26 CFR § 1.905-3 - Adjustments to U.S. tax liability and to current earnings and profits as a result of a foreign tax redetermination.

(a) Foreign tax redetermination. For purposes of this section and § 1.905-4, the term foreign tax redetermination means a change in the liability for foreign income tax, as defined in § 1.960-1(b)(5), or certain other changes described in this paragraph (a) that may affect a taxpayer's U.S. tax liability, including by reason of a change in the amount of its foreign tax credit, the amount of its distributions or inclusions under section 951, 951A, or 1293, the application of the high-tax exception described in section 954(b)(4) (including for purposes of determining amounts excluded from gross tested income under section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(III) and § 1.951A-2(c)(1)(iii)), or the amount of tax determined under sections 1291(c)(2) and 1291(g)(1)(C)(ii). In the case of a taxpayer that claims the credit in the year the taxes are paid, a foreign tax redetermination occurs if any portion of the tax paid is subsequently refunded. In the case of a taxpayer that claims the credit in the year the taxes accrue, a foreign tax redetermination occurs if taxes that when paid or later adjusted differ from amounts accrued by the taxpayer and claimed as a credit or added to PTEP group taxes (as defined in § 1.960-3(d)(1)). A foreign tax redetermination includes corrections and other adjustments to accrued amounts to reflect the final foreign tax liability, including additional payments of tax that accrue after the close of the taxable year to which the tax relates and, for foreign income taxes taken into account when accrued but translated into dollars on the date of payment, a payment of accrued tax if the value of the foreign currency relative to the dollar has changed between the date or taxable year of accrual and the date of payment. A foreign tax redetermination occurs if any tax claimed as a credit or added to PTEP group taxes is refunded in whole or in part, regardless of whether such tax was paid within the meaning of § 1.901-2(e) at the time the tax was claimed as a credit or added to PTEP group taxes. A foreign tax redetermination also includes accrued foreign income taxes that are not paid on or before the date that is 24 months after the close of the taxable year of the section 901 taxpayer (as defined in § 1.986(a)-1(a)(1)) to which such taxes relate, as well as a subsequent payment of any such accrued but unpaid taxes. If accrued foreign income taxes are not paid on or before the date that is 24 months after the close of the taxable year to which they relate, the resulting foreign tax redetermination is accounted for as if the unpaid portion of the foreign income taxes were refunded on such date. Foreign income taxes that first accrue after the date 24 months after the close of the taxable year to which such taxes relate may not be claimed as a credit or added to PTEP group taxes until paid. See section 905(b) and § 1.461-4(g)(6)(iii)(B), which require the taxpayer to establish the amount of tax that was properly accrued.

(b) Redetermination of U.S. tax liability -

(1) Foreign income taxes other than taxes deemed paid under section 960 -

(i) In general. This paragraph (b)(1) applies to foreign income taxes claimed as a credit under section 901 other than foreign income taxes deemed paid under section 960. If a foreign tax redetermination occurs with respect to foreign income tax claimed as a credit under section 901 (other than a tax deemed paid under section 960), then a redetermination of U.S. tax liability is required for the taxable year in which the tax was claimed as a credit and any year to which unused foreign taxes from such year were carried under section 904(c). In the case of a taxpayer that claims the credit in the year the taxes are paid, the redetermination of U.S. tax liability is made by reducing the tax paid in such year by the amount refunded. In the case of a taxpayer that claims the credit in the year the taxes accrue, the redetermination of U.S. tax liability is made by treating the redetermined amount of foreign tax as the amount of tax that accrued in the year to which the redetermined tax relates. However, a redetermination of U.S. tax liability is not required (and a taxpayer need not notify the IRS) if the foreign income taxes are taken into account when accrued but translated into dollars on the date of payment, the difference between the dollar value of the accrued foreign income tax and the dollar value of the foreign income tax paid is solely attributable to fluctuations in the value of the foreign currency relative to the dollar between the date or taxable year of accrual and the date of payment, and the net dollar amount of the currency fluctuations attributable to the foreign tax redeterminations with respect to each and every foreign country is less than the lesser of $10,000 or two percent of the total dollar amount of the foreign income tax initially accrued with respect to that foreign country for the taxable year. In such case, if no redetermination of U.S. tax liability is made, an appropriate adjustment is made to the taxpayer's U.S. tax liability in the taxable year during which the foreign tax redeterminations occur.

(ii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (b)(1) and § 1.986(a)-1. In all examples, assume that USC is a domestic corporation that uses the calendar year as its taxable year both for Federal income tax purposes and for foreign tax purposes and that it is doing business through a foreign branch operating in Country X, which is a qualified business unit (within the meaning of section 989 and § 1.989(a)-1) (QBU) the functional currency of which is the “u.” Except as otherwise provided, the “u” is not an inflationary currency within the meaning of § 1.986(a)-1(a)(2)(iii). USC is an accrual basis taxpayer.

