References in Text
Act of April 16, 1934, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(A), is act Apr. 16, 1934, ch. 147, 48 Stat. 596, popularly known as the Johnson-O’Malley Act, which is classified generally to section 5342 et seq. of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.
Act of August 5, 1954, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(C), is act Aug. 5, 1954, ch. 658, 68 Stat. 674, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§ 2001 et seq.) of chapter 22 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.
This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (c)(1), (f)(2), and (g), was in the original “this Act”, meaning Pub. L. 93–638, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2203, known as the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.
The Federal Tort Claims Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), is title IV of act Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, 60 Stat. 842, which was classified principally to chapter 20 (§§ 921, 922, 931–934, 941–946) of former Title 28, Judicial Code and Judiciary. Title IV of act Aug. 2, 1946, was substantially repealed and reenacted as sections 1346(b) and 2671 et seq. of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, by act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 992, the first section of which enacted Title 28. The Federal Tort Claims Act is also commonly used to refer to chapter 171 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. For complete classification of title IV to the Code, see Tables. For distribution of former sections of Title 28 into the revised Title 28, see Table at the beginning of Title 28.
The PROGRESS for Indian Tribes Act, referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(B), is Pub. L. 116–180, Oct. 21, 2020, 134 Stat. 857, also known as the Practical Reforms and Other Goals To Reinforce the Effectiveness of Self-Governance and Self-Determination for Indian Tribes Act of 2019. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2020 Amendment note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.
Section 101(a) of the PROGRESS for Indian Tribes Act, referred to in subsec. (g), is section 101(a) of Pub. L. 116–180, which is set out as a note under section 5361 of this title.
2020—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 116–180, § 202(1), substituted “economic enterprises (as defined in section 1452 of this title), except that” for “economic enterprises as defined in section 1452 of this title, except that”.
Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 116–180, § 202(2), added subsecs. (f) and (g).
2000—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 106–260 inserted “or any civil action conducted pursuant to section 5331(a) of this title” after “subsection (b)(3) of this section”.
1994—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–413, § 102(5), inserted concluding provisions.
Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–413, § 102(6)(A)(i), (ii), (vi), inserted “, or a proposal to amend or renew a self-determination contract,” before “to the Secretary for review” in first sentence and, in second sentence, substituted “Subject to the provisions of paragraph (4), the Secretary” for “The Secretary”, inserted “and award the contract” after “approve the proposal”, substituted “the Secretary provides written notification to the applicant that contains a specific finding that clearly demonstrates that, or that is supported by a controlling legal authority that” for “, within sixty days of receipt of the proposal, a specific finding is made that”, and inserted concluding provisions.
Subsec. (a)(2)(D), (E). Pub. L. 103–413, § 102(6)(A)(iii)–(v), added subpars. (D) and (E).
Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 103–413, § 102(6)(B), added par. (4).
Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 103–413, § 102(7), inserted “with the right to engage in full discovery relevant to any issue raised in the matter” after “record” and “, except that the tribe or tribal organization may, in lieu of filing such appeal, exercise the option to initiate an action in a Federal district court and proceed directly to such court pursuant to section 5331(a) of this title” before period at end.
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–413, § 102(8), substituted “as provided in section 2671 of title 28 and including an individual who provides health care services pursuant to a personal services contract with a tribal organization for the provision of services in any facility owned, operated, or constructed under the jurisdiction of the Indian Health Service)” for “as provided in section 2671 of title 28)”.
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–413, § 102(9), added subsec. (e).
1990—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–644 inserted “or for purposes of section 2679, title 28, with respect to claims by any such person, on or after November 29, 1990, for personal injury, including death, resulting from the operation of an emergency motor vehicle,” after “investigations,”.
1988—Pub. L. 100–472, § 201(a), amended section generally, revising and restating provisions of subsecs. (a) to (c).
Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 100–581 which directed amendment of par. (2) by substituting “section 1452 of this title” for “section 1425 of title 25, United States Code” was executed by making the substitution for “section 1425, title 25, United States Code” to reflect the probable intent of Congress.
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–472, § 201(b)(1), redesignated the last sentence of subsec. (c) of former section 450g of this title as subsec. (d) of this section and substituted reference to sections 5321 or 5322 of this title for reference to former sections 450g and 450h(b) of this title. See Codification notes above and set out under section 5322 of this title.
Pub. L. 100–446 inserted into sentence beginning “For purposes of” the words “by any person, initially filed on or after December 22, 1987, whether or not such person is an Indian or Alaska Native or is served on a fee basis or under other circumstances as permitted by Federal law or regulations” after “claims”, “prior to, including, or after December 22, 1987,” after “performance”, “an Indian tribe,” after “investigations,” and “: Provided, That such employees shall be deemed to be acting within the scope of their employment in carrying out such contract or agreement when they are required, by reason of such employment, to perform medical, surgical, dental or related functions at a facility other than the facility operated pursuant to such contract or agreement, but only if such employees are not compensated for the performance of such functions by a person or entity other than such Indian tribe, tribal organization or Indian contractor” after “the contract or agreement”.
1987—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–202 inserted sentence at end deeming a tribal organization or Indian contractor carrying out a contract, grant agreement, or cooperative agreement to be part of the Public Health Service while carrying out any such contract or agreement and its employees to be employees of the Service while acting within the scope of their employment in carrying out the contract or agreement.
Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries
Indian Tribal Tort Claims and Risk Management
Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, § 101(e) [title VII], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–231, 2681–335, provided that:
“SEC. 702. FINDINGS AND PURPOSE.
