wex articles

Dodd-Frank: Title XIV - Mortgage Reform and Anti-Predatory Lending Act


The 2008 economic depression was triggered in part by the real estate bubble bursting.  Mortgages became extremely easy to obtain, and many of those mortgages had predatory provisions that made it difficult for borrowers to pay off the mortgages in the event that their real estate value decreased.

Dodd-Frank: Title VIII - Payment, Clearing, and Settlement Supervision


            Title VIII provides a new framework for assessing the systemic risk associated with financial institutions and financial market utilities involved in clearing activities for financial transactions.  The Title grants authority to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Board of Governors), U.S.

Dodd-Frank: Title II - Orderly Liquidation Authority


    Title II, the Orderly Liquidation provision of the Dodd-Frank Act, provides a process to quickly and efficiently liquidate a large, complex financial company that is close to failing.  Title II provides an alternative to bankruptcy, in which the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is appointed as a receiver to carry out the liquidation and wind-up of the company.

Dodd-Frank: Title I - Financial Stability


         Title I expands federal research, evaluation, and oversight of large financial institutions in order to find efficient ways to manage risks to the financial stability of the United States.  The Title establishes two new government departments, the Financial Stability Oversight Council (FSOC), and the Office of Financial Research, an office within the Treasury.  Title I also ex

Incentive Zoning

Incentive zoning allows landowners to essentially buy their way out from a land-use regulation for a pre-set price.  This is distinguised from illegal contract zoning by the pre-set price (if the governing board has not pre-set the price, a landowner buying their way out will be illegal contract zoning).

For example, a city may offer that if a new office building will have a public parking garage on the first two levels, that building may reach three stories above the zoned height.


Foreign Direct Investment

Foreign Direct Investment: An Overview

The International Monetary Fund (“IMF”) defines foreign direct investment (“FDI”) as a “cross-border investment” in which an investor that is “resident in one economy [has] control or a significant degree of influence on the management of an enterprise that is resident in another economy.” IMF, Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual 100 (6th ed. 2009).


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