(A) Example 1: Contested tax -

(1) Facts. In Year 1, USC earned 500u of foreign source foreign branch category income through its foreign branch in Country X and accrued and paid 50u of Country X foreign income tax on its earnings. The average exchange rate for Year 1 used to translate the foreign income taxes into dollars was $1x:1u. See § 1.986(a)-1(a)(1). On its Year 1 income tax return, USC claimed a foreign tax credit under section 901 of $50x (50u translated at the average exchange rate for Year 1, that is, $1x:1u). In Year 4, Country X assessed an additional 20u of tax with respect to USC's Year 1 earnings. USC did not pay or accrue the additional 20u of tax and contested the assessment. After exhausting all effective and practical remedies to reduce, over time, its liability for foreign tax, USC settled the contest with Country X in Year 6, paying 10u of additional tax on September 1, Year 6, when the spot rate was $1.10x:1u.

(2) Analysis. USC's payment in Year 6 of the 10u of additional tax accrued with respect to Year 1 is a foreign tax redetermination under paragraph (a) of this section. Under paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, the additional tax is taken into account in Year 1, the year to which the redetermined tax relates, irrespective of when the tax is paid. Under § 1.986(a)-1(a)(2)(i), because the tax was paid more than 24 months after the close of the year to which the redetermined tax relates, the 10u of tax is translated into dollars at the spot rate on the date of payment in Year 6 (10u at $1.10x:1u = $11x). If USC timely notifies the IRS, it may claim an increased foreign tax credit for Year 1. USC must also make corresponding adjustments in determining its taxable income and net unrecognized section 987 gain or loss in Year 1. See §§ 1.987-3(c)(2)(v) and 1.987-4(d)(7).

(B) Example 2: Refund of tax improperly claimed as a credit -

(1) Facts. USC holds a note issued by FC, an unrelated foreign corporation in Country Y. In Year 1, FC owed USC 500u of interest on the loan. The statutory rate of withholding on interest paid to a nonresident of Country Y is 20%. On December 1, Year 1, when the spot rate was $1x:1u, FC withheld and remitted to Country Y 100u of tax and paid 400u to USC Effective for Year 1, USC elected under § 1.986(a)-1(a)(2)(iv) to translate its taxes denominated in nonfunctional currency into dollars at the spot rate on the date the taxes are paid. Under the United States - Country Y Income Tax Treaty (Treaty), USC was entitled to a reduced 15% rate of withholding that would result in a withholding tax of 75u. However, USC improperly claimed a foreign tax credit under section 901 for 100u = $100x on its Year 1 Federal income tax return. (See § 1.901-2(e)(2)(i) and (e)(5), providing that an amount is not tax paid to the extent it exceeds the taxpayer's liability for tax or is reasonably certain to be refunded.) In Year 4, USC filed a refund claim with Country Y for 25u, the difference between the amount actually withheld at the 20% statutory rate of tax and the amount owed by USC at the 15% Treaty rate. On March 15, Year 6, when the spot rate was $1.10x:1u, USC received a refund from Country Y of 25u. USC converted the 25u into dollars on the same day.

(2) Analysis. Notwithstanding that the 25u of refundable tax did not constitute an amount of tax paid within the meaning of § 1.901-2(e) at the time USC improperly claimed it as a credit, the 25u refund in Year 6 is a foreign tax redetermination under paragraph (a) of this section. Under paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, USC must redetermine its U.S. tax liability for Year 1, the taxable year to which the redetermined tax relates. Under § 1.986(a)-1(c), the refund is translated at the exchange rate that was used to translate such amount when originally claimed as a credit. Accordingly, if not previously adjusted by USC or the Internal Revenue Service, USC must file an amended return for Year 1, reducing the amount of foreign tax credit claimed for Year 1 by $25x (25u translated at the spot rate on December 1, Year 1; that is, $1x:1u). Under § 1.986(a)-1(e)(1), USC's basis in the 25u is the same dollar value of the refund as determined under § 1.986(a)-1(c), or $25x. When USC converted the 25u to $27.50x (translated at the spot rate on March 15, Year 6, that is, $1.10x:1u), it realized an exchange gain (within the meaning of § 1.988-1(e)) equal to $2.50x ($27.50x−$25x basis).

(C) Example 3: Change in functional currency -

(1) Facts. In Year 1, USC earned 500u of foreign source foreign branch category income through its foreign branch in Country X and accrued 100u of Country X foreign income tax on its earnings. The average exchange rate for Year 1 used to translate the foreign income taxes into dollars was $1x:1u. See § 1.986(a)-1(a)(1). On its Federal income tax return for Year 1, USC claimed a foreign tax credit under section 901 of $100x (100u translated at the average exchange rate for Year 1, that is, $1x:1u). As of Year 2, the foreign branch changed its functional currency from the “u” to the dollar, and pursuant to § 1.985-5(d)(2), USC's foreign branch terminated and USC recognized section 987 gain or loss on December 31, Year 1 (the date of change). The rate of exchange, as determined under § 1.985-5(c), used to calculate the U.S. dollar basis in the foreign branch's property on the date of the change was $1.10x:1u, the spot rate on December 31, Year 1. On June 15, Year 3, when the spot rate was $1.30x:1u, USC's foreign branch received a refund from Country X of 10u. The foreign branch converted the 10u into $13x on the same day.

