34 CFR § 682.200 - Definitions.
(1) The definitions of the following terms used in this part are set forth in the Student Assistance General Provisions, 34 CFR part 668:
(3) The definition for cost of attendance is set forth in section 472 of the Act, as amended.
(b) The following definitions also apply to this part:
Authority. Any private non-profit or public entity that may issue tax-exempt obligations to obtain funds to be used for the purchase of FFEL loans. The term “Authority” also includes any agency, including a State postsecondary institution or any other instrumentality of a State or local governmental unit, regardless of the designation or primary purpose of that agency, that may issue tax-exempt obligations, any party authorized to issue those obligations on behalf of a governmental agency, and any non-profit organization authorized by law to issue tax-exempt obligations.
Borrower. An individual to whom a FFEL Program loan was made.
Co-Maker: One of two married individuals who jointly borrow a Consolidation loan, each of whom are eligible and who are jointly and severally liable for repayment of the loan. The term co-maker also includes one of two parents who are joint borrowers as previously authorized in the PLUS Program.
Default. The failure of a borrower and endorser, if any, or joint borrowers on a PLUS or Consolidation loan, to make an installment payment when due, or to meet other terms of the promissory note, the Act, or regulations as applicable, if the Secretary or guaranty agency finds it reasonable to conclude that the borrower and endorser, if any, no longer intend to honor the obligation to repay, provided that this failure persists for -
(1) 270 days for a loan repayable in monthly installments; or
(2) 330 days for a loan repayable in less frequent installments.
Disbursement. The transfer of loan proceeds by a lender to a holder, in the case of a Consolidation loan, or to a borrower, a school, or an escrow agent by issuance of an individual check, a master check or by electronic funds transfer that may represent loan amounts for borrowers.
Disposable income. That part of an individual's compensation from an employer and other income from any source, including spousal income, that remains after the deduction of any amounts required by law to be withheld, or any child support or alimony payments that are made under a court order or legally enforceable written agreement. Amounts required by law to be withheld include, but are not limited, to Federal, State, and local taxes, Social Security contributions, and wage garnishment payments.
Endorser. An individual who signs a promissory note and agrees to repay the loan in the event that the borrower does not.
Escrow agent. Any guaranty agency or other eligible lender that receives the proceeds of a FFEL program loan as an agent of an eligible lender for the purpose of transmitting those proceeds to the borrower or the borrower's school.
Estimated financial assistance.
(1) The estimated amount of assistance for a period of enrollment that a student (or a parent on behalf of a student) will receive from Federal, State, institutional, or other sources, such as, scholarships, grants, the net earnings from need-based employment, or loans, including but not limited to -
(i) Except as provided in paragraph (2)(iii) of this definition, national service education awards or post-service benefits under title I of the National and Community Service Act of 1990 (AmeriCorps);
(ii) Except as provided in paragraph (2)(vii) of this definition, veterans' education benefits;
(iii) Any educational benefits paid because of enrollment in a postsecondary education institution, or to cover postsecondary education expenses;
(iv) Fellowships or assistantships, except non-need-based employment portions of such awards;
(v) Insurance programs for the student's education; and
(vi) The estimated amount of other Federal student financial aid, including but not limited to a Federal Pell Grant, campus-based aid, and the gross amount (including fees) of subsidized and unsubsidized Federal Stafford Loans or subsidized and unsubsidized Federal Direct Stafford/Ford Loans, and Federal PLUS or Federal Direct PLUS Loans.
