by contract with, or by grant to, educational or research institutions, private businesses, or other agencies of the United States;

“(2) through one or more of the military departments; or

“(3) by using employees and consultants of the Department of Defense.

“(b) Requirement of Potential Military Relationship.—Funds appropriated to the Department of Defense may not be used to finance any research project or study unless the project or study has, in the opinion of the Secretary of Defense, a potential relationship to a military function or operation.”

1988—Pub. L. 100–370 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, struck out “or his designee” after “Secretary of Defense” and “President, the Secretary”, and added subsec. (b).

1981—Par. (1). Pub. L. 97–86 substituted “by contract with, or by grant to,” for “by contract with”.

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries
Change of Name

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title II, § 214(a), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1325, provided that:

“The joint technology office on hypersonics in the Office of the Secretary of Defense is redesignated as the ‘Joint Hypersonics Transition Office’. Any reference in a law (other than this section), map, regulation, document, paper, or other record of the United States to the joint technology office on hypersonics shall be deemed to be a reference to the Joint Hypersonics Transition Office.”
Effective Date of 2021 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 117–81 applicable as if included in the enactment of title XVIII of Pub. L. 116–283 as enacted, see section 1701(a)(2) of Pub. L. 117–81, set out in a note preceding section 3001 of this title and note below.

Amendment by Pub. L. 116–283 effective Jan. 1, 2022, with additional provisions for delayed implementation and applicability of existing law, see section 1801(d) of Pub. L. 116–283, set out as a note preceding section 3001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

For effective date and applicability of amendment by Pub. L. 103–355, see section 10001 of Pub. L. 103–355, set out as a note under section 8752 of this title.

Review of Artificial Intelligence Applications and Establishment of Performance Metrics

Pub. L. 117–81, div. A, title II, § 226, Dec. 27, 2021, 135 Stat. 1607, provided that:

“(a) In General.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 27, 2021], the Secretary of Defense shall—
“(1)
review the potential applications of artificial intelligence and digital technology to the platforms, processes, and operations of the Department of Defense; and
“(2)
establish performance objectives and accompanying metrics for the incorporation of artificial intelligence and digital readiness into such platforms, processes, and operations.
“(b) Performance Objectives and Accompanying Metrics.—
“(1) Skill gaps.—In carrying out subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense shall require each Secretary of a military department and the heads of such other organizations and elements of the Department of Defense as the Secretary of Defense determines appropriate to—
“(A) conduct a comprehensive review and assessment of—
“(i)
skill gaps in the fields of software development, software engineering, data science, and artificial intelligence;
“(ii)
the qualifications of civilian personnel needed for both management and specialist tracks in such fields; and
“(iii)
the qualifications of military personnel (officer and enlisted) needed for both management and specialist tracks in such fields; and
“(B)
establish recruiting, training, and talent management performance objectives and accompanying metrics for achieving and maintaining staffing levels needed to fill identified gaps and meet the needs of the Department for skilled personnel.
“(2) AI modernization activities.—In carrying out subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense shall—
“(A)
assess investment by the Department of Defense in artificial intelligence innovation, science and technology, and research and development;
“(B)
assess investment by the Department in test and evaluation of artificial intelligence capabilities; and
“(C)
establish performance objectives and accompanying metrics for artificial intelligence modernization activities of the Department.
“(3) Exercises, wargames, and experimentation.—In conjunction with the activities of the Secretary of Defense under subsection (a), the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, in coordination with the Director of the Joint Artificial Intelligence Center, shall—
“(A)
assess the integration of artificial intelligence into war-games, exercises, and experimentation; and
“(B)
develop performance objectives and accompanying metrics for such integration.
“(4) Logistics and sustainment.—In carrying out subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense shall require the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment, with support from the Director of the Joint Artificial Intelligence Center, to—
“(A)
assess the application of artificial intelligence in logistics and sustainment systems; and
“(B)
establish performance objectives and accompanying metrics for integration of artificial intelligence in the Department of Defense logistics and sustainment enterprise.
“(5) Business applications.—In carrying out subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense shall require the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), in coordination with the Director of the Joint Artificial Intelligence Center, to—
“(A)
assess the integration of artificial intelligence for administrative functions that can be performed with robotic process automation and artificial intelligence-enabled analysis; and
“(B) establish performance objectives and accompanying metrics for the integration of artificial intelligence in priority business process areas of the Department of Defensee, including the following:
“(i)
Human resources.
“(ii)
Budget and finance, including audit.
“(iii)
Retail.
“(iv)
Real estate.
“(v)
Health care.
“(vi)
Logistics.
“(vii)
Such other business processes as the Secretary considers appropriate.
“(c) Report to Congress.—Not later than 120 days after the completion of the review required by subsection (a)(1), the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report on—
“(1)
the findings of the Secretary with respect to the review and any action taken or proposed to be taken by the Secretary to address such findings; and
“(2)
the performance objectives and accompanying metrics established under subsections (a)(2) and (b).”
Modification of the Joint Common Foundation Program

Pub. L. 117–81, div. A, title II, § 227, Dec. 27, 2021, 135 Stat. 1609, provided that:

“(a) Modification of Joint Common Foundation.—
The Secretary of Defense shall modify the Joint Common Foundation program conducted by the Joint Artificial Intelligence Center to ensure that Department of Defense components can more easily contract with leading commercial artificial intelligence companies to support the rapid and efficient development and deployment of applications and capabilities.
“(b) Qualifying Commercial Companies.—
The Secretary of Defense shall take such actions as may be necessary to increase the number of commercial artificial intelligence companies eligible to provide support to Department of Defense components, including with respect to requirements for cybersecurity protections and processes, to achieve automatic authority to operate and provide continuous delivery, security clearances, data portability, and interoperability.
“(c) Use of FAR Part 12.—
The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that, to the maximum extent practicable, commercial artificial intelligence companies are able to offer platforms, services, applications, and tools to Department of Defense components through processes and procedures under part 12 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation.
“(d) Objectives of the Joint Common Foundation Program.—The objectives of the Joint Common Foundation program shall include the following:
“(1)
Relieving Department of Defense components of the need to design or develop or independently contract for the computing and data hosting platforms and associated services on and through which the component at issue would apply its domain expertise to develop specific artificial intelligence applications.
“(2)
Providing expert guidance to components in selecting commercial platforms, tools, and services to support the development of component artificial intelligence applications.
“(3)
Ensuring that leading commercial artificial intelligence technologies and capabilities are easily and rapidly accessible to components through streamlined contracting processes.
“(4)
Assisting components in designing, developing, accessing, or acquiring commercial or non-commercial capabilities that may be needed to support the operational use of artificial intelligence applications.
“(5)
Enabling companies to develop software for artificial intelligence applications within secure software development environments that are controlled, sponsored, required, or specified by the Department of Defense, including PlatformOne of the Department of the Air Force[.]
“(e) Briefing.—
Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 27, 2021], the Secretary of Defense shall provide to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a briefing on actions taken to carry out this section.”
Activities To Accelerate Development and Deployment of Dual-Use Quantum Technologies

Pub. L. 117–81, div. A, title II, § 229, Dec. 27, 2021, 135 Stat. 1610, provided that:

“(a) Activities Required.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish a set of activities—
“(1)
to accelerate the development and deployment of dual-use quantum capabilities;
“(2)
to ensure the approach of the United States to investments of the Department of Defense in quantum information science research and development reflects an appropriate balance between scientific progress and the potential economic and security implications of such progress;
“(3)
to ensure that the Department of Defense is fully aware and has a technical understanding of the maturity and operational utility of new and emerging quantum technologies; and
“(4)
to ensure the Department of Defense consistently has access to the most advanced quantum capabilities available in the commercial sector to support research and modernization activities.
“(b) Assistance Program.—
“(1) Program required.—In carrying out subsection (a) and subject to the availability of appropriations for such purpose, the Secretary of Defense shall, acting through the Director of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and in consultation with appropriate public and private sector organizations, establish a program under which the Secretary may award assistance to one or more organizations—
“(A)
to identify defense applications for which dual-use quantum technologies provide a clear advantage over competing technologies;
“(B)
to accelerate development of such quantum technologies; and
“(C)
to accelerate the deployment of dual-use quantum capabilities.
“(2) Form of assistance.—
Assistance awarded under the program required by paragraph (1) may consist of a grant, a contract, a cooperative agreement, other transaction, or such other form of assistance as the Secretary of Defense considers appropriate.
“(3) Authorities and acquisition approaches.—The Secretary of Defense may use the following authorities and approaches for the program required by paragraph (1):
“(A)
Section 2374a of title 10, United States Code [now 10 U.S.C. 4025], relating to prizes for advanced technology achievements.
“(B)
Section 2373 of such title [now 10 U.S.C. 4023], relating to procurement for experimental purposes.
“(C)
Sections 2371 [now 10 U.S.C. 4021] and 2371b [now 10 U.S.C. 4022] of such title, relating to transactions other than contracts and grants and authority of the Department of Defense to carry out certain prototype projects, respectively.
“(D)
Section 2358 of such title [now 10 U.S.C. 4001], relating to research and development projects.
“(E)
Section 879 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 (Public Law 114–328; [former] 10 U.S.C. 2302 note), relating to defense pilot program for authority to acquire innovative commercial products, technologies, and services using general solicitation competitive procedures.
“(F)
Requirement for milestone payments based on technical achievements.
“(G)
Requirement for cost share from private sector participants in the program.
“(H)
Commercial procurement authority under part 12 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation.
“(I)
Such other authorities or approaches as the Secretary considers appropriate.
“(4) Policies and procedures.—
The Secretary of Defense shall, in consultation with such experts from government and industry as the Secretary considers appropriate, establish policies and procedures to carry out the program required by paragraph (1).
“(c) Briefing and Report.—
“(1) Briefing.—
Not later than March 1, 2022, the Secretary of Defense shall provide to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a briefing on the plan to carry out the activities required by subsection (a) and the program required by subsection (b).
“(2) Report.—
Not later than December 31, 2022, and not less frequently than once each year thereafter until December 31, 2026, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees a report on the activities carried out under subsection (a) and the program carried out under subsection (b).”
Pilot Program on Data Repositories To Facilitate the Development of Artificial Intelligence Capabilities for the Department of Defense

Pub. L. 117–81, div. A, title II, § 232, Dec. 27, 2021, 135 Stat. 1613, provided that:

