42 U.S. Code § 7651k - Monitoring, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements
The owner and operator of any source subject to this subchapter shall be required to install and operate CEMS on each affected unit at the source, and to quality assure the data for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, opacity and volumetric flow at each such unit. The Administrator shall, by regulations issued not later than eighteen months after November 15, 1990, specify the requirements for CEMS, for any alternative monitoring system that is demonstrated as providing information with the same precision, reliability, accessibility, and timeliness as that provided by CEMS, and for recordkeeping and reporting of information from such systems. Such regulations may include limitations or the use of alternative compliance methods by units equipped with an alternative monitoring system as may be necessary to preserve the orderly functioning of the allowance system, and which will ensure the emissions reductions contemplated by this subchapter. Where 2 or more units utilize a single stack, a separate CEMS shall not be required for each unit, and for such units the regulations shall require that the owner or operator collect sufficient information to permit reliable compliance determinations for each such unit.
Not later than thirty-six months after November 15, 1990, the owner or operator of each affected unit under section 7651c of this title, including, but not limited to, units that become affected units pursuant to subsections (b) and (c) and eligible units under subsection (d), shall install and operate CEMS, quality assure the data, and keep records and reports in accordance with the regulations issued under subsection (a).
Not later than January 1, 1995, the owner or operator of each affected unit that has not previously met the requirements of subsections (a) and (b) shall install and operate CEMS, quality assure the data, and keep records and reports in accordance with the regulations issued under subsection (a). Upon commencement of commercial operation of each new utility unit, the unit shall comply with the requirements of subsection (a).
If CEMS data or data from an alternative monitoring system approved by the Administrator under subsection (a) is not available for any affected unit during any period of a calendar year in which such data is required under this subchapter, and the owner or operator cannot provide information, satisfactory to the Administrator, on emissions during that period, the Administrator shall deem the unit to be operating in an uncontrolled manner during the entire period for which the data was not available and shall, by regulation which shall be issued not later than eighteen months after November 15, 1990, prescribe means to calculate emissions for that period. The owner or operator shall be liable for excess emissions fees and offsets under section 7651j of this title in accordance with such regulations. Any fee due and payable under this subsection shall not diminish the liability of the unit’s owner or operator for any fine, penalty, fee or assessment against the unit for the same violation under any other section of this chapter.
It shall be unlawful for the owner or operator of any source subject to this subchapter to operate a source without complying with the requirements of this section, and any regulations implementing this section.