15 U.S. Code § 1681g - Disclosures to consumers
The requirements of subsection (a) of this section respecting the disclosure of sources of information and the recipients of consumer reports do not apply to information received or consumer reports furnished prior to the effective date of this subchapter except to the extent that the matter involved is contained in the files of the consumer reporting agency on that date.
Beginning 60 days after the date on which the model summary of rights is prescribed in final form by the Bureau pursuant to paragraph (1), if any consumer contacts a consumer reporting agency and expresses a belief that the consumer is a victim of fraud or identity theft involving credit, an electronic fund transfer, or an account or transaction at or with a financial institution or other creditor, the consumer reporting agency shall, in addition to any other action that the agency may take, provide the consumer with a summary of rights that contains all of the information required by the Bureau under paragraph (1), and information on how to contact the Bureau to obtain more detailed information.
Information required to be provided under paragraph (1) shall be so provided without charge.
Except as provided in section 1681s of this title, sections 1681n and 1681
No business entity may be held civilly liable under any provision of Federal, State, or other law for disclosure, made in good faith pursuant to this subsection.
Nothing in this subsection creates an obligation on the part of a business entity to obtain, retain, or maintain information or records that are not otherwise required to be obtained, retained, or maintained in the ordinary course of its business or under other applicable law.
Except as provided in subparagraph (A), nothing in this subsection permits a business entity to disclose information, including information to law enforcement under subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (1), that the business entity is otherwise prohibited from disclosing under any other applicable provision of Federal or State law.
For purposes of this subsection, the term “victim” means a consumer whose means of identification or financial information has been used or transferred (or has been alleged to have been used or transferred) without the authority of that consumer, with the intent to commit, or to aid or abet, an identity theft or a similar crime.
The information required by this subsection shall be provided in the same timeframe and manner as the information described in subsection (a) of this section.
This subsection shall not be construed to require a consumer reporting agency that distributes credit scores developed by another person or entity to provide a further explanation of them, or to process a dispute arising pursuant to section 1681i of this title, except that the consumer reporting agency shall provide the consumer with the name and address and website for contacting the person or entity who developed the score or developed the methodology of the score.
This subsection shall not be construed to require a consumer reporting agency to maintain credit scores in its files.
A consumer reporting agency may charge a fair and reasonable fee, as determined by the Bureau, for providing the information required under this subsection.
If a key factor that adversely affects the credit score of a consumer consists of the number of enquiries made with respect to a consumer report, that factor shall be included in the disclosure pursuant to paragraph (1)(C) without regard to the numerical limitation in such paragraph.
A copy of the information identified in subsection (f) of this section that was obtained from a consumer reporting agency or was developed and used by the user of the information.
If a person that is subject to this subsection uses an automated underwriting system to underwrite a loan, that person may satisfy the obligation to provide a credit score by disclosing a credit score and associated key factors supplied by a consumer reporting agency.
However, if a numerical credit score is generated by an automated underwriting system used by an enterprise, and that score is disclosed to the person, the score shall be disclosed to the consumer consistent with subparagraph (C).
For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “enterprise” has the same meaning as in paragraph (6) of section 4502 of title 12.
A person that is subject to the provisions of this subsection and that uses a credit score, other than a credit score provided by a consumer reporting agency, may satisfy the obligation to provide a credit score by disclosing a credit score and associated key factors supplied by a consumer reporting agency.
A copy of the following notice, which shall include the name, address, and telephone number of each consumer reporting agency providing a credit score that was used:
“notice to the home loan applicant
“In connection with your application for a home loan, the lender must disclose to you the score that a consumer reporting agency distributed to users and the lender used in connection with your home loan, and the key factors affecting your credit scores.