(2) Analysis. The 10u refund in Year 3 is a foreign tax redetermination under paragraph (a) of this section. Under paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, USC must redetermine its U.S. tax liability for Year 1, the taxable year to which the redetermined tax relates. Under § 1.986(a)-1(c), the refund is translated at the exchange rate that was used to translate such amount when originally claimed as a credit. Accordingly, USC must file an amended return, reducing the amount of foreign tax credit claimed for Year 1 by $10x (10u translated at the average exchange rate for Year 1, that is $1x:1u). USC must also make corresponding adjustments in determining its taxable income and net unrecognized section 987 gain or loss in Year 1. See §§ 1.987-3(c)(2)(v) and 1.987-4(d)(8). Because the foreign branch changed its functional currency to the dollar in Year 2, the 10u it receives is a refund of nonfunctional currency tax that is denominated in a currency that was the functional currency of the foreign branch at the time USC originally claimed a credit for that foreign income tax. Under §§ 1.985-5(d)(2) and 1.987-4(d), in Year 1 USC must recognize an additional $1x of section 987 gain (or $1x less of section 987 loss) by reason of the 10u being treated as an asset of the foreign branch at the time of the foreign branch's termination. Under § 1.986(a)-1(e)(2), USC's basis in the 10u refund is $11x, which is determined by using the exchange rate used under § 1.985-5(c) when the foreign branch changed its functional currency in Year 2 ($1.10x:1u). When the foreign branch converted the 10u to $13x (translated at the spot rate on June 15, Year 3, which is $1.30x:1u), it realized an exchange gain (within the meaning of § 1.988-1(e)) equal to $2x ($13x−$11x (10u translated at $1.10x:1u)).

(D) Example 4: Inflationary currency -

(1) Facts. In Year 1, USC earned 500u of foreign source foreign branch category income through its foreign branch in Country X and accrued 100u of Country X foreign income tax on its earnings. The average exchange rate for Year 1 used to translate the foreign income taxes into dollars was $1x:1u. See § 1.986(a)-1(a)(1). On its Federal income tax return for Year 1, USC claimed a foreign tax credit under section 901 of $100x (100u translated at the average exchange rate for Year 1, that is, $1x:1u). USC paid the 100u of tax on April 15, Year 3, when the spot rate was $1x:2u. In Year 3, but not in Year 1, the u was an inflationary currency within the meaning of § 1.986(a)-1(a)(2)(iii).

(2) Analysis. Under § 1.986(a)-1(a)(2)(iii), because the u was an inflationary currency in the year the taxes were paid, USC must translate the 100u of Year 1 tax into dollars using the spot rate on the date of payment of the foreign taxes. Under paragraph (a) of this section, because the translated value of USC's Year 1 taxes when paid, that is, $50x (100u translated at the spot rate on April 15, Year 3, that is, $1x:2u), differs from the amount claimed as credits, that is, $100x (100u translated at the average exchange rate for Year 1, that is, $1x:1u), a foreign tax redetermination has occurred. Under paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, because the $50x foreign tax redetermination resulting from the currency fluctuation exceeds 2% of the $100x initially accrued, USC must redetermine its U.S. tax liability for Year 1, the taxable year to which the redetermined tax relates. Accordingly, USC must notify the IRS, reducing the amount of foreign tax credit claimed for Year 1 by $50x (the excess of the translated value of the Year 1 taxes when accrued, that is, $100x, over the translated value of the Year 1 taxes when paid, that is, $50x).

(E) Example 5: Two-year rule -

(1) Facts. In Year 1, USC earned 500u of foreign source foreign branch category income through its foreign branch in Country X and accrued 100u of Country X foreign income tax on its earnings. The average exchange rate used to translate the foreign income taxes into dollars for Year 1 was $1x:1u. See § 1.986(a)-1(a)(1). On its Federal income tax return for Year 1, USC claimed a foreign tax credit under section 901 of $100x (100u translated at the average exchange rate for Year 1, that is, $1x:1u). USC did not pay the Year 1 foreign income taxes until March 15, Year 6, when the spot rate was $0.8x:1u.

(2) Analysis -

(i) Result in Year 3. USC's failure to pay the tax by the end of Year 3 results in a foreign tax redetermination under paragraph (a) of this section. Because the taxes were not paid on or before the date 24 months after the close of the taxable year to which the tax relates, USC must account for the redetermination as if the unpaid 100u of accrued taxes were refunded on the last day of Year 3. Under paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, USC must redetermine its U.S. tax liability for Year 1, the taxable year to which the redetermined tax relates. Under § 1.986(a)-1(c), the deemed refund is translated at the exchange rate that was used to translate such amount when originally claimed as a credit. Accordingly, USC must notify the IRS, reducing the amount of foreign tax credit claimed for Year 1 by $100x (100u translated at the average exchange rate for Year 1, that is, $1x:1u). USC must also make corresponding adjustments in determining its taxable income and net unrecognized section 987 gain or loss in Year 1. See §§ 1.987-3(c)(2)(v) and 1.987-4(d)(8).