“(a) Findings.—Congress finds that—
“(1) Indian tribes have made significant achievements toward developing a foundation for economic self-sufficiency and self-determination, and that economic self-sufficiency and self-determination have increased opportunities for the Indian tribes and other entities and persons to interact more frequently in commerce and intergovernmental relationships;
“(2) although Indian tribes have sought and secured liability insurance coverage to meet their needs, many Indian tribes are faced with significant barriers to obtaining liability insurance because of the high cost or unavailability of such coverage in the private market;
“(3) as a result, Congress has extended liability coverage provided to Indian tribes to organizations to carry out activities under the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450 et seq.) [now 25 U.S.C. 5301 et seq.]; and
“(4) there is an emergent need for comprehensive and cost-efficient insurance that allows the economy of Indian tribes to continue to grow and provides compensation to persons that may suffer personal injury or loss of property.
“(b) Purpose.—The purpose of this title is to provide for a study to facilitate relief for a person who is injured as a result of an official action of a tribal government.
“SEC. 703. DEFINITIONS.
“In this title:
“(1) Indian tribe.—The term ‘Indian tribe’ has the meaning given that term in section 4(e) of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450b(e)) [now 25 U.S.C. 5304(e)].
“(2) Secretary.—The term ‘Secretary’ means the Secretary of the Interior.
“(3) Tribal organization.—The term ‘tribal organization’ has the meaning given that term in section 4(l) of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450b(l)) [now 25 U.S.C. 5304(l)].
“SEC. 704. STUDY AND REPORT TO CONGRESS.
“(a) In General.—
“(1) Study.—In order to minimize and, if possible, eliminate redundant or duplicative liability insurance coverage and to ensure that the provision of insurance to Indian tribes is cost-effective, the Secretary shall conduct a comprehensive survey of the degree, type, and adequacy of liability insurance coverage of Indian tribes at the time of the study.
“(2) Contents of study.—The study conducted under this subsection shall include—
“(A) an analysis of loss data;
“(B) risk assessments;
“(C) projected exposure to liability, and related matters; and
“(D) the category of risk and coverage involved, which may include—
“(i) general liability;
“(ii) automobile liability;
“(iii) the liability of officials of the Indian tribe;
“(iv) law enforcement liability;
“(v) workers’ compensation; and
“(vi) other types of liability contingencies.
“(3) Assessment of coverage by categories of risk.—For each Indian tribe, for each category of risk identified under paragraph (2), the Secretary, in conducting the study, shall determine whether insurance coverage or coverage under chapter 171 of title 28, United States Code, applies to that Indian tribe for that activity.
“(b) Report.—Not later than June 1, 1999, and annually thereafter, the Secretary shall submit a report to Congress that contains legislative recommendations that the Secretary determines to—
“(1) be appropriate to improve the provision of insurance coverage to Indian tribes; or
“(2) otherwise achieve the purpose of providing relief to persons who are injured as a result of an official action of a tribal government.
“SEC. 705. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.
“There are authorized to be appropriated to the Department of the Interior such sums as may be necessary to carry out this title.”
Claims Resulting From Performance of Contract, Grant Agreement, or Cooperative Agreement; Civil Action Against Tribe, Tribal Organization, Etc., Deemed Action Against United States; Reimbursement of Treasury for Payment of Claims
Pub. L. 101–512, title III, § 314, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1959, as amended by Pub. L. 103–138, title III, § 308, Nov. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 1416, provided that:
“With respect to claims resulting from the performance of functions during fiscal year 1991 and thereafter, or claims asserted after September 30, 1990
, but resulting from the performance of functions prior to fiscal year 1991, under a contract, grant agreement, or any other agreement or compact authorized by the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act
of 1975, as amended (88 Stat. 2203
; 25 U.S.C. 450
et seq. [now 25 U.S.C. 5301
et seq.]) [Pub. L. 93–638
, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title
and Tables] or by title V, part B, Tribally Controlled School Grants of the Hawkins-Stafford Elementary and Secondary School Improvement Amendments of 1988, as amended (102 Stat. 385
; 25 U.S.C. 2501
et seq.), an Indian tribe, tribal organization
contractor is deemed hereafter to be part of the Bureau of Indian Affairs
in the Department of the Interior
or the Indian Health Service
in the Department of Health and Human Services
while carrying out any such contract or agreement and its employees
are deemed employees
of the Bureau or Service while acting within the scope of their employment in carrying out the contract or agreement: Provided
, That after September 30, 1990
, any civil action or proceeding involving such claims brought hereafter against any tribe, tribal organization, Indian
contractor or tribal employee
covered by this provision shall be deemed to be an action against the United States and will be defended by the Attorney General and be afforded the full protection and coverage of the Federal Tort Claims Act
[See Short Title note under section 2671 of Title 28
, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure]: Provided further
, That beginning with the fiscal year ending September 30, 1991
, and thereafter, the appropriate Secretary shall request through annual appropriations funds sufficient to reimburse the Treasury for any claims paid in the prior fiscal year pursuant to the foregoing provisions: Provided further
, That nothing in this section shall in any way affect the provisions of section 102(d) of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act
of 1975, as amended (88 Stat. 2203
; 25 U.S.C. 450
et seq. [now 25 U.S.C. 5301
et seq.]) [25 U.S.C. 5321(d)
Reference to Former Section 450g(c) in Public Law 100–446
Pub. L. 100–472, title II, § 201(b)(2), Oct. 5, 1988, 102 Stat. 2289, provided that:
“Any reference to section 103(c)
[§ 103(c) of Pub. L. 93–638
, former 25 U.S.C. 450g(c)
] contained in an Act making appropriations for the Department of the Interior
and Related Agencies for fiscal year 1989 [Pub. L. 100–446
, see Tables for classification] shall be deemed to apply to section 102(d) of such Act [§ 102(d) of Pub. L. 93–638
, former 25 U.S.C. 450f(d)
, now 25 U.S.C. 5321(d)
] as amended by this Act.”
See Codification notes above.