15 U.S. Code § 1681m - Requirements on users of consumer reports
Whenever credit for personal, family, or household purposes involving a consumer is denied or the charge for such credit is increased either wholly or partly because of information obtained from a person other than a consumer reporting agency bearing upon the consumer’s credit worthiness, credit standing, credit capacity, character, general reputation, personal characteristics, or mode of living, the user of such information shall, within a reasonable period of time, upon the consumer’s written request for the reasons for such adverse action received within sixty days after learning of such adverse action, disclose the nature of the information to the consumer. The user of such information shall clearly and accurately disclose to the consumer his right to make such written request at the time such adverse action is communicated to the consumer.
No person shall be held liable for any violation of this section if he shows by a preponderance of the evidence that at the time of the alleged violation he maintained reasonable procedures to assure compliance with the provisions of this section.
A person who makes an offer of credit or insurance to a consumer under a credit or insurance transaction described in paragraph (1) shall maintain on file the criteria used to select the consumer to receive the offer, all criteria bearing on credit worthiness or insurability, as applicable, that are the basis for determining whether or not to extend credit or insurance pursuant to the offer, and any requirement for the furnishing of collateral as a condition of the extension of credit or insurance, until the expiration of the 3-year period beginning on the date on which the offer is made to the consumer.
This section is not intended to affect the authority of any Federal or State agency to enforce a prohibition against unfair or deceptive acts or practices, including the making of false or misleading statements in connection with a credit or insurance transaction that is not initiated by the consumer.
In developing the guidelines required by paragraph (1)(A), the agencies described in paragraph (1) shall identify patterns, practices, and specific forms of activity that indicate the possible existence of identity theft.
In developing the guidelines required by paragraph (1)(A), the agencies described in paragraph (1) shall consider including reasonable guidelines providing that when a transaction occurs with respect to a credit or deposit account that has been inactive for more than 2 years, the creditor or financial institution shall follow reasonable policies and procedures that provide for notice to be given to a consumer in a manner reasonably designed to reduce the likelihood of identity theft with respect to such account.
Guidelines established pursuant to paragraph (1) shall not be inconsistent with the policies and procedures required under section 5318(l) of title 31.
Subject to rules prescribed as provided in paragraph (6), if any person uses a consumer report in connection with an application for, or a grant, extension, or other provision of, credit on material terms that are materially less favorable than the most favorable terms available to a substantial proportion of consumers from or through that person, based in whole or in part on a consumer report, the person shall provide an oral, written, or electronic notice to the consumer in the form and manner required by regulations prescribed in accordance with this subsection.
The notice required under paragraph (1) may be provided at the time of an application for, or a grant, extension, or other provision of, credit or the time of communication of an approval of an application for, or grant, extension, or other provision of, credit, except as provided in the regulations prescribed under paragraph (6).
A person that is required to provide a notice under subsection (a) cannot meet that requirement by providing a notice under this subsection.
The Bureau shall prescribe rules to carry out this subsection.
Sections 1681n and 1681o of this title shall not apply to any failure by any person to comply with this section.
This section shall be enforced exclusively under section 1681s of this title by the Federal agencies and officials identified in that section.
2010—Subsec. (a)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 111–203, § 1100F(1), added par. (2), redesignated former pars. (2) and (3) as (3) and (4), respectively, and substituted “paragraph (3)” for “paragraph (2)” in par. (4).
Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 111–203, § 1088(a)(7), substituted “the Federal Trade Commission, the Federal banking agencies,” for “the Federal banking agencies”.
Pub. L. 111–203, § 1088(a)(2)(C), substituted “the Bureau” for “the Commission”.
Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 111–203, § 1088(a)(8), substituted “the Federal Trade Commission, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, and the Securities and Exchange Commission” for “and the Commission” in introductory provisions.
Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 111–319 added par. (4).
Subsec. (h)(5)(E). Pub. L. 111–203, § 1100F(2), added subpar. (E).
Subsec. (h)(6)(A). Pub. L. 111–203, § 1088(a)(9), added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “The Commission and the Board shall jointly prescribe rules.”
2003—Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 108–159, § 213(a), amended heading and text of par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “A statement under paragraph (1) shall include the address and toll-free telephone number of the appropriate notification system established under section 1681b(e) of this title.”
Pub. L. 108–159, § 114, added subsec. (e) and struck out former subsec. (e) designation that had been added with no heading or text by Pub. L. 104–208, § 2411(c). See note above and 1996 Amendment note below.
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 108–159, § 154(b), added subsec. (f).
Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 108–159, § 155, added subsec. (g).
Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 108–159, § 311(a), added subsec. (h).
1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–208, § 2411(a), inserted heading and amended text of subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Whenever credit or insurance for personal, family, or household purposes, or employment involving a consumer is denied or the charge for such credit or insurance is increased either wholly or partly because of information contained in a consumer report from a consumer reporting agency, the user of the consumer report shall so advise the consumer against whom such adverse action has been taken and supply the name and address of the consumer reporting agency making the report.”
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–208, § 2411(e), inserted subsec. heading, designated existing provisions as par. (1) and inserted heading, and added par. (2).
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–208, § 2411(d), substituted “this section” for “subsections (a) and (b) of this section”.
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–208, § 2411(b), added subsec. (d).
Amendment by Pub. L. 108–159 subject to joint regulations establishing effective dates as prescribed by Federal Reserve Board and Federal Trade Commission, except as otherwise provided, see section 3 of Pub. L. 108–159, set out as a note under section 1681 of this title.
Section effective upon the expiration of one hundred and eighty days following Oct. 26, 1970, see section 504(d) of Pub. L. 90–321, as added by Pub. L. 91–508, set out as a note under section 1681 of this title.
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