(ii) Result in Year 6. USC's payment of the Year 1 tax liability of 100u on March 15, Year 6, results in a second foreign tax redetermination under paragraph (a) of this section. Under paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, the additional tax is taken into account in Year 1, the year to which the redetermined tax relates, irrespective of when the tax is paid. Under § 1.986(a)-1(a)(2)(i), because the tax was paid more than 24 months after the close of the year to which the tax relates, USC must translate the 100u of tax at the spot rate on the date of payment of the foreign taxes in Year 6. If USC timely notifies the IRS, it may claim an increased foreign tax credit for Year 1. USC must also make corresponding adjustments in determining its taxable income and net unrecognized section 987 gain or loss in Year 1. See §§ 1.987-3(c)(2)(v) and 1.987-4(d)(7).

(F) Example 6: Cash basis taxpayer that pays additional foreign tax -

(1) Facts. Individual A, a U.S. citizen resident in Country X, is a cash basis taxpayer who has not made an election under section 905(a) to claim the foreign tax credit in the year the taxes accrue. A uses the calendar year as the taxable year for both U.S. and Country X tax purposes. In Year 2, A pays 100u of foreign income taxes to Country X with respect to Year 1. The exchange rate used to translate the foreign income taxes into dollars was $1x:1u, the spot rate on the date A paid the taxes in Year 2. See section 986(a)(2)(A) and § 1.986(a)-1(b). On A's Year 2 Federal income tax return, A claims a foreign tax credit under section 901 of $100x. In Year 4, Country X assesses an additional 20u of tax with respect to A's Year 1 income. A does not pay the additional 20u of tax and contests the assessment. After exhausting all effective and practical remedies to reduce, over time, A's liability for foreign tax, A settles the contest with Country X in Year 6, paying 10u of additional tax on September 1, Year 6, when the spot rate is $1.10x:1u.

(2) Analysis. Because A is a cash basis taxpayer that claims the foreign tax credit in the year the taxes are paid, A's payment in Year 6 of 10u of additional tax owed with respect to Year 1 is not a foreign tax redetermination requiring a redetermination of U.S. tax liability under paragraph (b)(1) of this section. Rather, A is eligible to claim the additional tax as a credit in Year 6, the year in which the tax is paid. Under § 1.986(a)-1(b), the 10u of tax is translated into dollars at the spot rate on the date of payment in Year 6 (10u at $1.10x:1u = $11x).

(G) Example 7: Cash basis taxpayer that receives a refund of foreign tax -

(1) Facts. The facts are the same as paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(F) of this section (the facts in Example 6) except that instead of being assessed additional tax in Year 4, A receives a refund in Year 4 of 10u with respect to A's Year 1 tax that was claimed as a credit in Year 2.

(2) Analysis. Under paragraphs (a) and (b)(1) of this section, A must redetermine its U.S. tax liability for Year 2 and any year to which unused foreign taxes were carried from Year 2. Under § 1.986(a)-1(c), the amount of A's foreign tax credit for Year 2 is reduced by $10x, the 10u refund translated at the exchange rate used to translate the tax when claimed as a credit. Under § 1.986(a)-1(e)(1), A's basis in the 10u is $10x.

(2) Foreign income taxes paid or accrued by foreign corporations -

(i) In general. A redetermination of U.S. tax liability is required to account for the effect of a redetermination of foreign income taxes taken into account by a foreign corporation in the year accrued, or a refund of foreign income taxes taken into account by the foreign corporation in the year paid.

(ii) Required adjustments. If a redetermination of U.S. tax liability is required for any taxable year under paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section, the foreign corporation's taxable income, earnings and profits, and current year taxes (as defined in § 1.960-1(b)(4)) must be adjusted in the year to which the redetermined tax relates (or, in the case of a foreign corporation that receives a refund of foreign income tax and uses the cash basis of accounting, in the year the tax was paid). The redetermination of U.S. tax liability is made by treating the redetermined amount of foreign tax as the amount of tax paid or accrued by the foreign corporation in such year. For example, in the case of a refund of foreign income taxes taken into account in the year accrued, the foreign corporation's subpart F income, tested income, and current earnings and profits are increased, as appropriate, in the year to which the foreign tax relates to reflect the functional currency amount of the foreign income tax refund. The required redetermination of U.S. tax liability must account for the effect of the foreign tax redetermination on the characterization and amount of distributions or inclusions under section 951, 951A, or 1293 taken into account by each of the foreign corporation's United States shareholders, on the application of the high-tax exception described in section 954(b)(4) (including for purposes of determining the exclusions from gross tested income under section 951A(c)(2)(A)(i)(III) and § 1.951A-2(c)(1)(iii)), and the amount of tax determined under sections 1291(c)(2) and 1291(g)(1)(C)(ii), as well as on the amount of foreign taxes deemed paid under section 960 in such year, regardless of whether any such shareholder chooses to deduct or credit its foreign income taxes in any taxable year. In addition, a redetermination of U.S. tax liability is required for any subsequent taxable year in which the characterization or amount of a United States shareholder's distribution or inclusion from the foreign corporation is affected by the foreign tax redetermination, up to and including the taxable year in which the foreign tax redetermination occurs, as well as any year to which unused foreign taxes from such year were carried under section 904(c).

