The Board is authorized for the purposes of this section  to define the terms used in this section, to determine what shall be deemed a payment of interest, to determine what types of obligations, whether issued directly by a member bank or indirectly by an affiliate of a member bank or by other means, and, regardless of the use of the proceeds, shall be deemed a deposit, and to prescribe such regulations as it may deem necessary to effectuate the purposes of this section and to prevent evasions thereof.
U.S. Code § 461. Reserve requirements
The Federal Deposit Insurance Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(A)(vi), is act Sept. 21, 1950, ch. 967, § 2, 64 Stat. 873, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 16 (§ 1811 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1811 of this title and Tables.
Section 25 of this Act and section 25, referred to in subsec. (b)(6), (12)(C), mean section 25 of act Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, which is classified to subchapter I (§ 601 et seq.) of chapter 6 of this title.
For the effective date of the Monetary Control Act of 1980, referred to in subsec. (b)(8), see section 108 of Pub. L. 96–221, set out as an Effective Date of 1980 Amendment note under section 248 of this title.
Section is comprised of subsecs. (a) to (c), formerly first six pars., of section 19 of act Dec. 23, 1913 (such first, second through fifth, and sixth pars. formerly classified to sections 461, 462, and 462b of this title, respectively), as redesignated by Pub. L. 89–597. For credits prior to enactment of Pub. L. 89–597 on Sept. 21, 1966, see notes set out under sections 462 and 462b of this title.
2006—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 109–351, § 202, substituted “a ratio of not greater than 3 percent (and which may be zero)” for “the ratio of 3 per centum” in cl. (i) and “(and which may be zero),” for “and not less than 8 per centum,” in cl. (ii).
Subsec. (b)(4)(C) to (E). Pub. L. 109–351, § 201(b)(1), redesignated subpars. (D) and (E) as (C) and (D), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (C) which read as follows: “The supplemental reserve authorized under subparagraph (A) shall be maintained by the Federal Reserve banks in an Earnings Participation Account. Except as provided in subsection (c)(1)(A)(ii) of this section, such Earnings Participation Account shall receive earnings to be paid by the Federal Reserve banks during each calendar quarter at a rate not more than the rate earned on the securities portfolio of the Federal Reserve System during the previous calendar quarter. The Board may prescribe rules and regulations concerning the payment of earnings on Earnings Participation Accounts by Federal Reserve banks under this paragraph.”
Subsec. (b)(12). Pub. L. 109–351, § 201(a), added par. (12).
Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 109–351, § 201(b)(2), substituted “subsection (b)” for “subsection (b)(4)(C)”.
1989—Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(vi). Pub. L. 101–73, § 744(i)(2), amended cl. (vi) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (vi) read as follows: “any insured institution as defined in section 1724 of this title or any institution which is eligible to make application to become an insured institution under section 1726 of this title; and”.
1982—Subsec. (b)(1)(E), (F). Pub. L. 97–320, § 411(c), added subpar. (E) and redesignated former subpar. (E) as (F).
Subsec. (b)(4)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 97–320, § 411(b), inserted “except as provided in paragraph (11)”.
Subsec. (b)(8)(D)(i). Pub. L. 97–320, § 708(1), substituted provisions relating to reserve requirements for banks which withdraw from the Federal Reserve System for provision that any bank which was a member bank on July 1, 1979, and which withdrew from membership in the Federal Reserve System during the period beginning on July 1, 1979, and ending on the day before March 31, 1980, would maintain reserves beginning on March 31, 1980, in an amount equal to the amount of reserves it would have been required to maintain if it had been a member bank on March 31, 1980, and that after March 31, 1980, any such bank was directed to maintain reserves in the same amounts as member banks were required to maintain under this subsection, pursuant to subparagraphs (B) and (C)(i).
Subsec. (b)(8)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 97–320, § 708(2), struck out “on or” after “Reserve System”.
Subsec. (b)(11). Pub. L. 97–320, § 411(a), added par. (11).
1981—Subsec. (b)(8)(E). Pub. L. 97–35 substituted provisions relating to applicability to any depository institution that was on Aug. 1, 1978, engaged in such business in a State outside the continental limits and was not a member of the Federal Reserve System at any time on or after such date, for provisions relating to applicability to any depository institution that was on Aug. 1, 1978, engaged in such business under the laws of a State, was not a member of the Federal Reserve System on that date, and the principal office of which was outside the continental limits on that date and has remained outside ever since.
