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7 U.S. Code § 7701 - Findings

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Congress finds that—
the detection, control, eradication, suppression, prevention, or retardation of the spread of plant pests or noxious weeds is necessary for the protection of the agriculture, environment, and economy of the United States;
biological control is often a desirable, low-risk means of ridding crops and other plants of plant pests and noxious weeds, and its use should be facilitated by the Department of Agriculture, other Federal agencies, and States whenever feasible;
it is the responsibility of the Secretary to facilitate exports, imports, and interstate commerce in agricultural products and other commodities that pose a risk of harboring plant pests or noxious weeds in ways that will reduce, to the extent practicable, as determined by the Secretary, the risk of dissemination of plant pests or noxious weeds;
decisions affecting imports, exports, and interstate movement of products regulated under this chapter shall be based on sound science;
the smooth movement of enterable plants, plant products, biological control organisms, or other articles into, out of, or within the United States is vital to the United State’s [1] economy and should be facilitated to the extent possible;
export markets could be severely impacted by the introduction or spread of plant pests or noxious weeds into or within the United States;
the unregulated movement of plant pests, noxious weeds, plants, certain biological control organisms, plant products, and articles capable of harboring plant pests or noxious weeds could present an unacceptable risk of introducing or spreading plant pests or noxious weeds;
the existence on any premises in the United States of a plant pest or noxious weed new to or not known to be widely prevalent in or distributed within and throughout the United States could constitute a threat to crops and other plants or plant products of the United States and burden interstate commerce or foreign commerce; and
all plant pests, noxious weeds, plants, plant products, articles capable of harboring plant pests or noxious weeds regulated under this chapter are in or affect interstate commerce or foreign commerce.

[1]  So in original.
Editorial Notes
References in Text

This chapter, referred to in pars. (4) and (9), was in the original “this title”, meaning title IV of Pub. L. 106–224, June 20, 2000, 114 Stat. 438, known as the Plant Protection Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of title IV to the Code, see Short Title note set out below and Tables.

Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries
Short Title

Pub. L. 106–224, title IV, § 401, June 20, 2000, 114 Stat. 438, provided that:

“This title [enacting this chapter, amending section 7759 of this title and section 129a of Title 21, Food and Drugs, and repealing sections 148, 148a, 148c to 148f, 149, 150, 150a to 150g, 150aa to 150jj, 151 to 154, 156 to 164, 164a, 167, 1651 to 1656, and 2801 to 2813 of this title, and provisions set out as notes under sections 147a, 150, 150aa, 151, and 1651 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Plant Protection Act’.”

Pub. L. 106–224, title IV, § 451, as added by Pub. L. 108–412, § 1, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2320, provided that:

“This subtitle [subtitle E (§§ 451–457) of title IV of Pub. L. 106–224, enacting subchapter V of this chapter] may be cited as the ‘Noxious Weed Control and Eradication Act of 2004’.”
Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of the Secretary of Agriculture relating to agricultural import and entry inspection activities under this chapter to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 231, 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Regulations To Improve Management and Oversight of Certain Regulated Articles

Pub. L. 110–234, title X, § 10204, May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1343, and Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title X, § 10204, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2105, provided that:

“(a) In General.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [June 18, 2008], the Secretary [of Agriculture] shall—
take action on each issue identified in the document entitled ‘Lessons Learned and Revisions under Consideration for APHIS’ Biotechnology Framework’, dated October 4, 2007; and
as the Secretary considers appropriate, promulgate regulations to improve the management and oversight of articles regulated under the Plant Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 7701 et seq.).
“(b) Inclusions.—In carrying out subsection (a), the Secretary shall take actions that are designed to enhance—
the quality and completeness of records;
the availability of representative samples;
the maintenance of identity and control in the event of an unauthorized release;
corrective actions in the event of an unauthorized release;
protocols for conducting molecular forensics;
clarity in contractual agreements;
the use of the latest scientific techniques for isolation and confinement distances;
standards for quality management systems and effective research; and
the design of electronic permits to store documents and other information relating to the permit and notification processes.
“(c) Consideration.—In carrying out subsection (a), the Secretary shall consider—
“(1) establishing—
a system of risk-based categories to classify each regulated article;
a means to identify regulated articles (including the retention of seed samples); and
standards for isolation and containment distances; and
“(2) requiring permit holders—
to maintain a positive chain of custody;
to provide for the maintenance of records;
to provide for the accounting of material;
to conduct periodic audits;
to establish an appropriate training program;
to provide contingency and corrective action plans; and
to submit reports as the Secretary considers to be appropriate.”

[Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 enacted identical provisions. Pub. L. 110–234 was repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 8701 of this title.]