(iii) Reduction of corporate level tax on distribution of earnings and profits. If a United States shareholder of a controlled foreign corporation receives a distribution out of previously taxed earnings and profits described in section 959(c)(1) and (2) and a foreign country has imposed tax on the income of the controlled foreign corporation, which tax is reduced on distribution of the earnings and profits of the corporation (resulting in a foreign tax redetermination), then the United States shareholder must redetermine its U.S. tax liability for the year or years affected. See also § 1.904-4(c)(7)(i).

(iv) Foreign tax redeterminations relating to taxable years beginning before January 1, 2018. In the case of a foreign tax redetermination of a foreign corporation that relates to a taxable year of the foreign corporation beginning before January 1, 2018, a redetermination of U.S. tax liability is required under the rules of § 1.905-5.

(v) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (b)(2).

(A) Presumed Facts. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (b)(2)(v), the following facts are assumed for purposes of the examples in paragraphs (b)(2)(v)(B) through (E) of this section:

(1) All parties are accrual basis taxpayers that use the calendar year as their taxable year both for Federal income tax purposes and for foreign tax purposes and use the average exchange rate to translate accrued foreign income taxes;

(2) CFC, CFC1, and CFC2 are controlled foreign corporations organized in Country X that use the “u” as their functional currency;

(3) No income adjustment is required to reflect exchange gain or loss (within the meaning of § 1.988-1(e)) with respect to the disposition of nonfunctional currency attributable to a refund of foreign income taxes received by any CFC, because all foreign income taxes are denominated and paid in the CFC's functional currency;

(4) The highest rate of U.S. tax in section 11 and the rate applicable to USP in all years is 21 percent;

(5) No election to exclude high-taxed income under section 954(b)(4) or § 1.951A-2(c)(7) is made with respect to CFC, CFC1, or CFC2; and

(6) USP's foreign tax credit limitation under section 904(a) exceeds the amount of foreign income taxes it is deemed to pay.

(B) Example 1: Refund of tested foreign income taxes -

(1) Facts. CFC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of USP, a domestic corporation. In Year 1, CFC earns 3,660u of general category gross tested income and accrues and pays 300u of foreign income taxes with respect to that income. CFC has no allowable deductions other than the foreign income tax expense. Accordingly, CFC has tested income of 3,360u in Year 1. CFC has no qualified business asset investment (within the meaning of section 951A(d) and § 1.951A-3(b)). In Year 1, no portion of USP's deduction under section 250 (“section 250 deduction”) is reduced by reason of section 250(a)(2)(B)(ii). USP's inclusion percentage (as defined in § 1.960-2(c)(2)) is 100%. In Year 1, USP earns no other income and has no other expenses. The average exchange rate used to translate USP's inclusion under section 951A and CFC's foreign income taxes into dollars for Year 1 is $1x:1u. See section 989(b)(3) and §§ 1.951A-1(d)(1) and 1.986(a)-1(a)(1). Accordingly, for Year 1, USP's tested foreign income taxes (as defined in § 1.960-2(c)(3)) with respect to CFC are $300x. In Year 3, CFC carries back a loss for foreign tax purposes and receives a refund of foreign tax of 100u that relates to Year 1.

(2) Analysis -

(i) Result in Year 1. In Year 1, CFC has tested income of 3,360u and tested foreign income taxes of $300x. Under section 951A(a) and § 1.951A-1(c)(1), USP has a GILTI inclusion amount of $3,360x (3,360u translated at $1x:1u). Under section 960(d) and § 1.960-2(c), USP is deemed to have paid $240x (80% × 100% × $300x) of foreign income taxes. Under section 78 and § 1.78-1(a), USP is treated as receiving a dividend of $300x (a “section 78 dividend”). USP's section 250 deduction is $1,830x (50% × ($3,360x + $300x)). Accordingly, for Year 1, USP has taxable income of $1,830x ($3,360x + $300x−$1,830x) and pre-credit U.S. tax liability of $384.30x (21% × $1,830x). Accordingly, USP pays U.S. tax of $144.30x ($384.30x−$240x).