“(a) Establishment of Data Repositories.—The Secretary of Defense, acting through the Chief Data Officer of the Department of Defense and the Director of the Joint Artificial Intelligence Center (and such other officials as the Secretary determines appropriate), may carry out a pilot program under which the Secretary—
“(1)
establishes data repositories containing Department of Defense data sets relevant to the development of artificial intelligence software and technology; and
“(2)
allows appropriate public and private sector organizations to access such data repositories for the purpose of developing improved artificial intelligence and machine learning software capabilities that may, as determined appropriate by the Secretary, be procured by the Department to satisfy Department requirements and technology development goals.
“(b) Elements.—If the Secretary of Defense carries out the pilot program under subsection (a), the data repositories established under the program—
“(1)
may include unclassified training quality data sets and associated labels representative of diverse types of information, representing Department of Defense missions, business processes, and activities; and
“(2) shall—
“(A)
be categorized and annotated to support development of a common evaluation framework for artificial intelligence models and other technical software solutions;
“(B)
be made available to appropriate public and private sector organizations to support rapid development of software and artificial intelligence capabilities;
“(C)
include capabilities and tool sets to detect, evaluate, and correct errors in data annotation, identify gaps in training data used in model development that would require additional data labeling, and evaluate model performance across the life cycle of the data repositories; and
“(D)
be developed to support other missions and activities as determined by the Secretary.
“(c) Briefing.—Not later than 270 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 27, 2021], the Secretary of Defense shall provide to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a briefing on—
“(1)
whether the Secretary intends to carry out the pilot program under this section;
“(2)
if the Secretary does not intend to carry out the pilot program, an explanation of the reasons for such decision;
“(3) if the Secretary does intend to carry out the pilot program, or if the Secretary has already initiated the pilot program as of the date of the briefing—
“(A)
the types of information the Secretary determines are feasible and advisable to include in the data repositories described in subsection (a); and
“(B)
the progress of the Secretary in carrying out the program.”
Authority for Activities To Improve Next Generation Radar Systems Capabilities

Pub. L. 117–81, div. A, title III, § 380, Dec. 27, 2021, 135 Stat. 1670, provided that:

“(a) Authority.—The Secretary of Defense may undertake activities to enhance future radar systems capabilities, including the following:
“(1)
Designating specific industry, academic, government, or public-private partnership entities to provide expertise in the repair, sustainment, and support of radar systems to meet current and future defense requirements, as appropriate.
“(2)
Facilitating collaboration among academia, the Federal Government, the defense industry, and the commercial sector, including with respect to radar system repair and sustainment activities.
“(3)
Establishing advanced research and workforce training and educational programs to enhance future radar systems capabilities.
“(4)
Establishing goals for research in areas of study relevant to advancing technology and facilitating better understanding of radar systems in defense systems and operational activities, including continuing education and training goals.
“(5)
Increasing communications and personnel exchanges with radar systems experts in industry to support adoption of state-of-the-art technologies and operational practices, especially to support meeting future defense needs related to radar systems in autonomous systems.
“(6)
Establishing agreements with one or more institutions of higher education or other organizations in academia or industry to provide for activities authorized under this section.
“(7)
Partnering with nonprofit institutions and private industry with expertise in radar systems to support activities authorized under this section.
“(8)
Establishing research centers and facilities, including centers of excellence, as appropriate to support activities authorized under this section, especially to promote partnerships between government, industry, and academia.
“(b) Institution of Higher Education Defined.—
The term ‘institution of higher education’ has the meaning given that term in section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001).”
Pilot Program on Systems Engineering Determinations

Pub. L. 117–81, div. A, title VIII, § 823, Dec. 27, 2021, 135 Stat. 1826, provided that:

“(a) Requirement.—
As soon as practicable but not later than September 30, 2023, the Secretary of Defense shall ensure that each covered entity enters into at least two covered transactions under an authority described in subsection (b), where each such covered transaction includes the system engineering determinations described under subsection (c).
“(b) Covered Authorities.—The authorities described under this subsection are as follows:
“(1)
Section 2371 of title 10, United States Code [now 10 U.S.C. 4021], with respect to applied and advanced research project transactions relating to weapons systems.
“(2)
Section 2371b of such title [now 10 U.S.C. 4022], with respect to transactions relating to weapons systems.
“(3)
Section 2373 of such title [now 10 U.S.C. 4023].
“(4)
Section 2358 of such title [now 10 U.S.C. 4001], with respect to transactions relating to weapons systems.
“(c) Systems Engineering Determinations.—
“(1) First determination.—
“(A) Success criteria.—
The head of a covered entity that enters into a covered transaction under this section shall identify, in writing, not later than 30 days after entering into such covered transaction, measurable success criteria related to potential military applications of such covered transaction, to be demonstrated not later than the last day of the period of performance for such covered transaction.
“(B) Types of determinations.—Not later than 30 days after the end of such period of performance, the head of the covered entity shall make one of the following determinations:
“(i)
A ‘Discontinue’ determination, under which such head discontinues support of the covered transaction and provides a rationale for such determination.
“(ii)
A ‘Retain and Extend’ determination, under which such head ensures continued performance of such covered transaction and extends the period of performance for a specified period of time in order to achieve the success criteria described under subparagraph (A).
“(iii)
An ‘Endorse and Refer’ determination, under which such head endorses the covered transaction and refers it to the most appropriate Service Systems Engineering Command, based on the technical attributes of the covered transaction and the associated potential military applications, based on meeting or exceeding the success criteria.
“(C) Written notice.—
A determination made pursuant to subparagraph (B) shall be documented in writing and provided to the person performing the covered transaction to which the determination relates.
“(D) Further determination.—If the head of a covered entity issued a ‘Retain and Extend’ determination described in subparagraph (B)(ii), such head shall, at the end of the extension period—
“(i)
issue an ‘Endorse and Refer’ determination described in subparagraph (B)(iii) if the success criteria are met; or
“(ii)
issue a ‘Discontinue’ determination described in subparagraph (B)(i) if the success criteria are not met.
“(2) Second determination.—
“(A) Systems engineering plan.—
The head of the Service Systems Engineering Command that receives a referral from an ‘Endorse and Refer’ determination described in paragraph (1)(B)(iii) shall, not later than 30 days after receipt of such referral, formulate a systems engineering plan with the person performing the referred covered transaction, technical experts of the Department of Defense, and any prospective program executive officers.
“(B) Elements.—The systems engineering plan required under subparagraph (A) shall include the following:
“(i)
Measurable baseline technical capability, based on meeting the success criteria described in paragraph (1)(A).
“(ii)
Measurable transition technical capability, based on the technical needs of the prospective program executive officers to support a current or future program of record.
“(iii) Discrete technical development activities necessary to progress from the baseline technical capability to the transition technical capability, including an approximate cost and schedule, including activities that provide resolution to issues relating to—
     “(I)
interfaces;
     “(II)
data rights;
     “(III)
Federal Government technical requirements;
     “(IV)
specific platform technical integration;
     “(V)
software development;
     “(VI)
component, subsystem, or system prototyping;
     “(VII)
scale models;
     “(VIII)
technical manuals;
     “(IX)
lifecycle sustainment needs; and
     “(X)
other needs identified by the relevant program executive officer.
“(iv)
Identification and commitment of funding sources to complete the activities under clause (iii).
“(C) Types of determinations.—Not later than 30 days after the end of the schedule required by subparagraph (B)(iii), the head of the Service Systems Engineering Command shall make one of the following determinations:
“(i)
A ‘Discontinue’ determination, under which such head discontinues support of the covered transaction and provides a rationale for such determination.
“(ii) A ‘Retain and Extend’ determination, under which such head ensures continued performance of such covered transaction within the Service Systems Engineering Command and extends the period of performance for a specified period of time in order to—
     “(I)
successfully complete the systems engineering plan required under subparagraph (A); and
     “(II)
issue specific remedial or additional activities to the person performing the covered transaction.
“(iii)
An ‘Endorse and Refer’ determination, under which such head endorses the covered transaction and refers it to a program executive officer, based on successful completion of the systems engineering plan required under subparagraph (A).
“(D) Written notice.—
A determination made pursuant to subparagraph (C) shall be documented in writing and provided to the person performing the covered transaction to which the determination relates and any prospective program executive officers for such covered transaction.
“(E) Further determination.—If the head of the Service Systems Engineering Command issued a ‘Retain and Extend’ determination described in subparagraph (C)(ii), such head shall, at the end of the extension period—
“(i)
issue an ‘Endorse and Refer’ determination described in subparagraph (C)(iii) if the transition technical capability criteria are met; or
“(ii)
issue a ‘Discontinue’ determination described in subparagraph (B)(i) if the success criteria are not met.
“(d) Priority for Covered Transaction Selection.—In selecting a covered transaction under this section, the Secretary shall prioritize those covered transactions that—
“(1)
are being initially demonstrated at a covered entity;
“(2)
demonstrate a high potential to be further developed by a Service Systems Engineering Command; and
“(3)
demonstrate a high potential to be used in a program of the Department of Defense.
“(e) Notifications.—
“(1) In general.—
Not later than 30 days after a covered transaction is entered into pursuant to subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense shall notify the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] of such covered transaction.
“(2) Updates.—
Not later than 120 days after such a covered transaction is entered into, and every 120 days thereafter until the action specified in subsection (c)(1)(B)(i), (c)(2)(C)(i), or (c)(2)(C)(iii) occurs, the Secretary of Defense shall provide written updates to the congressional defense committees on the actions being taken by the Department to comply with the requirements of this section.
“(f) Briefing Required.—
Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 27, 2021], the Secretary of Defense shall provide a briefing to the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives with a detailed plan to implement the requirements of this section.
“(g) Definitions.—In this section:
“(1) The term ‘covered entity’ means—
“(A)
the Defense Innovation Unit;
“(B)
the Strategic Capabilities Office; or
“(C)
the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.
“(2)
The term ‘covered transaction’ means a transaction, procurement, or project conducted pursuant to an authority listed in subsection (b).
“(3)
The term ‘Service Systems Engineering Command’ means the specific Department of Defense command that reports through a chain of command to the head of a military department that specializes in the systems engineering of a system, subsystem, component, or capability area.”
Pilot Program on Acquisition Practices for Emerging Technologies

Pub. L. 117–81, div. A, title VIII, § 833, Dec. 27, 2021, 135 Stat. 1833, provided that:

“(a) In General.—
Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 27, 2021], the Secretary of Defense, acting through the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment or the Under Secretary’s designee, shall establish a pilot program (in this section referred to as the ‘Pilot Program’) to develop and implement unique acquisition mechanisms for emerging technologies in order to increase the speed of transition of emerging technologies into acquisition programs or into operational use.
“(b) Elements.—In carrying out the Pilot Program, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment shall—
“(1) identify, and award agreements to, not less than four new projects supporting high-priority defense modernization activities, consistent with the National Defense Strategy, with consideration given to—
“(A)
offensive missile capabilities;
“(B)
space-based assets;
“(C)
personnel and quality of life improvement;
“(D)
energy generation and storage; and
“(E)
any other area activities the Under Secretary determines appropriate;
“(2) develop a unique acquisition plan for each project identified pursuant to paragraph (1) that is significantly novel from standard Department of Defense acquisition practices, including the use of—
“(A)
alternative price evaluation models;
“(B)
alternative independent cost estimation methodologies;
“(C)
alternative market research methods;
“(D)
continuous assessment of performance metrics to measure project value for use in program management and oversight;
“(E)
alternative intellectual property strategies, including activities to support modular open system approaches (as defined in section 2446a(b) of title 10, United States Code [now 10 U.S.C. 4401(b)]) and reduce life-cycle and sustainment costs; and
“(F)
other alternative practices identified by the Under Secretary;
“(3)
execute the acquisition plans described in paragraph (2) and award agreements in an expedited manner; and
“(4)
determine if existing authorities are sufficient to carry out the activities described in this subsection and, if not, submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] recommendations for statutory reforms that will provide sufficient authority.
“(c) Regulation Waiver.—
The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment shall establish mechanisms for the Under Secretary to waive, upon request, regulations, directives, or policies of the Department of Defense, a military service, or a Defense Agency with respect to a project awarded an agreement under the Pilot Program if the Under Secretary determines that such a waiver furthers the purposes of the Pilot Program, unless such waiver would be prohibited by a provision of a Federal statute or common law.
“(d) Agreement Termination.—
“(1) In general.—
The Secretary of Defense may establish procedures to terminate agreements awarded under the Pilot Program.
“(2) Notification required.—
Any procedure established under paragraph (1) shall require that, not later than 30 days prior to the termination of any agreement under such procedure, notice of such termination shall be provided to the congressional defense committees.
“(e) Pilot Program Advisory Group.—
“(1) In general.—The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment shall establish a Pilot Program advisory group to advise the Under Secretary on—
“(A)
the selection, management and elements of projects under the Pilot Program;
“(B)
the collection of data regarding the use of the Pilot Program; and
“(C)
the termination of agreements under the Pilot Program.
“(2) Membership.—
“(A) In general.—The members of the advisory group established under paragraph (1) shall be appointed as follows:
“(i)
One member from each military department (as defined under section 101(a) of title 10, United States Code), appointed by the Secretary of the military department concerned.
“(ii)
One member appointed by the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering.
“(iii)
One member appointed by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment.
“(iv)
One member appointed by the Director of the Strategic Capabilities Office of the Department of Defense.
“(v)
One member appointed by the Director of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.
“(vi)
One member appointed by the Director of Cost Assessment and Program Evaluation.
“(vii)
One member appointed by the Director of Operational Test and Evaluation.
“(B) Deadline for appointment.—
Members of the advisory group shall be appointed not later than 30 days after the date of the establishment of the pilot program under subsection (a).
“(3) FACA non-applicability.—
The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) shall not apply to the advisory group established under paragraph (1).
“(f) Information to Congress.—
“(1) Briefing requirement.—
Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, and not less than annually thereafter, the Secretary of Defense shall provide to the congressional defense committees a briefing on activities performed under this section.
“(2) Budget justification materials.—
The Secretary shall establish procedures to clearly identify all projects under the Pilot Program in budget justification materials submitted to Congress.
“(g) Data Requirements.—
“(1) Collection and analysis of data.—The Secretary shall establish mechanisms to collect and analyze data on the execution of the Pilot Program for the purpose of—
“(A)
developing and sharing best practices for achieving goals established for the Pilot Program;
“(B)
providing information to the Secretary and the congressional defense committees on the execution of the Pilot Program; and
“(C)
providing information to the Secretary and the congressional defense committees on related policy issues.
“(2) Data strategy required.—The Secretary may not establish the Pilot Program prior to completion of a plan for—
“(A)
meeting the requirements of this subsection;
“(B)
collecting the data required to carry out an evaluation of the lessons learned from the Pilot Program; and
“(C)
conducting such evaluation.
“(h) Termination.—The Pilot Program shall terminate on the earlier of—
“(1)
the date on which each project identified under subsection (b)(1) has either been completed or has had all agreements awarded to such project under the Pilot Program terminated; or
“(2)
the date that is five years after the date of the enactment of this Act.”
Designation of Senior Officials for Critical Technology Areas Supportive of the National Defense Strategy

Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title II, § 217(a)–(d), Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 3460, 3461, provided that:

“(a) Designation of Senior Officials.—The Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering shall—
“(1)
identify technology areas that the Under Secretary considers critical for the support of the National Defense Strategy; and
“(2)
for each such technology area, designate a senior official of the Department of Defense to coordinate research and engineering activities in that area.
“(b) Duties.—The duties of each senior official designated under subsection (a) shall include, with respect to the technology area overseen by such official—
“(1) developing and continuously updating research and technology development roadmaps, funding strategies, and technology transition strategies to ensure—
“(A)
the effective and efficient development of new capabilities in the area; and
“(B)
the operational use of appropriate technologies;
“(2) conducting annual assessments of workforce, infrastructure, and industrial base capabilities and capacity to support—
“(A)
the roadmaps developed under paragraph (1); and
“(B)
the goals of the National Defense Strategy;
“(3) reviewing the relevant research and engineering budgets of appropriate organizations within the Department of Defense, including the Armed Forces, and advising the Under Secretary on—
“(A)
the consistency of the budgets with the roadmaps developed under paragraph (1);
“(B)
any technical and programmatic risks to the achievement of the research and technology development goals of the National Defense Strategy;
“(C) programs, projects, and activities that demonstrate—
“(i)
unwanted or inefficient duplication, including duplication with activities of other government agencies and the commercial sector;
“(ii)
lack of appropriate coordination with other organizations; or
“(iii)
inappropriate alignment with organizational missions and capabilities;
“(4)
coordinating the research and engineering activities of the Department with appropriate international, interagency, and private sector organizations; and
“(5)
tasking appropriate intelligence agencies of the Department to develop a direct comparison between the capabilities of the United States in the technology area concerned and the capabilities of adversaries of the United States in that area.
“(c) Annual Reports.—
“(1) In general.—Not later than December 1, 2021, and not later than December 1 of each year thereafter through December 1, 2025, the Under Secretary shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report on research and engineering activities and on the status of the technology areas identified under subsection (a)(1), including a description of any programs, projects, or activities in such areas, that have, in the year preceding the date of the report—
“(A)
achieved significant technical progress;
“(B)
transitioned from the research and development phase to formal acquisition programs;
“(C)
transitioned from the research and development phase into operational use; or
“(D)
been transferred from the Department of Defense to private sector organizations for further commercial development or commercial sales.
“(2) Form.—
Each report under paragraph (1) shall [sic] submitted in unclassified form that can be made available to the public, but may include a classified annex.
“(d) Coordination of Research and Engineering Activities.—
The Service Acquisition Executive for each military department and the Director of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency shall each identify senior officials to ensure coordination of appropriate research and engineering activities with each of the senior officials designated under subsection (a).”
Social Science, Management Science, and Information Science Research Activities

Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title II, § 220, Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 3464, provided that:

“(a) Establishment.—
The Secretary of Defense, acting through the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, shall carry out a program of research and development in social science, management science, and information science.
“(b) Purposes.—The purposes of the program under subsection (a) are as follows:
“(1)
To ensure that the Department of Defense has access to innovation and expertise in social science, management science, and information science to enable the Department to improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and agility of the Department’s operational and management activities.
“(2)
To develop and manage a portfolio of research initiatives in fundamental and applied social science, management science, and information science that is stable, consistent, and balanced across relevant disciplines.
“(3)
To enhance cooperation and collaboration on research and development in the fields of social science, management science, and information science between the Department of Defense and appropriate private sector and international entities that are involved in research and development in such fields.
“(4)
To accelerate the development of a research community and industry to support Department of Defense missions in the fields of social science, management science, and information science, including the development of facilities, a workforce, infrastructure, and partnerships in support of such missions.
“(5)
To coordinate all research and development within the Department of Defense in the fields of social science, management science, and information science.
“(6)
To collect, synthesize, and disseminate critical information on research and development in the fields of social science, management science, and information science.
“(7) To assess and appropriately share, with other departments and agencies of the Federal Government and appropriate entities in the private sector—
“(A)
challenges within the Department of Defense that may be addressed through the application of advances in social science, management science, and information science; and
“(B)
datasets related to such challenges.
“(8)
To support the identification of organizational and institutional barriers to the implementation of management and organizational enhancements and best practices.
“(9) To accelerate efforts—
“(A)
to transition, and deploy within the Department of Defense, technologies and concepts derived from research and development in the fields of social science, management science, and information science; and
“(B)
to establish policies, procedures, and standards for measuring the success of such efforts.
“(10) To integrate knowledge from cross-disciplinary research on—
“(A)
how factors relating to social science, management science, and information science affect the global security environment; and
“(B)
best practices for management in the public and private sectors.
“(11) To apply principles, tools, and methods from social science, management science, and information science—
“(A)
to ensure the Department of Defense is more agile, efficient, and effective in organizational management and in deterring and countering current and emerging threats; and
“(B)
to support the National Defense Strategy.
“(c) Administration.—
The Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering shall supervise the planning, management, and coordination of the program under subsection (a).
“(d) Activities.—The Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, in consultation with the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, the Secretaries of the military departments, and the heads of relevant Defense Agencies, shall—
“(1) prescribe a set of long-term challenges and a set of specific technical goals for the program, including—
“(A)
optimization of analysis of national security data sets;
“(B)
development of innovative defense-related management activities;
“(C)
improving the operational use of social science, management science, and information science innovations by military commanders and civilian leaders;
“(D)
improving understanding of the fundamental social, cultural, and behavioral forces that shape the strategic interests of the United States; and
“(E)
developing a Department of Defense workforce capable of developing and leveraging innovations and best practices in the fields of social science, management science, and information science to support defense missions;
“(2) develop a coordinated and integrated research and investment plan for meeting near-term, mid-term, and long-term national security, defense-related, and Departmental management challenges that—
“(A)
includes definitive milestones;
“(B)
provides for achieving specific technical goals;
“(C) establishes pathways to address the operational and management missions of the Department through—
“(i)
the evaluation of innovations and advances in social science, management science, and information science for potential implementation within the Department; and
“(ii)
implementation of such innovations and advances within the Department, as appropriate; and
“(C) [(D)]
builds upon the investments of the Department, other departments and agencies of the Federal Government, and the commercial sector in the fields of social science, management science, and information science;
“(3) develop plans for—
“(A)
the development of the Department’s workforce in social science, management science, and information science; and
“(B) improving awareness of—
“(i)
the fields of social science, management science, and information science;
“(ii)
advances and innovations in such fields; and
“(iii)
and the ability of such advances and innovations to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the Department; and
“(4) develop memoranda of agreement, joint funding agreements, and such other cooperative arrangements as the Under Secretary determines necessary—
“(A)
to carry out the program under subsection (a); and
“(B)
to transition appropriate products, services, and innovations relating social science, management science, and information science into use within the Department.
“(e) Guidance Required.—
“(1) In general.—Not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 1, 2021], the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering shall develop and issue guidance for defense-related social science, management science, and information science activities, including—
“(A)
classification and data management plans for such activities;
“(B)
policies for control of personnel participating in such activities to protect national security interests; and
“(C)
ensuring that research findings and innovations in the fields of social science, management science, and information science are incorporated into the activities and strategic documents of the Department.
“(2) Updates.—
The Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering shall regularly update the guidance issued under paragraph (1).
“(f) Designation of Entity.—
The Secretary of each military department may establish or designate an entity or activity under the jurisdiction of such Secretary, which may include a Department of Defense Laboratory, an academic institution, or another appropriate organization, to support interdisciplinary research and development activities in the fields of social science, management science, and information science, and engage with appropriate public and private sector organizations, including academic institutions, to enhance and accelerate the research, development, and deployment of social science, management science, and information science within the Department.
“(g) Use of Other Authority.—
The Secretary of Defense shall use the authority provided under section 217 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115–91; 10 U.S.C. 2358 note [now 10 U.S.C. 4001 note, set out below]) to enhance the ability of the Department of Defense to access technical talent and expertise at academic institutions in support of the purposes of this section.
“(h) Report.—
“(1) In general.—
Not later than December 31, 2022, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report on the program under subsection (a).
“(2) Form of report.—
The report required under paragraph (1) shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.”
Activities To Improve Fielding of Air Force Hypersonic Capabilities

Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title II, § 222, Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 3469, provided that:

“(a) Improvement of Ground-based Test Facilities.—
The Secretary of Defense shall take such actions as may be necessary to improve ground-based test facilities used for the research, development, test, and evaluation of hypersonic capabilities.
“(b) Increasing Flight Test Rate.—
The Secretary of Defense shall increase the rate at which hypersonic capabilities are flight tested to expedite the maturation and fielding of such capabilities.
“(c) Strategy and Plan.—
Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 1, 2021], the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, in consultation with the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a strategy and plan for fielding air-launched and air-breathing hypersonic weapons capabilities within the period of three years following such date of enactment.
“(d) Report.—In addition to the strategy and plan required under subsection (c), not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, in consultation with the Director of Operational Test and Evaluation, shall submit to the congressional defense committees a report on the testing capabilities and infrastructure used for hypersonic weapons development. The report shall include—
“(1)
an assessment of the sufficiency of the testing capabilities and infrastructure used for fielding hypersonic weapons; and
“(2)
a description of any investments in testing capabilities and infrastructure that may be required to support in-flight and ground-based testing for such weapons.”
Research, Development, and Deployment of Technologies To Support Water Sustainment

Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title II, § 226, Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 3476, provided that:

“(a) In General.—
The Secretary of Defense shall research, develop, and deploy advanced water harvesting technologies to support and improve water sustainment within the Department of Defense and in geographic regions where the Department operates.
“(b) Required Activities.—In carrying out subsection (a), the Secretary shall—
“(1) develop advanced water harvesting systems that reduce weight and logistics support needs compared to conventional water supply systems, including—
“(A)
modular water harvesting systems that are easily transportable; and
“(B)
trailer mounted water harvesting systems that reduce resupply needs;
“(2)
develop and implement storage requirements for water harvesting systems at forward operating bases; and
“(3)
establish cross functional teams to identify geographic regions where the deployment of water harvesting systems could reduce conflict and potentially eliminate the need for the presence of the Armed Forces.
“(c) Additional Activities.—In addition to the activities required under subsection (b), the Secretary shall—
“(1)
seek to leverage existing water harvesting techniques and technologies and apply such techniques and technologies to military operations carried out by the United States;
“(2)
consider using commercially available off-the-shelf items (as defined in section 104 of title 41, United States Code) and near-ready deployment technologies to achieve cost savings and improve the self sufficiency of warfighters; and
“(3)
seek to enter into information sharing arrangements with foreign militaries and other organizations that have the proven ability to operate in water constrained areas for the purpose of sharing lessons learned and best practices relating to water harvesting.
“(d) Implementation.—
The Secretary shall deploy technologies developed under subsection (b)(1) for use by expeditionary forces not later than January 1, 2025.
“(e) Water Harvesting Defined.—In this section, the term ‘water harvesting’, when used with respect to a system or technology, means a system or technology that is capable of creating useable water by—
“(1)
harvesting water from underutilized environmental sources, such as by capturing water from ambient humidity; or
“(2)
recycling or otherwise reclaiming water that has previously been used.”
Board of Advisors for the Joint Artificial Intelligence Center

Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title II, § 233, Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 3483, provided that:

“(a) Establishment.—
The Secretary of Defense shall establish a board of advisors for the Joint Artificial Intelligence Center.
“(b) Duties.—The duties of the board of advisors shall include the following:
“(1)
Provide independent strategic advice and technical expertise to the Secretary and the Director on matters relating to the development and use of artificial intelligence by the Department of Defense.
“(2)
Evaluate and advise the Secretary and the Director on ethical matters relating to the development and use of artificial intelligence by the Department.
“(3)
Conduct long-term and long-range studies on matters relating to artificial intelligence, as required.
“(4)
Evaluate and provide recommendations to the Secretary and the Director regarding the Department’s development of a robust workforce proficient in artificial intelligence.
“(5)
Assist the Secretary and the Director in developing strategic level guidance on artificial intelligence-related hardware procurement, supply-chain matters, and other technical matters relating to artificial intelligence.
“(c) Membership.—
The board of advisors shall be composed of appropriate experts from academic or private sector organizations outside the Department of Defense, who shall be appointed by the Secretary.
“(d) Chairperson.—
The chairperson of the board of advisors shall be selected by the Secretary.
“(e) Meetings.—
The board of advisors shall meet not less than once each fiscal quarter and may meet at other times at the call of the chairperson or a majority of its members.
“(f) Reports.—
Not later than September 30 of each year through September 30, 2024, the board of advisors shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report that summarizes the activities of the board over the preceding year.
“(g) Definitions.—In this section:
“(1)
The term ‘artificial intelligence’ has the meaning given that term in section 238(g) of the John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115–232; 10 U.S.C. 2358 note [now 10 U.S.C. 4061 note prec.]).
“(2)
The term ‘Director’ means the Director of the Joint Artificial Intelligence Center.
“(3)
The term ‘Joint Artificial Intelligence Center’ means the Joint Artificial Intelligence Center of the Department of Defense established pursuant to the memorandum of the Secretary of Defense dated June 27, 2018, and titled ‘Establishment of the Joint Artificial Intelligence Center’, or any successor to such Center.
“(4)
The term ‘Secretary’ means the Secretary of Defense.”
Steering Committee on Emerging Technology

Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title II, § 236, Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 3485, as amended by Pub. L. 117–81, div. A, title II, § 216, Dec. 27, 2021, 135 Stat. 1595, provided that:

“(a) Establishment.—
The Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence may jointly establish a steering committee on emerging technology and national security threats (referred to in this section as the ‘Steering Committee’).
“(b) Membership.—The Steering Committee shall be composed of the following:
“(1)
The Deputy Secretary of Defense.
“(2)
The Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
“(3)
The Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence.
“(4)
Such other officials of the Department of Defense and intelligence community as the Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence jointly determine appropriate.
“(c) Leadership.—
The Steering Committee shall be chaired by the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence jointly.
“(d) Responsibilities.—The Steering Committee shall be responsible for—
“(1)
developing strategies for the organizational change, concept and capability development, and technology investments in emerging technologies that are needed to maintain the technological superiority of the United States military and intelligence community as outlined in the National Defense Strategy and National Intelligence Strategy, and consistent with the National Security Strategy;
“(2)
providing assessments of emerging threats and identifying investments and advances in emerging technology areas undertaken by adversaries of the United States;
“(3) making recommendations to the Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence on—
“(A)
the implementation of the strategies developed under paragraph (1);
“(B)
steps that may be taken to address the threats identified under paragraph (2);
“(C)
any changes to a program of record that may be required to achieve the strategy under paragraph (1);
“(D)
any changes to the Defense Planning Guidance required by section 113(g)(2)(A) of title 10, United States Code, that may be required to achieve the strategy under paragraph (1);
“(E)
any changes to the guidance for developing the National Intelligence Program budget required by section 102A(c)(1)(A) of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 3024(c)(1)(A)), that may be required to implement the strategies under paragraph (1); and
“(F)
whether sufficient resources are available for the research activities, workforce, and infrastructure of the Department of Defense and the intelligence community to support the development of capabilities to defeat emerging threats to the United States; and
“(4)
carrying out such other activities as are assigned to the Steering Committee by the Secretary of Defense and Director of National Intelligence, jointly.
“(e) Definitions.—In this section:
“(1)
The term ‘emerging technology’ means technology jointly determined to be in an emerging phase of development by the Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence, including quantum information science and technology, data analytics, artificial intelligence, autonomous technology, advanced materials, software, high performance computing, robotics, directed energy, hypersonics, biotechnology, medical technologies, and such other technology as may be jointly identified by the Secretary and the Director.
“(2)
The term ‘intelligence community’ has the meaning given such term in section 3 of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 3003).
“(f) Sunset.—
This section shall terminate on October 1, 2025.”
Part-Time and Term Employment of University Faculty and Students in the Defense Science and Technology Enterprise

Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title II, § 249, Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 3493, as amended by Pub. L. 117–81, div. A, title II, §§ 212(c)(3), 215(d)(11), Dec. 27, 2021, 135 Stat. 1588, 1594, provided that:

“(a) Program Required.—
Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 1, 2021], the Secretary of Defense shall establish a program under which opportunities for part-time and term employment are made available in the Defense science and technology enterprise for faculty and students of institutions of higher education for the purpose of enabling such faculty and students to carry out research projects in accordance with subsection (b).
“(b) Research Projects.—
“(1) Faculty.—A faculty member who is employed in position made available under subsection (a) shall, in the course of such employment, carry out a research project that—
“(A)
relates to a topic in the field of science, technology, engineering, or mathematics; and
“(B)
contributes to the objectives of the Department of Defense, as determined by the Secretary of Defense.
“(2) Students.—
A student employed in position made available under subsection (a) shall assist a faculty member with a research project described in paragraph (1).
“(c) Selection of Participants.—The Secretary of Defense, acting through the heads of participating organizations in the Defense science and technology enterprise, shall select individuals for participation in the program under subsection (a) as follows:
“(1) Faculty members shall be selected for participation on the basis of—
“(A)
the academic credentials and research experience of the faculty member; and
“(B)
the extent to which the research proposed to be carried out by the faculty member will contribute to the objectives of the Department of Defense.
“(2) Students shall be selected to assist with a research project under the program on the basis of—
“(A)
the academic credentials and other qualifications of the student; and
“(B)
the student’s ability to fulfill the responsibilities assigned to the student as part of the project.
“(d) Minimum Number of Positions.—
“(1) In general.—
During the first year of the program under subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense shall establish not fewer than 10 part-time or term positions for faculty.
“(2) Artificial intelligence and machine learning.—
Of the positions established under paragraph (1), not fewer than five such positions shall be reserved for faculty who will conduct research in the area of artificial intelligence and machine learning.
“(e) Authorities.—In carrying out the program under subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense, or the head of an organization in the Defense science and technology enterprise, as applicable, may—
“(1) use any hiring authority available to the Secretary or the head of such organization, including—
“(A)
any hiring authority available under a laboratory demonstration program, including the hiring authority provided under section 4121(b) of title 10, United States Code;
“(B)
direct hiring authority under section 1599h of title 10, United States Code [now 10 U.S.C. 4092]; and
“(C)
expert hiring authority under section 3109 of title 5, United States Code;
“(2)
enter into cooperative research and development agreements under section 12 of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3710a) to enable the sharing of research and expertise with institutions of higher education and the private sector; and
“(3) pay referral bonuses to faculty or students participating in the program who identify—
“(A)
students to assist in a research project under the program; or
“(B)
students or recent graduates to participate in other programs in the Defense science and technology enterprise, including internships at Department of Defense laboratories and in the Pathways Program of the Department.
“(f) Annual Reports.—
“(1) Initial report.—Not later than 30 days after the conclusion of the first year of the program under subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report on the status of the program. The report shall include—
“(A)
identification of the number of faculty and students employed under the program;
“(B)
identification of the organizations in the Defense science and technology enterprise that employed such individuals; and
“(C)
a description of the types of research conducted by such individuals.
“(2) Subsequent reports.—Not later than 30 days after the conclusion of the second and third years of the program under subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees a report on the progress of the program. Each report shall include—
“(A)
the information described in subparagraphs (A) through (C) of paragraph (1);
“(B)
the results of any research projects conducted under the program; and
“(C)
the number of students and recent graduates who, pursuant to a reference from a faculty member or student participating in the program as described in subsection (e)(3), were hired by the Department of Defense or selected for participation in another program in the Defense science and technology enterprise.
“(g) Definitions.—In this section:
“(1) The term ‘Defense science and technology enterprise’ means—
“(A)
the research organizations of the military departments;
“(B)
the science and technology reinvention laboratories (as designated under section 4121(b) of title 10, United States Code);
“(C)
the facilities of the Major Range and Test Facility Base (as defined in section 2358a(g) of title 10, United States Code [now 10 U.S.C. 4091(g)]); and
“(D)
the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.
“(2)
The term ‘faculty’ means an individual who serves as a professor, researcher, or instructor at an institution of higher education.
“(3)
The term ‘institution of higher education’ has the meaning given that term in section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001).”
Acquisition Authority of the Director of the Joint Artificial Intelligence Center

Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title VIII, § 808, Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 3745, provided that:

“(a) Authority.—
The Secretary of Defense shall delegate to the Director of the Joint Artificial Intelligence Center the acquisition authority to exercise the functions of a head of an agency (as defined in section 2302 of title 10, United States Code [see 10 U.S.C. 3004]) with respect to appropriate acquisition activities of the Center.
“(b) JAIC Acquisition Executive.—
“(1) In general.—The staff of the Director shall include an acquisition executive who shall be responsible for the supervision of appropriate acquisition activities under subsection (a). Subject to the authority, direction, and control of the Director of the Center, the acquisition executive shall have the authority—
“(A)
to negotiate memoranda of agreement with any element of the Department of Defense to carry out the acquisition of technologies, services, and capabilities developed or identified by the Center;
“(B)
to supervise the acquisition of technologies, services, and capabilities to support the mission of the Center;
“(C)
to represent the Center in discussions with the Secretaries concerned regarding acquisition programs relating to such appropriate acquisition activities for which the Center is involved; and
“(D)
to work with the Secretaries concerned to ensure that the Center is appropriately represented in any joint working group or integrated product team regarding acquisition programs relating to such appropriate activities for which the Center is involved.
“(2) Delivery of acquisition solutions.—The acquisition executive of the Center shall be—
“(A)
responsible to the Director for rapidly delivering capabilities to meet validated requirements;
“(B)
subordinate to the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment in matters of acquisition; and
“(C)
included on the distribution list for acquisition directives and instructions of the Department of Defense.
“(c) Acquisition Personnel.—
“(1) In general.—The Secretary of Defense shall provide the Center with at least 10 full-time employees to support the Director in carrying out the requirements of this section, including personnel with experience in—
“(A)
acquisition practices and processes;
“(B)
the Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System process;
“(C)
program management;
“(D)
software development and systems engineering; and
“(E)
cost analysis.
“(2) Existing personnel.—
The personnel provided under this subsection shall be provided from among the existing personnel of the Department of Defense.
“(d) Funding.—
In exercising the acquisition authority granted in subsection (a), the Director may not obligate or expend more than $75,000,000 out of the funds made available in each of fiscal years 2021, 2022, 2023, 2024, and 2025 to enter into new contracts to support appropriate acquisition activities carried out under this section.
“(e) Implementation Plan and Demonstration Required.—
“(1) In general.—The Secretary of Defense
“(A)
may use the acquisition authority granted under subsection (a) on or after 30 days after the date on which the Secretary provides to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a plan for implementation of such authority; and
“(B)
by March 15, 2022, shall provide a demonstration of operational capability delivered under such authority.
“(2) Implementation plan.—The plan shall include the following:
“(A)
Description of the types of activities to be undertaken using the acquisition authority provided under subsection (a).
“(B)
Plan for the negotiation and approval of any such memorandum of agreement with an element of the Department of Defense to support Center missions and transition of artificial intelligence capabilities into appropriate acquisition programs or into operational use.
“(C)
Plan for oversight of the position of acquisition executive established in subsection (b).
“(D)
Assessment of the acquisition workforce, tools, and infrastructure needs of the Center to support the authority under subsection (a) until September 30, 2025.
“(E)
Other matters as appropriate.
“(3) Demonstration.—
The capability demonstration shall include a description of how the acquisition authority enabled the capability, how requirements were established and agreed upon, how testing was conducted, and how the capability was transitioned to the user, as well as any other matters deemed appropriate by the Center.
“(4) Relationship to other authorities.—
The requirement to submit a plan under this subsection is in addition to the requirements under section 260 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2020 (Public Law 116–92; 133 Stat. 1293).
“(f) Sunset.—
Effective October 1, 2025, the Director may not exercise the authority under subsection (a) and may not enter into any new contracts under this section. The performance on any contract entered into before such date may continue according to the terms of such contract.
“(g) Definitions.—In this section:
“(1) Center.—
The term ‘Center’ has the meaning given the term ‘Joint Artificial Intelligence Center’ in section 260(c) of National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2020 (Public Law 116–92; 133 Stat. 1294).
“(3) [sic] Director.—
The term ‘Director’ means the Director of the Center.
“(4) Element.—
The term ‘element’ means an element described under section 111(b) of title 10, United States Code.
“(5) Secretary concerned.—
The term ‘Secretary concerned’ has the meaning given in section 101[(a)](9) of title 10, United States Code.”
Direct Air Capture and Blue Carbon Removal Technology Program

Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title II, § 223, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1264, as amended by Pub. L. 117–81, div. A, title II, §§ 212(c)(2), 215(d)(8), Dec. 27, 2021, 135 Stat. 1588, 1594, provided that:

“(a) Program Required.—
“(1) In general.—
The Secretary of Defense, in coordination with the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Secretary of Energy, and the heads of such other Federal agencies as the Secretary of Defense considers appropriate, shall carry out a program on research, development, testing, evaluation, study, and demonstration of technologies related to blue carbon capture and direct air capture.
“(2) Program goals.—The goals of the program established under paragraph (1) are as follows:
“(A)
To develop technologies that capture carbon dioxide from seawater and the air to turn such carbon dioxide into clean fuels to enhance fuel and energy security.
“(B)
To develop and demonstrate technologies that capture carbon dioxide from seawater and the air to reuse such carbon dioxide to create products for military uses.
“(C) To develop direct air capture technologies for use—
“(i)
at military installations or facilities of the Department of Defense; or
“(ii)
in modes of transportation by the Navy or the Coast Guard.
“(3) Phases.—The program established under paragraph (1) shall be carried out in two phases as follows:
“(A)
The first phase shall consist of research and development and shall be carried out as described in subsection (b).
“(B)
The second phase shall consist of testing and evaluation and shall be carried out as described in subsection (c), if the Secretary determines that the results of the research and development phase justify implementing the testing and evaluation phase.
“(4) Designation.—
The program established under paragraph (1) shall be known as the ‘Direct Air Capture and Blue Carbon Removal Technology Program’ (in this section referred to as the ‘Program’).
“(b) Research and Development Phase.—
“(1) In general.—
During the research and development phase of the Program, the Secretary of Defense shall conduct research and development in pursuit of the goals set forth in subsection (a)(2).
“(2) Direct air capture.—The research and development phase of the Program may include, with respect to direct air capture, a front end engineering and design study that includes an evaluation of direct air capture designs to produce fuel for use—
“(A)
at military installations or facilities of the Department of Defense; or
“(B)
in modes of transportation by the Navy or the Coast Guard.
“(3) Commencement.—
The Secretary shall commence carrying out the research and development phase of the Program not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2019].
“(4) Grants authorized.—
The Secretary may carry out the research and development phase of the Program through the award of grants to private persons and eligible laboratories.
“(5) Report required.—
Not later than 180 days after the date of the completion of the research and development phase of the Program, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on the research and development carried out under the Program.
“(c) Testing and Evaluation Phase.—
“(1) In general.—
During the testing and evaluation phase of the Program, the Secretary shall, in pursuit of the goals set forth in subsection (a)(2), conduct tests and evaluations of the technologies researched and developed during the research and development phase of the Program.
“(2) Direct air capture.—The testing and evaluation phase of the Program may include demonstration projects for direct air capture to produce fuels for use—
“(A)
at military installations or facilities of the Department of Defense; or
“(B)
in modes of transportation by the Navy or the Coast Guard.
“(3) Commencement.—
Subject to subsection (a)(3)(B), the Secretary shall commence carrying out the testing and evaluation phase of the Program on the date of the completion of the research and development phase described in subsection (b), except that the testing and evaluation phase of the Program with respect to direct air capture may commence at such time after a front end engineering and design study demonstrates to the Secretary that commencement of such phase is appropriate.
“(4) Grants authorized.—
The Secretary may carry out the testing and evaluation phase of the Program through the award of grants to private persons and eligible laboratories.
“(5) Locations.—
The Secretary shall carry out the testing and evaluation phase of the Program at military installations or facilities of the Department of Defense.
“(6) Report required.—
Not later than September 30, 2026, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on the findings of the Secretary with respect to the effectiveness of the technologies tested and evaluated under the Program.
“(d) Definitions.—In this section:
“(1)
The term ‘blue carbon capture’ means the removal of dissolved carbon dioxide from seawater through engineered or inorganic processes, including filters, membranes, or phase change systems.
“(2)
(A)
The term ‘direct air capture’, with respect to a facility, technology, or system, means that the facility, technology, or system uses carbon capture equipment to capture carbon dioxide directly from the air.
“(B) The term ‘direct air capture’ does not include any facility, technology, or system that captures carbon dioxide—
“(i)
that is deliberately released from a naturally occurring subsurface spring; or
“(ii)
using natural photosynthesis.
“(3) The term ‘eligible laboratory’ means—
“(A)
a National Laboratory (as defined in section 2 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C. 15801));
“(B)
a science and technology reinvention laboratory designated under section 4121(b) of title 10, United States Code;
“(C)
the Major Range and Test Facility Base (as defined in section 2358a(g) of title 10, United States Code [now 10 U.S.C. 4091(g)]); or
“(D)
any other facility that supports the research, development, test, and evaluation activities of the Department of Defense or the Department of Energy.”
Research Program on Foreign Malign Influence Operations

Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title II, § 228, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1271, provided that:

“(a) Program Authorized.—
The Secretary of Defense, acting through the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, may carry out a research program on foreign malign influence operations as part of the university research programs of the Department of Defense.
“(b) Program Objectives.—The objectives of a research program carried out under subsection (a) should include the following:
“(1)
Enhance the understanding of foreign malign influence operations, including activities conducted on social media platforms.
“(2)
Facilitate the analysis of publicly available or voluntarily provided indicators of foreign malign influence operations.
“(3)
Promote collaborative research and information exchange with relevant entities within the Department of Defense and with other agencies or nongovernmental organizations relating to foreign malign influence operations, as appropriate.
“(c) Notice to Congress.—Not later than 30 days before initiating a research program under subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] notice of the intent of the Secretary to initiate such a program, which shall include—
“(1)
a detailed description of the program and any related research activities;
“(2)
the estimated cost and duration of the program; and
“(3)
any other matters the Secretary determines to be relevant.”
Diversification of the Research and Engineering Workforce of the Department of Defense

Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title II, § 229, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1271, provided that:

“(a) Assessment Required.—
“(1) In general.—
The Secretary of Defense, acting through the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering and in consultation with the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, shall conduct an assessment of critical skillsets required across, and the diversity of, the research and engineering workforce of the Department of Defense, including the science and technology reinvention laboratories, to support emerging and future warfighter technologies.
“(2) Elements.—The assessment required by paragraph (1) shall include analysis of the following:
“(A)
The percentage of women and minorities employed in the research and engineering workforce of the Department of Defense as of the date of the assessment.
“(B)
Of the individuals hired into the research and engineering workforce of the Department in the five years preceding the date of the assessment, the percentage of such individuals who are women and minorities.
“(C)
The effectiveness of existing hiring, recruitment, and retention incentives for women and minorities in the research and engineering workforce of the Department.
“(D)
The effectiveness of the Department in recruiting women and minorities into the laboratory workforce after such individuals complete work on Department-funded research, projects, grant projects, fellowships, and STEM programs.
“(E)
The geographical diversity of the workforce across various geographic regions.
“(b) Plan Required.—
“(1) In general.—
Based on the results of the assessment conducted under subsection (a), the Secretary of Defense, acting through the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering and in consultation with the Secretaries of the military departments, shall develop and implement a plan to diversify and strengthen the research and engineering workforce of the Department of Defense.
“(2) Elements.—The plan required by paragraph (1) shall—
“(A)
align with science and technology strategy priorities of the Department of Defense, including the emerging and future warfighter technology requirements identified by the Department;
“(B)
except as provided in subsection (c)(2), set forth steps for the implementation of each recommendation included in the 2013 report of the RAND corporation titled ‘First Steps Toward Improving DoD STEM Workforce Diversity’;
“(C)
harness the full range of the Department’s STEM programs and other Department sponsored programs to develop and attract top talent;
“(D)
use existing authorities to attract and retain students, academics, and other talent;
“(E) establish and use contracts, agreements, or other arrangements with institutions of higher education (as defined in section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001)), including historically black colleges and universities and other minority-serving institutions (as described in section 371(a) of such Act (20 U.S.C. 1067q(a)) to enable easy and efficient access to research and researchers for Government sponsored basic and applied research and studies at each institution, including contracts, agreements, and other authorized arrangements such as those authorized under—
“(i)
section 217 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018 (Public Law 115–91; 10 U.S.C. 2358 note [now 10 U.S.C. 4001 note, set out below]); and
“(ii)
such other authorities as the Secretary determines to be appropriate; and
“(F)
include recommendations for changes in authorities, regulations, policies, or any other relevant areas that would support the achievement of the goals set forth in the plan.
“(3) Submittal to congress.—Not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2019], the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report that includes—
“(A)
the plan developed under paragraph (1); and
“(B) with respect to each recommendation described in paragraph (2)(B) that the Secretary has implemented or expects to implement—
“(i)
a summary of actions that have been taken to implement the recommendation; and
“(ii)
a schedule, with specific milestones, for completing the implementation of the recommendation.
“(c) Deadline for Implementation.—
“(1) In general.—
Except as provided in paragraph (2), not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act the Secretary of Defense shall carry out activities to implement the plan developed under subsection (b).
“(2) Exception for implementation of certain recommendations.—
“(A) Delayed implementation.—
The Secretary of Defense may commence implementation of a recommendation described in subsection (b)(2)(B) after the date specified in paragraph (1) if the Secretary provides the congressional defense committees with a specific justification for the delay in implementation of such recommendation on or before such date.
“(B) Nonimplementation.—The Secretary of Defense may opt not to implement a recommendation described in subsection (b)(2)(B) if the Secretary provides to the congressional defense committees, on or before the date specified in paragraph (1)—
“(i)
a specific justification for the decision not to implement the recommendation; and
“(ii)
a summary of the alternative actions the Secretary plans to take to address the issues underlying the recommendation.
“(d) STEM Defined.—
In this section, the term ‘STEM’ means science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.”
Process To Align Policy Formulation and Emerging Technology Development

Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title II, § 232, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1277, provided that:

“(a) Alignment of Policy and Technological Development.—
Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2019], the Secretary of Defense shall establish a process to ensure that the policies of the Department of Defense relating to emerging technology are formulated and updated continuously as such technology is developed by the Department.
“(b) Elements.—As part of the process established under subsection (a), the Secretary shall—
“(1)
specify the role of each covered official in ensuring that the formulation of policies relating to emerging technology is carried out concurrently with the development of such technology; and
“(2) incorporate procedures for the continuous legal review of—
“(A)
weapons and other defense systems that incorporate or use emerging technology; and
“(B)
treaties that may be affected by such technology.
“(c) Briefing Required.—
Not later than 30 days after the date on which the Secretary of Defense establishes the process required under subsection (a), the Secretary shall provide to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a briefing on such process.
“(d) Definitions.—In this section:
“(1) The term ‘covered official’ means the following:
“(A)
The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
“(B)
The Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering.
“(C)
The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment.
“(D)
The Under Secretary of Defense for Policy.
“(E)
The commanders of combatant commands with responsibilities involving the use of weapons or other defense systems that incorporate or use emerging technology, as determined by the Secretary of Defense.
“(F)
The Secretaries of the military departments.
“(2)
The term ‘emerging technology’ means technology determined to be in an emerging phase of development by the Secretary of Defense, including quantum computing, technology for the analysis of large and diverse sets of data (commonly known as ‘big data analytics’), artificial intelligence, autonomous technology, robotics, directed energy, hypersonics, biotechnology, and such other technology as may be identified by the Secretary.”
Procedures for Rapid Reaction to Emerging Technology

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title II, § 225, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1684, provided that:

“(a) Requirement to Establish Procedures.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 2018], the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering shall prescribe procedures for the designation and development of technologies that are—
“(1) urgently needed—
“(A)
to react to a technological development of an adversary of the United States; or
“(B)
to respond to a significant and urgent emerging technology; and
“(2)
not receiving appropriate research funding or attention from the Department of Defense.
“(b) Elements.—The procedures prescribed under subsection (a) shall include the following:
“(1) A process for streamlined communications between the Under Secretary, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the commanders of the combatant commands, the science and technology executives within each military department, and the science and technology community, including—
“(A)
a process for the commanders of the combatant commands and the Joint Chiefs of Staff to communicate their needs to the science and technology community; and
“(B)
a process for the science and technology community to propose technologies that meet the needs communicated by the combatant commands and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
“(2) Procedures for the development of technologies proposed pursuant to paragraph (1)(B), including—
“(A)
a process for demonstrating performance of the proposed technologies on a short timeline;
“(B)
a process for developing a development strategy for a technology, including integration into future budget years; and
“(C)
a process for making investment determinations based on information obtained pursuant to subparagraphs (A) and (B).
“(c) Briefing.—
Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Under Secretary shall provide to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a briefing on the procedures required by subsection (a).”
Human Factors Modeling and Simulation Activities

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title II, § 227, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1687, provided that:

“(a) Activities Required.—The Secretary of Defense shall develop and provide for the carrying out of human factors modeling and simulation activities designed to do the following:
“(1)
Provide warfighters and civilians with personalized assessment, education, and training tools.
“(2)
Identify and implement effective ways to interface and team warfighters with machines.
“(3)
Result in the use of intelligent, adaptive augmentation to enhance decision making.
“(4)
Result in the development of techniques, technologies, and practices to mitigate critical stressors that impede warfighter and civilian protection, sustainment, and performance.
“(b) Purpose.—
The overall purpose of the activities shall be to accelerate research and development that enhances capabilities for human performance, human-systems integration, and training for the warfighter.
“(c) Participants in Activities.—Participants in the activities may include the following:
“(1)
Elements of the Department of Defense engaged in science and technology activities.
“(2)
Program Executive Offices of the Department.
“(3)
Academia.
“(4)
The private sector.
“(5)
Such other participants as the Secretary considers appropriate.”
Defense Quantum Information Science and Technology Research and Development Program

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title II, § 234, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1692, as amended by Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title II, § 220, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1260; Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title II, § 214, Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 3458, provided that:

“(a) Establishment.—
The Secretary of Defense shall carry out a quantum information science and technology research and development program.
“(b) Purposes.—The purposes of the program required by subsection (a) are as follows:
“(1)
To ensure global superiority of the United States in quantum information science necessary for meeting national security requirements.
“(2)
To coordinate all quantum information science and technology research and development within the Department of Defense and to provide for interagency cooperation and collaboration on quantum information science and technology research and development between the Department of Defense and other departments and agencies of the United States and appropriate private sector and international entities that are involved in quantum information science and technology research and development.
“(3)
To develop and manage a portfolio of fundamental and applied quantum information science and technology and engineering research initiatives that is stable, consistent, and balanced across scientific disciplines.
“(4)
To accelerate the transition and deployment of technologies and concepts derived from quantum information science and technology research and development into the Armed Forces, and to establish policies, procedures, and standards for measuring the success of such efforts.
“(5)
To collect, synthesize, and disseminate critical information on quantum information science and technology research and development.
“(6)
To establish and support appropriate research, innovation, and industrial base, including facilities, workforce, and infrastructure, to support the needs of Department of Defense missions and systems related to quantum information science and technology.
“(c) Administration.—In carrying out the program required by subsection (a), the Secretary shall act through the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, who shall supervise the planning, management, and coordination of the program. The Under Secretary, in consultation with the Secretaries of the military departments and the heads of participating Defense Agencies and other departments and agencies of the United States, shall—
“(1) prescribe a set of long-term challenges and a set of specific technical goals for the program, including—
“(A)
optimization of analysis of national security data sets;
“(B)
development of defense related quantum computing algorithms;
“(C)
design of new materials and molecular functions;
“(D)
secure communications and cryptography, including development of quantum communications protocols;
“(E)
quantum sensing and metrology;
“(F)
development of mathematics relating to quantum enhancements to sensing, communications, and computing; and
“(G)
processing and manufacturing of low-cost, robust, and reliable quantum information science and technology-enabled devices and systems;
“(2) develop a coordinated and integrated research and investment plan for meeting the near-, mid-, and long-term challenges with definitive milestones while achieving the specific technical goals that builds upon the Department’s increased investment in quantum information science and technology research and development, commercial sector and global investments, and other United States Government investments in the quantum information sciences, including through consultation with—
“(A)
the National Quantum Coordination Office;
“(B)
the subcommittee on Quantum Information Science of the National Science and Technology Council;
“(C)
other organizations and elements of the Department of Defense;
“(D)
other Federal agencies; and
“(E)
appropriate private sector organizations;
“(3) in consultation with the entities listed in paragraph (2), develop plans for—
“(A)
the development of the quantum information science and technology workforce;
“(B)
enhancing awareness of quantum information science and technology;
“(C)
reducing the risk of cybersecurity threats posed by quantum information science technology; and
“(D)
development of ethical guidelines for the use of quantum information science technology;
“(4)
in consultation with the National Institute of Standards and Technology and other appropriate Federal entities, develop a quantum information science taxonomy and standards and requirements for quantum information technology;
“(5)
support efforts to increase the technology readiness level of quantum information science technologies under development in the United States;
“(6)
not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 2018], develop and continuously update guidance, including classification and data management plans for defense-related quantum information science and technology activities, and policies for control of personnel participating on such activities to minimize the effects of loss of intellectual property in basic and applied quantum information science and information considered sensitive to the leadership of the United States in the field of quantum information science and technology; and
“(7)
develop memoranda of agreement, joint funding agreements, and other cooperative arrangements necessary for carrying out the program under subsection (a).
“(d) Quantum Information Science Research Centers.—
The Secretary of each military department may establish or designate a defense laboratory or establish activities to engage with appropriate public and private sector organizations, including academic organizations, to enhance and accelerate the research, development, and deployment of quantum information sciences and quantum information science-enabled technologies and systems. The Secretary of Defense shall ensure that not less than one such laboratory or center is established or designated.
“(e) Use of Quantum Computing Capabilities.—The Secretary of each military department shall—
“(1)
develop and annually update a list of technical problems and research challenges which are likely to be addressable by quantum computers available for use within in the next one to three years, with a priority for technical problems and challenges where quantum computing systems have performance advantages over traditional computing systems, in order to enhance the capabilities of such quantum computers and support the addressing of relevant technical problems and research challenges; and
“(2)
establish programs and enter into agreements with appropriate medium and small businesses with functional quantum computing capabilities to provide such private sector capabilities to government, industry, and academic researchers working on relevant technical problems and research activities.
“(f) Report.—
“(1) In general.—
Not later than December 31, 2020, the Secretary shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report on the program, in both classified and unclassified format.
“(2) Elements.—The report required by paragraph (1) shall include the following:
“(A)
A description of the knowledge-base of the Department with respect to quantum information sciences, plans to defend against quantum based attacks, and any plans of the Secretary to enhance such knowledge-base.
“(B)
A plan that describes how the Secretary intends to use quantum information sciences for military applications and to meet other needs of the Department, including a discussion of likely impacts of quantum information science and technology on military capabilities.
“(C)
An assessment of the efforts of foreign powers to use quantum information sciences for military applications and other purposes.
“(D) A description of the activities carried out in accordance with this section, including, for each such activity—
“(i)
a roadmap for the activity;
“(ii)
a summary of the funding provided for the activity; and
“(iii)
an estimated timeline for the development and military deployment of quantum technologies supported through the activity.
“(E) A description of the efforts of the Department of Defense to update classification and cybersecurity practices relating to quantum technology, including—
“(i)
security processes and requirements for engagement with allied countries; and
“(ii)
a plan for security-cleared government and contractor workforce development.
“(F)
Such other matters as the Secretary considers appropriate.”
Initiative To Support Protection of National Security Academic Researchers From Undue Influence and Other Security Threats

Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title XII, § 1286, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2078, as amended by Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title XII, § 1281, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1704; Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title X, § 1081(d)(6), title XII, § 1299C, Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 3874, 3999, provided that:

“(a) Initiative Required.—The Secretary of Defense shall, in consultation with other appropriate government organizations, establish an initiative to work with institutions of higher education who perform defense research and engineering activities—
“(1)
to support protection of intellectual property, controlled information, key personnel, and information about critical technologies relevant to national security;
“(2)
to limit undue influence, including through foreign talent programs, by countries to exploit United States technology within the Department of Defense research, science and technology, and innovation enterprise; and
“(3)
to support efforts toward development of domestic talent in relevant scientific and engineering fields.
“(b) Institutions and Organizations.—
The initiative required by subsection (a) shall be developed and executed to the maximum extent practicable with academic research institutions and other educational and research organizations.
“(c) Requirements.—The initiative required by subsection (a) shall include development of the following:
“(1)
Information exchange forum and information repositories to enable awareness of security threats and influence operations being executed against the United States research, technology, and innovation enterprise.
“(2) Training developed and delivered in consultation with institutions of higher education and appropriate Government agencies, and other support to institutions of higher education, to promote security and limit undue influence on institutions of higher education and personnel, including Department of Defense financial support to carry out such activities, that—
“(A)
emphasizes best practices for protection of sensitive national security information;
“(B)
includes the dissemination of unclassified materials and resources for identifying and protecting against emerging threats to institutions of higher education, including specific counterintelligence information and advice developed specifically for faculty and academic researchers based on actual identified threats; and
“(C)
includes requirements for appropriate senior officials of institutions of higher education to receive from appropriate Government agencies updated and periodic briefings that describe the espionage risks to academic institutions and associated personnel posed by technical intelligence gathering activities of near-peer strategic competitors.
“(3)
The capacity of Government agencies and institutions of higher education to assess whether individuals affiliated with Department of Defense programs have participated in or are currently participating in foreign talent programs or expert recruitment programs.
“(4)
Opportunities to collaborate with defense researchers and research organizations in secure facilities to promote protection of critical information and strengthen defense against foreign intelligence services.
“(5) Regulations and procedures—
“(A)
for Government agencies and academic organizations and personnel to support the goals of the initiative; and
“(B)
that are consistent with policies that protect open and scientific exchange in fundamental research.
“(6)
Policies to limit or prohibit funding provided by the Department of Defense for institutions or individual researchers who knowingly violate regulations developed under the initiative, including regulations relating to foreign talent programs.
“(7)
Initiatives to support the transition of the results of institution of higher education research programs into defense capabilities.
“(8)
(A) A list of academic institutions of the People’s Republic of China, the Russian Federation, and other countries that—
“(i)
have a history of improper technology transfer, intellectual property theft, or cyber or human espionage;
“(ii)
operate under the direction of the military forces or intelligence agency of the applicable country;
“(iii) are known—
“(I)
to recruit foreign individuals for the purpose of transferring knowledge to advance military or intelligence efforts; or
“(II)
to provide misleading information or otherwise attempt to conceal the connections of an individual or institution to a defense or an intelligence agency of the applicable country; or
“(iv)
pose a serious risk of improper technology transfer of data, technology, or research that is not published or publicly available.
“(B)
The list described in subparagraph (A) shall be developed and continuously updated in consultation with the Bureau of Industry and Security of the Department of Commerce, the Director of National Intelligence, United States institutions of higher education that conduct significant Department of Defense research or engineering activities, and other appropriate individuals and organizations.
“(9)
(A)
A list, developed and continuously updated in consultation with the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine and the appropriate Government agencies, of foreign talent programs that pose a threat to the national security interests of the United States, as determined by the Secretary.
“(B) In developing and updating such list, the Secretary shall consider—
“(i) the extent to which a foreign talent program—
“(I)
poses a threat to research funded by the Department of Defense; and
“(II)
engages in, or facilitates, cyber attacks, theft, espionage, attempts to gain ownership of or influence over companies, or otherwise interferes in the affairs of the United States; and
“(ii)
any other factor the Secretary considers appropriate.
“(d) Procedures for Enhanced Information Sharing.—
“(1) Collection of information.—
“(A) Defense research and development activities.—
Not later than October 1, 2020, for the purpose of maintaining appropriate security controls over research activities, technical information, and intellectual property, the Secretary, in conjunction with appropriate public and private entities, shall establish streamlined procedures to collect appropriate information relating to individuals, including United States citizens and foreign nationals, who participate in defense research and development activities.
“(B) Fundamental research programs.—
With respect to fundamental research programs, the academic liaison designated under subsection (g) shall establish policies and procedures to collect, consistent with the best practices of Government agencies that fund academic research, appropriate information relating to individuals who participate in fundamental research programs.
“(2) Protection from release.—
The procedures required by paragraph (1) shall include procedures to protect such information from release, consistent with applicable regulations.
“(3) Reporting to government information systems and repositories.—
The procedures required by paragraph (1) may include procedures developed, in coordination with appropriate public and private entities, to report such information to existing Government information systems and repositories.
“(e) Annual Report.—
“(1) In general.—
Not later than April 30, 2020, and annually thereafter, the Secretary, acting through appropriate Government officials (including the Under Secretary for Research and Engineering), shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report on the activities carried out under the initiative required by subsection (a).
“(2) Contents.—The report required by paragraph (1) shall include the following:
“(A)
A description of the activities conducted and the progress made under the initiative.
“(B)
The findings of the Secretary with respect to the initiative.
“(C)
Such recommendations as the Secretary may have for legislative or administrative action relating to the matters described in subsection (a), including actions related to foreign talent programs.
“(D)
Identification and discussion of the gaps in legal authorities that need to be improved to enhance the security of research institutions of higher education performing defense research.
“(E)
A description of the actions taken by such institutions to comply with such best practices and guidelines as may be established by under the initiative.
“(F)
Identification of any incident relating to undue influence to security threats to academic research activities funded by the Department of Defense, including theft of property or intellectual property relating to a project funded by the Department at an institution of higher education.
“(3) Form.—
The report submitted under paragraph (1) shall be submitted in both unclassified and classified formats, as appropriate.
“(f) Publication of Updated Lists.—
“(1) Submittal to congress.—
Not later than January 1, 2021, and annually thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to the congressional defense committees the most recently updated lists described in paragraphs (8) and (9) of subsection (c).
“(2) Form.—
Each list submitted under paragraph (1) shall be submitted in unclassified form but may include a classified annex.
“(3) Public availability.—
Each list submitted under paragraph (1) shall be published on a publicly accessible internet website of the Department of Defense in a searchable format.
“(4) Intervening submittal and publication.—
The Secretary may submit and publish an updated list described in paragraph (1) more frequently than required by that paragraph, as the Secretary considers necessary.
“(g) Designation of Academic Liaison.—
“(1) In general.—
Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of the William M. (Mac) Thornberry National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021 [Pub. L. 116–283; approved Jan. 1, 2021], the Secretary, acting through the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, shall designate an academic liaison with principal responsibility for working with the academic and research communities to protect Department-sponsored academic research of concern from undue foreign influence and threats.
“(2) Qualification.—
The Secretary shall designate an individual under paragraph (1) who is an official of the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering.
“(3) Duties.—The duties of the academic liaison designated under paragraph (1) shall be as follows:
“(A)
To serve as the liaison of the Department with the academic and research communities.
“(B)
To execute initiatives of the Department related to the protection of Department-sponsored academic research of concern from undue foreign influence and threats, including the initiative required by subsection (a).
“(C)
To conduct outreach and education activities for the academic and research communities on undue foreign influence and threats to Department-sponsored academic research of concern.
“(D)
To coordinate and align academic security policies with Department component agencies, the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the intelligence community, and appropriate Federal agencies.
“(E)
To the extent practicable, to coordinate with the intelligence community to share, not less frequently than annually, with the academic and research communities unclassified information, including counterintelligence information, on threats from undue foreign influence.
“(F)
Any other related responsibility, as determined by the Secretary in consultation with the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering.
“(h) Institution of Higher Education Defined.—
The term ‘institution of higher education’ has the meaning given such term in section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1001).”
Mechanisms for Expedited Access to Technical Talent and Expertise at Academic Institutions To Support Department of Defense Missions

Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title II, § 217, Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1328, as amended by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title II, §§ 228, 236, Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1687, 1694; Pub. L. 116–92, div. A, title II, § 218, Dec. 20, 2019, 133 Stat. 1259; Pub. L. 116–283, div. A, title II, § 244, Jan. 1, 2021, 134 Stat. 3488; Pub. L. 117–81, div. A, title II, § 218, Dec. 27, 2021, 135 Stat. 1597, provided that:

“(a) Arrangements Authorized.—
“(1) In general.—
Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of the William M. (Mac) Thornberry National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021 [Pub. L. 116–283; approved Jan. 1, 2021], the Secretary of Defense shall direct the secretaries of the military departments to establish not fewer than four multi-institution task order contracts, consortia, cooperative agreements, or other arrangements to facilitate expedited access to university technical expertise, including faculty, staff, and students, in support of Department of Defense missions in the areas specified in subsection (e).
“(2) Coordination.—
In carrying out paragraph (1), the Secretary of Defense may act through the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency or any other organization or element of the Department of Defense the Secretary considers appropriate.
“(3) Use for technical analyses and engineering support.—
The Secretary may use an arrangement under paragraph (1) to fund technical analyses and other engineering support as required to address acquisition, management, training, and operational challenges, including support for classified programs and activities.
“(b) Limitation.—
An arrangement established under subsection (a)(1) may not be used to fund research programs that can be executed through other Department of Defense basic research activities.
“(c) Consultation With Other Organizations.—
For the purposes of providing technical expertise and reducing costs and duplicative efforts, the Secretary of Defense and the Secretaries of the military departments shall work to ensure and support the sharing of information on the research and consulting that is being carried out across the Federal Government in Department-wide shared information systems including the Defense Technical Information Center.
“(d) Policies and Procedures.—If the Secretary of Defense or a secretary of a military department establishes one or more arrangements under subsection (a)(1), the Secretary of Defense shall establish and implement policies and procedures to govern—
“(1)
selection of participants in the arrangement or arrangements;
“(2)
the awarding of task orders under the arrangement or arrangements;
“(3)
maximum award size for tasks under the arrangement or arrangements;
“(4)
the appropriate use of competitive awards and sole source awards under the arrangement or arrangements; and
“(5)
technical areas under the arrangement or arrangements.
“(e) Mission Areas.—The areas specified in this subsection are as follows:
“(1)
Cybersecurity.
“(2)
Air and ground vehicles.
“(3)
Shipbuilding.
“(4)
Explosives detection and defeat.
“(5)
Undersea warfare.
“(6)
Trusted electronics.
“(7)
Unmanned systems.
“(8)
Directed energy.
“(9)
Energy, power, and propulsion.
“(10)
Management science and operations research.
“(11)
Artificial intelligence.
“(12)
Data analytics.
“(13)
Business systems.
“(14)
Technology transfer and transition.
“(15)
Biological engineering and genetic enhancement.
“(16)
High performance computing.
“(17)
Materials science and engineering.
“(18)
Quantum information sciences.
“(19)
Special operations activities.
“(20)
Modeling and simulation.
“(21)
Autonomous systems.
“(22)
Model based engineering.
“(23)
Space.
“(24)
Infrastructure resilience.
“(25)
Photonics.
“(26)
Autonomy.
“(27)
Rapid prototyping.
“(28)
Additive manufacturing.
“(29)
Hypersonics.
“(30)
3D and virtual technology training platforms.
“(31)
Nuclear science, security, and nonproliferation.
“(32)
Chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear defense.
“(33)
Spectrum activities.
“(34)
Research security and integrity.
“(35)
Printed circuit boards.
“(36)
Such other areas as the Secretary considers appropriate.
“(f) Requirement To Establish Consortia.—
“(1) In general.—In carrying out subsection (a)(1)—
“(A)
the Secretary of Defense shall seek to establish at least one multi-institution consortium through the Office of the Secretary of Defense;
“(B)
the Secretary of the Army shall seek to establish at least one multi-institution consortium through the Army;
“(C)
the Secretary of the Navy shall seek to establish at least one multi-institution consortium through the Navy; and
“(D)
the Secretary of the Air Force shall seek to establish at least one multi-institution consortium through the Air Force.
“(2) Report required.—
Not later than September 30, 2022, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a report on the status of the efforts to establish consortia under paragraph (1).
“(g) Sunset.—
No new arrangements may be entered into under subsection (a)(1) after September 30, 2028.
“(h) Arrangements Established Under Subsection (a)(1) Defined.—
In this section, the term ‘arrangement established under subsection (a)(1)’ means a multi-institution task order contract, consortia, cooperative agreement, or other arrangement established under subsection (a)(1).”
Information Operations and Engagement Technology Demonstrations

Pub. L. 114–92, div. A, title X, § 1056, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 984, provided that:

“(a) Sense of Congress.—It is the sense of Congress that—
“(1)
military information support operations are a critical component of the efforts of the Department of Defense to provide commanders with capabilities to shape the operational environment;
“(2)
military information support operations are integral to armed conflict and therefore the Secretary of Defense has broad latitude to conduct military information support operations;
“(3)
the Secretary of Defense should develop creative and agile concepts, technologies, and strategies across all available media to most effectively reach target audiences, to counter and degrade the ability of adversaries and potential adversaries to persuade, inspire, and recruit inside areas of hostilities or in other areas in direct support of the objectives of commanders; and
“(4)
the Secretary of Defense should request additional funds in future budgets to carry out military information support operations to support the broader efforts of the Government to counter violent extremism.
“(b) Technology Demonstrations Required.—
To support the ability of the Department of Defense to provide innovative operational concepts and technologies to shape the informational environment, the Secretary of Defense shall carry out a series of technology demonstrations, subject to the availability of funds for such purpose or to a prior approval reprogramming, to assess innovative new technologies for information operations and information engagement to support the operational and strategic requirements of the commanders of the geographic and functional combatant commands, including the urgent and emergent operational needs and the operational and theater campaign plans of such combatant commanders to further the national security objectives and strategic communications requirements of the United States.
“(c) Plan.—By not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 25, 2015], the Secretary of Defense shall provide to the congressional defense committees [Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives] a plan describing how the Department of Defense will execute the technology demonstrations required under subsection (b). Such plan shall include each of the following elements:
“(1)
A general timeline for conducting the technology demonstrations.
“(2)
Clearly defined goals and endstate objectives for the demonstrations, including traceability of such goals to the tactical, operational, or strategic requirements of the combatant commanders.
“(3)
A process for measuring the performance and effectiveness of the demonstrations.
“(4)
A coordination structure to include participation between the technology development and the operational communities, including potentially joint, interagency, intergovernmental, and multinational partners.
“(5)
The identification of potential technologies to support the tactical, operational, or strategic needs of the combatant commanders.
“(6)
An explanation of how such technologies will support and coordinate with elements of joint, interagency, intergovernmental, and multinational partners.
“(d) Congressional Notice.—
Upon initiating a technology demonstration under subsection (b), the Secretary of Defense shall submit to the congressional defense committees written notice of the demonstration that includes a detailed description of the demonstration, including its purpose, cost, engagement medium, targeted audience, and any other details the Secretary of Defense believes will assist the committees in evaluating the demonstration.
“(e) Termination.—
The authority to carry out a technology demonstration under this section shall terminate on September 30, 2022.
“(f) Rule of Construction.—
Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit or alter any authority under which the Department of Defense supports information operations activities within the Department.”
Inclusion of Women and Minorities in Clinical Research Projects

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title II, § 252, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1607, provided that:

“(a) General Rule.—In conducting or supporting clinical research, the Secretary of Defense shall ensure that—
“(1)
women who are members of the Armed Forces are included as subjects in each project of such research; and
“(2)
members of minority groups who are members of the Armed Forces are included as subjects of such research.
“(b) Waiver Authority.—The requirement in subsection (a) regarding women and members of minority groups who are members of the Armed Forces may be waived by the Secretary of Defense with respect to a project of clinical research if the Secretary determines that the inclusion, as subjects in the project, of women and members of minority groups, respectively—
“(1)
is inappropriate with respect to the health of the subjects;
“(2)
is inappropriate with respect to the purpose of the research; or
“(3)
is inappropriate under such other circumstances as the Secretary of Defense may designate.
“(c) Requirement for Analysis of Research.—
In the case of a project of clinical research in which women or members of minority groups will under subsection (a) be included as subjects of the research, the Secretary of Defense shall ensure that the project is designed and carried out so as to provide for a valid analysis of whether the variables being tested in the research affect women or members of minority groups, as the case may be, differently than other persons who are subjects of the research.”
University Research Initiative Support Program

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title VIII, § 802, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1701, as amended by Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title II, § 275, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 241; Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title II, § 263, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2465; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, § 1076(c)(2)(E), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1950, provided that:

“(a) Establishment.—
The Secretary of Defense, through the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, may establish a University Research Initiative Support Program.
“(b) Purpose.—
Under the program, the Assistant Secretary may award grants and contracts to eligible institutions of higher education to support the conduct of research and development relevant to requirements of the Department of Defense.
“(c) Eligibility.—
An institution of higher education is eligible for a grant or contract under the program if the institution has received less than a total of $2,000,000 in grants and contracts from the Department of Defense in the two most recent fiscal years for which complete statistics are available when proposals are requested for such grant or contract.
“(d) Competition Required.—
The Assistant Secretary shall use competitive procedures in awarding grants and contracts under the program.
“(e) Selection Process.—
In awarding grants and contracts under the program, the Assistant Secretary shall use a merit-based selection process that is consistent with the provisions of section 2361(a) of title 10 [now 10 U.S.C. 4141(a)], United States Code.
“(f) Regulations.—
The Assistant Secretary shall prescribe regulations for carrying out the program.
“(g) Funding.—
Of the amounts authorized to be appropriated under section 201 [107 Stat. 1583], $20,000,000 shall be available for the University Research Initiative Support Program.”
Campuses Barring Military Recruiters; Cessation of Payments; Notification of Secretary of Defense

Pub. L. 92–436, title VI, § 606, Sept. 29, 1972, 86 Stat. 740, provided that:

“(a)
No part of the funds appropriated pursuant to this or any other Act for the Department of Defense or any of the Armed Forces may be used at any institution of higher learning if the Secretary of Defense or his designee determines that recruiting personnel of any of the Armed Forces of the United States are being barred by the policy of such institution from the premises of the institution: except in a case where the Secretary of the service concerned certifies to the Congress in writing that a specific course of instruction is not available at any other institution of higher learning and furnishes to the Congress the reasons why such course of instruction is of vital importance to the security of the United States.
“(b)
The prohibition made by subsection (a) of this section as it applies to research and development funds shall not apply if the Secretary of Defense or his designee determines that the expenditure is a continuation or a renewal of a previous program with such institution which is likely to make a significant contribution to the defense effort.
“(c)
The Secretaries of the military departments shall furnish to the Secretary of Defense or his designee within 60 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 29, 1972] and each January 31 and June 30 thereafter the names of any institution of higher learning which the Secretaries determine on such dates are affected by the prohibitions contained in this section.”

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior authorization acts:

Pub. L. 92–156, title V, § 502, Nov. 17, 1971, 85 Stat. 427.

Pub. L. 91–441, title V, § 510, Oct. 7, 1970, 84 Stat. 914.