wex articles

Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002

The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA) was enacted by the 107th Congress, 2nd Session and signed into law by President Bush on March 27, 2002 to amend the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971. The BCRA is also known as the McCain-...

Bivens Actions


A Bivens action generally refers to a lawsuit for damages when a federal officer who is acting in the color of federal authority allegedly violates the U.S. Constitution by federal officers acting.

Burden of Proof

The plaintiff...

Blue sky law


A state law that imposes standards for offering and selling securities. Such laws aim to protect individuals from fraudulent or overly speculative investments.


Originally prepared by Deepa Sarkar of the Cornell Law School...

bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ)


42 U.S. Code § 2000e-2 allows for an employer to discriminate against employees and potential employees "on the basis of his religion, sex, or national origin in those certain instances where religion, sex, or national origin is a bona fide...

Bona fide purchaser

Someone who obtains property for value without notice of any problems with its title (e.g., competing claims of ownership).

book account

A business record of a customer's account which indicates the total amount owed by the client at any given time. The book account serves as a clear basis for bringing suit on a customer's failure to repay the debt.


Boycott is a term that is most frequently referenced in the context of antitrust law. It is a concerted refusal to deal with a disfavored purchaser or seller. The word is both a noun and a verb and stems from Captain Charles C. Boycott’s name...



Corrupt solicitation, acceptance, or transfer of value in exchange for official action.


Bribery refers to the offering, giving, soliciting, or receiving of any item of value as a means of influencing the actions of an individual...

Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

Brown v. Board of Education (1954) was a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision that struck down the “Separate but Equal” doctrine and outlawed the ongoing segregation in schools. The court ruled that laws mandating and enforcing...

Burden of persuasion

The obligation of a party to introduce evidence that persuades the factfinder, to a requisite degree of belief, that a particular proposition of fact is true. In civil cases, a party's burden is usually "by a preponderance of the evidence." In...