(ii) Result in Year 3. The refund of 100u to CFC in Year 3 is a foreign tax redetermination under paragraph (a) of this section. Under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, USP must account for the effect of the foreign tax redetermination on its GILTI inclusion amount and foreign taxes deemed paid in Year 1. In redetermining USP's U.S. tax liability for Year 1, USP must increase CFC's tested income and its earnings and profits in Year 1 by the refunded tax amount of 100u, must determine the effect of that increase on its GILTI inclusion amount, and must adjust the amount of foreign taxes deemed paid and the section 78 dividend to account for CFC's refund of foreign tax. Under § 1.986(a)-1(c), the refund is translated into dollars at the exchange rate that was used to translate such amount when initially accrued. As a result of the foreign tax redetermination, for Year 1, CFC has tested income of 3,460u (3,360u + 100u) and tested foreign income taxes of $200x ($300x−$100x). Under section 951A(a) and § 1.951A-1(c)(1), USP has a redetermined GILTI inclusion amount of $3,460x (3,460u translated at $1x:1u). Under section 960(d) and § 1.960-2(c), USP is deemed to have paid $160x (80% × 100% × $200x) of foreign income taxes. Under section 78 and § 1.78-1(a), USP's section 78 dividend is $200x. USP's redetermined section 250 deduction is $1,830x (50% × ($3,460x + $200x)). Accordingly, USP's redetermined taxable income is $1,830x ($3,460x + $200x−$1,830x) and its pre-credit U.S. tax liability is $384.30x (21% × $1,830x). Therefore, USP's redetermined U.S. tax liability is $224.3x ($384.30x−$160x), an increase of $80x ($224.30x−$144.30x).

(C) Example 2: Additional payment of foreign income taxes -

(1) Facts. CFC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of USP, a domestic corporation. In Year 1, CFC earns 1,000u of general category gross foreign base company sales income and accrues and pays 100u of foreign income taxes with respect to that income. CFC has no allowable deductions other than the foreign income tax expense. The average exchange rate used to translate USP's subpart F inclusion and CFC's foreign income taxes into dollars for Year 1 is $1x:1u. See section 989(b)(3) and § 1.986(a)-1(a)(1). In Year 1, USP earns no other income and has no other expenses. In Year 5, pursuant to a Country X audit CFC accrues and pays additional foreign income tax of 80u with respect to its 1,000u of general category foreign base company sales income earned in Year 1. The spot rate (as defined in § 1.988-1(d)) on the date of payment of the tax in Year 5 is $1x:0.8u. The foreign income taxes accrued and paid in Year 1 and Year 5 are properly attributable to CFC's foreign base company sales income that is included in income by USP under section 951(a)(1)(A) (“subpart F inclusion”) in Year 1 with respect to CFC.

(2) Analysis -

(i) Result in Year 1. In Year 1, CFC has subpart F income of 900u (1,000u−100u). Accordingly, USP has a $900x (900u translated at $1x:1u) subpart F inclusion. Under section 960(a) and § 1.960-2(b), USP is deemed to have paid $100x (100u translated at $1x:1u) of foreign income taxes. Under section 78 and § 1.78-1(a), USP's section 78 dividend is $100x. Accordingly, for Year 1, USP has taxable income of $1,000x ($900x + $100x) and pre-credit U.S. tax liability of $210x (21% × $1,000x). Accordingly, USP's U.S. tax liability is $110x ($210x−$100x).

(ii) Result in Year 5. CFC's payment of 80u of additional foreign income tax in Year 5 with respect to Year 1 is a foreign tax redetermination as defined in paragraph (a) of this section. Under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, USP must reduce CFC's subpart F income and its earnings and profits in Year 1 by the additional tax amount of 80u. Further, USP must reduce its subpart F inclusion, adjust the amount of foreign taxes deemed paid, and adjust the amount of the section 78 dividend to account for CFC's additional payment of foreign tax. Under section 986(a)(1)(B)(i) and § 1.986(a)-1(a)(2)(i), because CFC's payment of additional tax occurs more than 24 months after the close of the taxable year to which it relates, the additional tax is translated into dollars at the spot rate on the date of payment ($1x:0.8u). Therefore, CFC has foreign income taxes of $200x (100u translated at $1x:1u plus 80u translated at $1x:0.8u) that are properly attributable to CFC's foreign base company sales income that gives rise to USP's subpart F inclusion in Year 1. As a result of the foreign tax redetermination, for Year 1, USP has a subpart F inclusion of $820x (1,000u−180u = 820u translated at $1x:1u). Under section 960(a) and § 1.960-2(b), USP is deemed to have paid $200x of foreign income taxes. Under section 78 and § 1.78-1(a), USP's section 78 dividend is $200x. USP's redetermined U.S. taxable income is $1,020x ($820x + $200x) and its pre-credit U.S. tax liability is $214.20x (21% × $1,020x). Therefore, USP's redetermined U.S. tax liability is $14.20x ($214.20x−$200x), a decrease of $95.80x ($110x−$14.20x). If USP makes a timely refund claim within the period allowed by section 6511, USP will be entitled to a refund of any overpayment resulting from the redetermination of its U.S. tax liability.

(D) Example 3: Two-year rule -

(1) Facts. CFC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of USP, a domestic corporation. In Year 1, CFC earns 1,000u of general category gross foreign base company sales income and accrues 210u of foreign income taxes with respect to that income. In Year 1, USP earns no other income and has no other expenses. The average exchange rate used to translate USP's subpart F inclusion and CFC's foreign income taxes into dollars for Year 1 is $1x:1u. See sections 989(b)(3) and 986(a)(1)(A) and § 1.986(a)-1(a)(1). CFC does not pay its foreign income taxes for Year 1 until September 1, Year 5, when the spot rate is $0.8x:1u. The foreign income taxes accrued and paid in Year 1 and Year 5, respectively, are properly attributable to CFC's foreign base company sales income that gives rise to USP's subpart F inclusion in Year 1 with respect to CFC.