1980—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–221, § 103, substituted provisions setting forth additional definitions applicable to reserve requirements and requirements respecting amounts of reserves maintained against transaction accounts, waiver of ratio limits in extraordinary circumstances, supplemental reserves, reserves related to foreign obligations or assets, exemptions for certain deposits, discounts and borrowings, transitional adjustments, and additional exemptions and waivers, for provisions relating to determinations respecting maintenance of reserves against deposits.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–221, § 104(a), substituted provisions relating to the promulgation of rules and regulations respecting maintenance of balances, for provisions relating to form of reserves held by member banks.
1966—Pub. L. 89–597 designated first par. provisions of section 19 of act Dec. 23, 1913, as subsec. (a), substituted a general provision authorizing Board to define terms used in sections 142, 371a, 371b, 374, 374a, and 463 to 466 of this title for former provisions defining terms “demand deposits”, “gross demand deposits”, “deposits payable on demand”, “time deposits”, “savings deposits”, and “trust funds”, struck out inclusion of “savings deposits” in term “time deposits” in regard to reserve requirements of member banks, and added subsecs. (b) and (c) to such section 19, superseding second through sixth pars., which authorized Board to fix reserve requirements against time deposits between the limits of 3 and 10 percent, in lieu of prior limits of 3 and 6 percent, and struck out provision for modification of reserve requirements to prevent injurious credit to expansion or contraction.
Amendment by Pub. L. 96–221 effective on first day of sixth month which begins after Mar. 31, 1980, except that the amendments regarding subsec. (b)(7) and (8)(D) effective on Mar. 31, 1980, see section 108 of Pub. L. 96–221, set out as a note under section 248 of this title.
Pub. L. 89–597, § 7, Sept. 21, 1966, 80 Stat. 825, as amended by Pub. L. 90–87, Sept. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 226; Pub. L. 90–505, § 1, Sept. 21, 1968, 82 Stat. 856; Pub. L. 91–71, Sept. 22, 1969, 83 Stat. 115; Pub. L. 91–151, title I, § 1, Dec. 23, 1969, 83 Stat. 371; Pub. L. 92–8, § 1, Mar. 31, 1971, 85 Stat. 13; Pub. L. 92–15, § 1, May 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 38; Pub. L. 93–63, July 6, 1973, 87 Stat. 147; Pub. L. 93–100, § 1, Aug. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 342; Pub. L. 93–495, title I, § 107, Oct. 28, 1974, 88 Stat. 1505; Pub. L. 94–200, title I, § 101, Dec. 31, 1975, 89 Stat. 1124; Pub. L. 95–22, title I, § 101, Apr. 19, 1977, 91 Stat. 49; Pub. L. 95–188, title I, § 101, Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1387; Pub. L. 95–630, title XVI, § 1601, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3713, which provided effective and termination dates for 1966 amendments by Pub. L. 89–597 (affecting sections 371b, 1425b, and 1828(g) of this title), was repealed by Pub. L. 96–221, title II, § 207(a), Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 144.
Pub. L. 94–200, title I, § 102, Dec. 31, 1975, 89 Stat. 1124, as amended by Pub. L. 95–630, title XVI, § 1602, Nov. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 3713, which had provided that an interest rate differential for any category of deposits or accounts which was in effect on December 10, 1975, between (1) any bank (other than a savings bank) the deposits of which were insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and (2) any savings and loan, building and loan, or homestead association (including cooperative banks) the deposits or accounts of which were insured by the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation or any mutual savings bank as defined in section 3(f) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1813(j)) [section 1813(f) of this title] could not be eliminated or reduced unless (A) written notification was given by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System to the Congress; and (B) the House of Representatives and the Senate approved, by concurrent resolution, the proposed elimination or reduction of the interest rate differential, was repealed by Pub. L. 97–320, title III, § 326(a), Oct. 15, 1982, 96 Stat. 1500. See section 326(b)–(d) of Pub. L. 97–320, set out as a note under section 1828 of this title. See, also, section 207(b)(1) of Pub. L. 96–221 providing for repeal of section 102 of Pub. L. 94–200 effective 6 years after Mar. 31, 1980.
 See References in Text note below.