28 U.S. Code § 2201. Creation of remedy
For termination of amendment by section 501(c) of Pub. L. 100–449, see Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendment note below.
While this section does not exclude declaratory judgments with respect to State taxes, such suits will not ordinarily be entertained in the courts of the United States where State law makes provision for payment under protest and recovery back or otherwise affords adequate remedy in the State courts. See Great Lakes Dredge & Dock Co. v. Huffman, La. 1943, 63 S.Ct. 1070, 319 U.S. 293, 87 L.Ed. 1407. See also Spector Motor Service v. McLaughlin, Conn. 1944, 65 S.Ct. 152, 323 U.S. 101, 89 L.Ed. 101. See also section 1341 of this title forbidding district courts to restrain enforcements of State taxes where State courts afford plain, speedy, and efficient remedy.
Changes were made in phraseology.
Section corrects a typographical error in section 2201 of title 28, U.S.C.
Sections 505 and 512 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, referred to in subsec. (b), are classified to sections 355 and 360b, respectively, of Title 21, Food and Drugs.
1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–449 temporarily substituted “1986,” for “1954 or” and inserted “or in any civil action involving an antidumping or countervailing duty proceeding regarding a class or kind of Canadian merchandise, as determined by the administering authority,” after “title 11,”. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendment note below.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–670 inserted “or 512” after “505”.
1984—Pub. L. 98–417 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).
1978—Pub. L. 95–598 inserted reference to proceedings under section 505 or 1146 of title 11.
1958—Pub. L. 85–508 struck out provisions which related to District Court for Territory of Alaska. See section 81A of this title which establishes a United States District Court for the State of Alaska.
1954—Act Aug. 28, 1954, extended provisions to Alaska.
1949—Act May 24, 1949, corrected spelling of “or” in second sentence.
Amendment by Pub. L. 103–182 effective on the date the North American Free Trade Agreement enters into force with respect to the United States [Jan. 1, 1994], but not applicable to any final determination described in section 1516a(a)(1)(B) or (2)(B)(i), (ii), or (iii) of Title 19, Customs Duties, notice of which is published in the Federal Register before such date, or to a determination described in section 1516a(a)(2)(B)(vi) of Title 19, notice of which is received by the Government of Canada or Mexico before such date, or to any binational panel review under the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement, or to any extraordinary challenge arising out of any such review that was commenced before such date, see section 416 of Pub. L. 103–182, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3431 of Title 19.
Amendment by Pub. L. 100–449 effective on date United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement enters into force (Jan. 1, 1989), and to cease to have effect on date Agreement ceases to be in force, see section 501(a), (c) of Pub. L. 100–449, set out in a note under section 2112 of Title 19, Customs Duties.
Amendment by Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to pleadings filed with the United States Tax Court, the District Court of the United States for the District of Columbia, or the United States Court of Claims more than 6 months after Oct. 4, 1976, but only with respect to determinations (or requests for determinations) made after Jan. 1, 1976, see section 1306(c) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as an Effective Date note under section 7428 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.
Amendment by Pub. L. 85–508 effective Jan. 3, 1959, on admission of Alaska into the Union pursuant to Proc. No. 3269, Jan. 3, 1959, 24 F.R. 81, 73 Stat. c16, as required by sections 1 and 8(c) of Pub. L. 85–508, see notes set out under section 81A of this title and preceding section 21 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.
Jurisdictional amount in diversity of citizenship cases, see section 1332 of this title.
- Establishing a Network of Health-Advancing National Centers of Excellence for Depression Act of 2009