20 U.S. Code § 1401 - Definitions
The term “assistive technology device” means any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of a child with a disability.
The term “core academic subjects” has the meaning given the term in section 9101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 7801].
The term “elementary school” means a nonprofit institutional day or residential school, including a public elementary charter school, that provides elementary education, as determined under State law.
Notwithstanding any other individual right of action that a parent or student may maintain under this subchapter, nothing in this section or subchapter shall be construed to create a right of action on behalf of an individual student or class of students for the failure of a particular State educational agency or local educational agency employee to be highly qualified.
A teacher who is highly qualified under this paragraph shall be considered highly qualified for purposes of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 6301 et seq.].
The term “homeless children” has the meaning given the term “homeless children and youths” in section 11434a of title 42.
The term “Indian tribe” means any Federal or State Indian tribe, band, rancheria, pueblo, colony, or community, including any Alaska Native village or regional village corporation (as defined in or established under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.)).
The term “individualized education program” or “IEP” means a written statement for each child with a disability that is developed, reviewed, and revised in accordance with section 1414(d) of this title.
The term “individualized family service plan” has the meaning given the term in section 1436 of this title.
The term “infant or toddler with a disability” has the meaning given the term in section 1432 of this title.
The term “limited English proficient” has the meaning given the term in section 9101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 7801].
The term “local educational agency” means a public board of education or other public authority legally constituted within a State for either administrative control or direction of, or to perform a service function for, public elementary schools or secondary schools in a city, county, township, school district, or other political subdivision of a State, or for such combination of school districts or counties as are recognized in a State as an administrative agency for its public elementary schools or secondary schools.
The term includes an elementary school or secondary school funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, but only to the extent that such inclusion makes the school eligible for programs for which specific eligibility is not provided to the school in another provision of law and the school does not have a student population that is smaller than the student population of the local educational agency receiving assistance under this chapter with the smallest student population, except that the school shall not be subject to the jurisdiction of any State educational agency other than the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
The term “native language”, when used with respect to an individual who is limited English proficient, means the language normally used by the individual or, in the case of a child, the language normally used by the parents of the child.
The term “nonprofit”, as applied to a school, agency, organization, or institution, means a school, agency, organization, or institution owned and operated by 1 or more nonprofit corporations or associations no part of the net earnings of which inures, or may lawfully inure, to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual.
The term “outlying area” means the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
The term “parent organization” has the meaning given the term in section 1471(g) of this title.
The term “related services” means transportation, and such developmental, corrective, and other supportive services (including speech-language pathology and audiology services, interpreting services, psychological services, physical and occupational therapy, recreation, including therapeutic recreation, social work services, school nurse services designed to enable a child with a disability to receive a free appropriate public education as described in the individualized education program of the child, counseling services, including rehabilitation counseling, orientation and mobility services, and medical services, except that such medical services shall be for diagnostic and evaluation purposes only) as may be required to assist a child with a disability to benefit from special education, and includes the early identification and assessment of disabling conditions in children.
The term “secondary school” means a nonprofit institutional day or residential school, including a public secondary charter school, that provides secondary education, as determined under State law, except that it does not include any education beyond grade 12.
The term “specific learning disability” means a disorder in 1 or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations.
Such term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.
The term “State” means each of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and each of the outlying areas.
The term “State educational agency” means the State board of education or other agency or officer primarily responsible for the State supervision of public elementary schools and secondary schools, or, if there is no such officer or agency, an officer or agency designated by the Governor or by State law.
The term “supplementary aids and services” means aids, services, and other supports that are provided in regular education classes or other education-related settings to enable children with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled children to the maximum extent appropriate in accordance with section 1412(a)(5) of this title.
The term “universal design” has the meaning given the term in section 3002 of title 29.
The term “ward of the State” means a child who, as determined by the State where the child resides, is a foster child, is a ward of the State, or is in the custody of a public child welfare agency.
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, referred to in pars. (8)(A)(ii), (iii) and (10)(F), is Pub. L. 89–10, Apr. 11, 1965, 79 Stat. 27, which is classified generally to chapter 70 (§ 6301 et seq.) of this title. Part A of title I of the Act is classified generally to part A (§ 6311 et seq.) of subchapter I of chapter 70 of this title. Parts A and B of title III of the Act are classified generally to parts A (§ 6811 et seq.) and B (§ 6891 et seq.), respectively, of subchapter III of chapter 70 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6301 of this title and Tables.
The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, referred to in par. (13), is Pub. L. 92–203, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 688, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§ 1601 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 43 and Tables.
The Tribally Controlled Colleges and Universities Assistance Act of 1978, referred to in par. (17)(B), is Pub. L. 95–471, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1325, which is classified principally to chapter 20 (§ 1801 et seq.) of Title 25, Indians. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1801 of Title 25 and Tables.
A prior section 1401, Pub. L. 91–230, title VI, § 602, as added Pub. L. 105–17, title I, § 101, June 4, 1997, 111 Stat. 42; amended Pub. L. 105–244, title IX, § 901(d), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1828, related to definitions of terms used in this chapter, prior to the general amendment of subchapters I to IV of this chapter by Pub. L. 108–446.
Another prior section 1401, Pub. L. 91–230, title VI, § 602, Apr. 13, 1970, 84 Stat. 175; Pub. L. 94–142, § 4(a), Nov. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 98–199, §§ 2, 3(b), Dec. 2, 1983, 97 Stat. 1357, 1358; Pub. L. 99–457, title IV, § 402, Oct. 8, 1986, 100 Stat. 1172; Pub. L. 100–630, title I, § 101(a), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3289; Pub. L. 101–476, title I, § 101, title IX, § 901(b)(10)–(20), Oct. 30, 1990, 104 Stat. 1103, 1142, 1143; Pub. L. 102–73, title VIII, § 802(d)(1), July 25, 1991, 105 Stat. 361; Pub. L. 102–119, §§ 3, 25(a)(1), (b), Oct. 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 587, 605, 607; Pub. L. 103–382, title III, § 391(f)(1), Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 4023, related to definitions of terms used in this chapter, prior to the general amendment of subchapters I to IV of this chapter by Pub. L. 105–17.
2010—Par. (3)(A)(i). Pub. L. 111–256, § 2(b)(2)(A), substituted “with intellectual disabilities” for “with mental retardation”.
Par. (30)(C). Pub. L. 111–256, § 2(b)(2)(B), substituted “of intellectual disabilities” for “of mental retardation”.
2008—Par. (17)(B). Pub. L. 110–315 substituted “college or university” for “community college” and “the Tribally Controlled Colleges and Universities Assistance Act of 1978” for “the Tribally Controlled College or University Assistance Act of 1978”.
Section effective July 1, 2005, except that subparagraphs (C) through (F) of par. (10) of this section are effective Dec. 3, 2004, for purposes of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6301 et seq.), see section 302(a) of Pub. L. 108–446, set out as a note under section 1400 of this title.