(2) Analysis -

(i) Result in Year 1. In Year 1, CFC has subpart F income of 790u (1,000u−210u). Accordingly, USP has a $790x (790u translated at $1x:1u) subpart F inclusion. Under section 960(a) and § 1.960-2(b), USP is deemed to have paid $210x (210u translated at $1x:1u) of foreign income taxes. Under section 78 and § 1.78-1(a), USP's section 78 dividend is $210x. Accordingly, for Year 1, USP has taxable income of $1,000x ($790x + $210x) and pre-credit U.S. tax liability of $210x (21% × $1,000x). Accordingly, USP owes no U.S. tax ($210x−$210x = 0).

(ii) Result in Year 3. CFC's failure to pay the tax by the end of Year 3 results in a foreign tax redetermination under paragraph (a) of this section. Because the taxes are not paid on or before the date 24 months after the close of the taxable year to which the tax relates, under paragraph (a) of this section CFC must account for the redetermination as if the unpaid 210u of taxes were refunded on the last day of Year 3. Under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, USP must increase CFC's subpart F income and its earnings and profits in Year 1 by the unpaid tax amount of 210u. Further, USP must increase its subpart F inclusion, and decrease the amount of foreign taxes deemed paid and the amount of the section 78 dividend to account for the unpaid taxes. As a result of the foreign tax redetermination, for Year 1, USP has a subpart F inclusion of $1,000x (1,000u translated at $1x:1u). Under section 960(a) and § 1.960-2(b), USP is deemed to have paid no foreign income taxes. Under section 78 and § 1.78-1(a), USP has no section 78 dividend. Accordingly, USP's redetermined taxable income is $1,000x and its pre-credit U.S. tax liability is unchanged at $210x (21% × $1,000x). However, USP has no foreign tax credits. Therefore, USP's redetermined U.S. tax liability for Year 1 is $210x, an increase of $210x.

(iii) Result in Year 5. CFC's payment of the Year 1 tax liability of 210u on September 1, Year 5, results in a second foreign tax redetermination under paragraph (a) of this section. Under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, USP must decrease CFC's subpart F income and its earnings and profits in Year 1 by the tax paid amount of 210u. Further, USP must reduce its subpart F inclusion, and adjust the amount of foreign taxes deemed paid and the amount of the section 78 dividend to account for CFC's payment of foreign tax. Under section 986(a)(1)(B)(i) and § 1.986(a)-1(a)(2)(i), because the tax was paid more than 24 months after the close of the year to which the tax relates, CFC must translate the 210u of tax at the spot rate on the date of payment of the foreign taxes in Year 5. Therefore, CFC has foreign income taxes of $168x (210u translated at $0.8x:1u) that are properly attributable to CFC's foreign base company sales income that gives rise to USP's subpart F inclusion in Year 1. As a result of the foreign tax redetermination, for Year 1, USP has a subpart F inclusion of $790x (1,000u−210u = 790u translated at $1x:1u). Under section 960(a) and § 1.960-2(b), USP is deemed to have paid $168x of foreign income taxes. Under section 78 and § 1.78-1(a), USP's section 78 dividend is $168x. Accordingly, USP's redetermined taxable income is $958x ($790x + $168x), its pre-credit U.S. tax liability is $201.18x (21% × $958x), and its redetermined U.S. tax liability is $33.18 ($201.18x−$168x), a decrease of $176.82x ($210x−$33.18x). If USP makes a timely refund claim within the period allowed by section 6511, USP will be entitled to a refund of any overpayment resulting from the redetermination of its U.S. tax liability.

(E) Example 4: Contested tax -

(1) Facts. CFC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of USP, a domestic corporation. In Year 1, CFC earns 360u of general category gross tested income and accrues and pays 160u of current year taxes with respect to that income. CFC has no allowable deductions other than the foreign income tax expense. Accordingly, CFC has tested income of 200u in Year 1. CFC has no qualified business asset investment (within the meaning of section 951A(d) and § 1.951A-3(b)). In Year 1, no portion of USP's section 250 deduction is reduced by reason of section 250(a)(2)(B)(ii). USP's inclusion percentage (as defined in § 1.960-2(c)(2)) is 100%. In Year 1, USP earns no other income and has no other expenses. The average exchange rate used to translate USP's section 951A inclusion and CFC's foreign income taxes into dollars for Year 1 is $1x:1u. See section 989(b)(3) and §§ 1.951A-1(d)(1) and 1.986(a)-1(a)(1). Accordingly, for Year 1, CFC's tested foreign income taxes (as defined in § 1.960-2(c)(3)) with respect to USP are $160x. In Year 3, Country X assessed an additional 30u of tax with respect to CFC's Year 1 income. CFC did not pay the additional 30u of tax and contested the assessment. After exhausting all effective and practical remedies to reduce, over time, its liability for foreign income tax, CFC settled the contest with Country X in Year 4 for 20u, which CFC did not pay until January 15, Year 5, when the spot rate was $1.1x:1u. CFC did not earn any other income or accrue any other foreign income taxes in Years 2 through 6 and made no distributions to USP. The additional taxes paid in Year 5 are also tested foreign income taxes of CFC with respect to USP.