“The credit score is a computer generated summary calculated at the time of the request and based on information that a consumer reporting agency or lender has on file. The scores are based on data about your credit history and payment patterns. Credit scores are important because they are used to assist the lender in determining whether you will obtain a loan. They may also be used to determine what interest rate you may be offered on the mortgage. Credit scores can change over time, depending on your conduct, how your credit history and payment patterns change, and how credit scoring technologies change.
“Because the score is based on information in your credit history, it is very important that you review the credit-related information that is being furnished to make sure it is accurate. Credit records may vary from one company to another.
“If you have questions about your credit score or the credit information that is furnished to you, contact the consumer reporting agency at the address and telephone number provided with this notice, or contact the lender, if the lender developed or generated the credit score. The consumer reporting agency plays no part in the decision to take any action on the loan application and is unable to provide you with specific reasons for the decision on a loan application.
“If you have questions concerning the terms of the loan, contact the lender.”.
The obligation of any person pursuant to this subsection shall be limited solely to providing a copy of the information that was received from the consumer reporting agency.
As used in this subsection, the term “person” does not include an enterprise (as defined in paragraph (6) of section 4502 of title 12).
Any provision in a contract that prohibits the disclosure of a credit score by a person who makes or arranges loans or a consumer reporting agency is void.
 See References in Text note below.
 So in original. Probably should be “Bureau”.
 So in original. The word “an” probably should not appear.
Section 1681b(b)(4) of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(C)(i), was subsequently amended, and section 1681b(b)(4)(E) no longer defines the term “classified information”. However, such term is defined elsewhere in that section.
Section 211(c) of the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003, referred to in subsec. (c)(1)(B)(v), probably means section 211(d) of Pub. L. 108–159, which is set out as a note under section 1681j of this title and relates to the promulgation of regulations. Section 211(c) of Pub. L. 108–159 amended this section.
Public Law 106–102, referred to in subsec. (e)(9)(A), is Pub. L. 106–102, Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1338, as amended, known as the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act. Subtitle A of title V of the Act is classified principally to subchapter I (§ 6801 et seq.) of chapter 94 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1999 Amendment note set out under section 1811 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and Tables.
2010—Pub. L. 111–203 substituted “the Bureau” for “the Commission” wherever appearing.
2003—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 108–159, § 115, substituted “except that—
“(A) if the consumer to whom the file relates requests that the first 5 digits of the social security number (or similar identification number) of the consumer not be included in the disclosure and the consumer reporting agency has received appropriate proof of the identity of the requester, the consumer reporting agency shall so truncate such number in such disclosure; and
for “except that nothing”.
Subsec. (a)(2), (3)(C). Pub. L. 108–159, § 811(d), realigned margins.
Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 108–159, § 212(a), added par. (6).
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 108–159, § 211(c), amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) related to the summary of rights required to be included with disclosure to consumers by consumer reporting agencies.
Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 108–159, § 151(a)(1), added subsecs. (d) and (e).
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 108–159, § 212(b), added subsec. (f).
Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 108–159, § 212(c), added subsec. (g).
1998—Subsec. (a)(3)(C). Pub. L. 105–347 added subpar. (C).
Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–208, § 2408(a), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: “The nature and substance of all information (except medical information) in its files on the consumer at the time of the request.”
Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 104–208, § 2408(b), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: “The recipients of any consumer report on the consumer which it has furnished—
“(A) for employment purposes within the two-year period preceding the request, and
“(B) for any other purpose within the six-month period preceding the request.”
Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 104–208, § 2408(c), added par. (5).
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–208, § 2408(d)(1), added subsec. (c).
1994—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 103–325 added par. (4).
Amendment by Pub. L. 108–159 subject to joint regulations establishing effective dates as prescribed by Federal Reserve Board and Federal Trade Commission, except as otherwise provided, see section 3 of Pub. L. 108–159, set out as a note under section 1681 of this title.
Amendment by Pub. L. 105–347 deemed to have same effective date as amendments made by section 2403 of Pub. L. 104–208, see section 7 of Pub. L. 105–347, set out as a note under section 1681a of this title.
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