(2) Analysis -

(i) Result in Year 1. In Year 1, CFC has tested income of 200u and tested foreign income taxes of $160x. Under section 951A(a) and § 1.951A-1(c)(1), USP has a GILTI inclusion amount of $200x (200u translated at $1x:1u). Under section 960(d) and § 1.960-2(c), USP is deemed to have paid $128x (80% × 100% × $160x) of foreign income taxes. Under section 78 and § 1.78-1(a), USP's section 78 dividend is $160x. USP's section 250 deduction is $180x (50% × ($200x + $160x)). Accordingly, for Year 1, USP has taxable income of $180x ($200x + $160x−$180x) and a pre-credit U.S. tax liability of $37.80x (21% × $180x). Under section 904(a), because all of USP's income is section 951A category income (see § 1.904-4(g)), USP's foreign tax credit limitation is $37.80x ($37.80x × $180x/$180x), which is less than the $128x of foreign income tax that USP is deemed to have paid. Accordingly, USP owes no U.S. tax ($37.80x−$37.80x = 0).

(ii) Result in Year 5. CFC's accrual and payment of the additional 20u of foreign income tax with respect to Year 1 is a foreign tax redetermination under paragraph (a) of this section. Under § 1.461-4(g)(6)(iii)(B), the additional taxes accrue when the tax contest is resolved, that is, in Year 4. However, because the taxes, which relate to Year 1, were not paid on or before the date 24 months after close of CFC's taxable year to which the tax relates, that is, Year 1, under section 905(c)(2) and paragraph (a) of this section CFC cannot take these taxes into account when they accrue in Year 4. Instead, the taxes are taken into account when they are paid in Year 5. Under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, USP must decrease CFC's tested income and its earnings and profits in Year 1 by the additional tax amount of 20u. Further, USP must adjust its GILTI inclusion amount, the amount of foreign taxes deemed paid, and the amount of the section 78 dividend to account for CFC's additional payment of tax. Under section 986(a)(1)(B)(i) and § 1.986(a)-1(a)(2)(i), because CFC's payment of additional tax occurs more than 24 months after the close of the taxable year to which it relates, the additional tax is translated into dollars at the spot rate on the date of payment ($1.1x:1u). Therefore, CFC has tested foreign income taxes of $182x (160u translated at $1x:1u plus 20u translated at $1.1x:1u). As a result of the foreign tax redetermination, for Year 1, CFC has tested income of 180u (200u−20u). Under section 951A(a) and § 1.951A-1(c)(1), USP has a redetermined GILTI inclusion amount of $180x (180u, translated at $1x:1u). Under section 960(d) and § 1.960-2(c), USP is deemed to have paid $145.60x (80% × 100% × $182x) of foreign income taxes. Under section 78 and § 1.78-1(a), USP's section 78 dividend is $182x. USP's redetermined section 250 deduction is $181x (50% × ($180x + $182x)). Accordingly, USP's redetermined taxable income is $181x ($180x + $182x−$181x), its pre-credit U.S. tax liability is $38.01x (21% × $181x), and its redetermined U.S. tax liability is zero ($38.01x−$38.01x).

(3) Foreign tax redeterminations of successors or transferees. If at the time of a foreign tax redetermination the person with legal liability for the tax (or in the case of a refund, the legal right to such refund) (the “successor”) is a different person than the person that had legal liability for the tax in the year to which the redetermined tax relates (the “original taxpayer”), the required redetermination of U.S. tax liability is made as if the foreign tax redetermination occurred in the hands of the original taxpayer. Federal income tax principles apply to determine the tax consequences if the successor remits (or receives a refund of) a tax that in the year to which the redetermined tax relates was the legal liability of, and thus under § 1.901-2(f) is considered paid by, the original taxpayer.

(c) Foreign income tax imposed on foreign refund. If a redetermination of foreign income tax for a taxable year or years results from a refund to the section 901 taxpayer of foreign income taxes paid to a foreign country or possession of the United States and the foreign country or possession imposed foreign income tax on such refund, then, in accordance with section 905(c)(5), the amount of the refund is considered to be reduced by the amount of any foreign income tax described in section 901 imposed by the foreign country or possession of the United States with respect to such refund. In such case, no other credit under section 901, and no deduction under section 164, is allowed for any taxable year with respect to such tax imposed on such refund.

(d) Applicability dates. This section applies to foreign tax redeterminations occurring in taxable years ending on or after December 16, 2019, and to foreign tax redeterminations of foreign corporations occurring in taxable years that end with or within a taxable year of a United States shareholder ending on or after December 16, 2019 and that relate to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 2017.

[T.D. 9882, 84 FR 69104, Dec. 17, 2019, as amended by T.D. 9922, 85 FR 72060, Nov. 12, 2020]