(2) Estimated financial assistance does not include -
(i) Those amounts used to replace the expected family contribution, including the amounts of any TEACH Grant, unsubsidized Federal Stafford or Federal Direct Stafford/Ford Loans, Federal PLUS or Federal Direct PLUS Loans, and non-federal non-need-based loans, including private, state-sponsored, and institutional loans. However, if the sum of the amounts received that are being used to replace the student's EFC exceed the EFC, the excess amount must be treated as estimated financial assistance;
(ii) Federal Perkins loan and Federal Work-Study funds that the student has declined;
(iii) For the purpose of determining eligibility for a subsidized Stafford loan, national service education awards or post-service benefits under title I of the National and Community Service Act of 1990 (AmeriCorps);
(iv) Any portion of the estimated financial assistance described in paragraph (1) of this definition that is included in the calculation of the student's expected family contribution (EFC);
(v) Non-need-based employment earnings;
(vi) Assistance not received under a title IV, HEA program, if that assistance is designated to offset all or a portion of a specific amount of the cost of attendance and that component is excluded from the cost of attendance as well. If that assistance is excluded from either estimated financial assistance or cost of attendance, it must be excluded from both;
(vii) Federal veterans' education benefits paid under -
(A) Chapter 103 of title 10, United States Code (Senior Reserve Officers' Training Corps);
(B) Chapter 106A of title 10, United States Code (Educational Assistance for Persons Enlisting for Active Duty);
(C) Chapter 1606 of title 10, United States Code (Selected Reserve Educational Assistance Program);
(D) Chapter 1607 of title 10, United States Code (Educational Assistance Program for Reserve Component Members Supporting Contingency Operations and Certain Other Operations);
(E) Chapter 30 of title 38, United States Code (All-Volunteer Force Educational Assistance Program, also known as the “Montgomery GI Bill - active duty”);
(F) Chapter 31 of title 38, United States Code (Training and Rehabilitation for Veterans with Service-Connected Disabilities);
(G) Chapter 32 of title 38, United States Code (Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Program);
(H) Chapter 33 of title 38, United States Code (Post 9/11 Educational Assistance);
(I) Chapter 35 of title 38, United States Code (Survivors' and Dependents' Educational Assistance Program);
(K) Section 156(b) of the “Joint Resolution making further continuing appropriations and providing for productive employment for the fiscal year 1983, and for other purposes” (42 U.S.C. 402 note) (Restored Entitlement Program for Survivors, also known as “Quayle benefits”);
(L) The provisions of chapter 3 of title 37, United States Code, related to subsistence allowances for members of the Reserve Officers Training Corps; and
(M) Any program that the Secretary may determine is covered by section 480(c)(2) of the HEA; and
(viii) Iraq and Afghanistan Service Grants made under section 420R of the HEA.
Federal GSL programs. The Federal Insured Student Loan Program, the Federal Supplemental Loans for Students Program, the Federal PLUS Program, and the Federal Consolidation Loan Program.
Grace period. The period that begins on the day after a Stafford loan borrower ceases to be enrolled as at least a half-time student at an institution of higher education and ends on the day before the repayment period begins. See also “Post-deferment grace period.” For an SLS borrower who also has a Federal Stafford loan on which the borrower has not yet entered repayment, the grace period is an equivalent period after the borrower ceases to be enrolled as at least a half-time student at an institution of higher education.
Guaranty agency. A State or private nonprofit organization that has an agreement with the Secretary under which it will administer a loan guarantee program under the Act.
Holder. An eligible lender owning an FFEL Program loan including a Federal or State agency or an organization or corporation acting on behalf of such an agency and acting as a conservator, liquidator, or receiver of an eligible lender.
Legal guardian. An individual appointed by a court to be a “guardian” of a person and specifically required by the court to use his or her financial resources for the support of that person.
(1) The term “eligible lender” is defined in section 435(d) of the Act, and in paragraphs (2)-(5) of this definition.
(2) With respect to a National or State chartered bank, a mutual savings bank, a savings and loan association, a stock savings bank, or a credit union -
(i) The phrase “subject to examination and supervision” in section 435(d) of the Act means “subject to examination and supervision in its capacity as a lender”;
(ii) The phrase “does not have as its primary consumer credit function the making or holding of loans made to students under this part” in section 435(d) of the Act means that the lender does not, or in the case of a bank holding company, the company's wholly-owned subsidiaries as a group do not at any time, hold FFEL Program loans that total more than one-half of the lender's or subsidiaries' combined consumer credit loan portfolio, including home mortgages held by the lender or its subsidiaries. For purposes of this paragraph, loans held in trust by a trustee lender are not considered part of the trustee lender's consumer credit function.
(3) A bank that is subject to examination and supervision by an agency of the United States, making student loans as a trustee, may be an eligible lender if it makes loans under an express trust, operated as a lender in the FFEL programs prior to January 1, 1975, and met the requirements of this paragraph prior to July 23, 1992.
(4) The corporate parent or other owner of a school that qualifies as an eligible lender under section 435(d) of the Act is not an eligible lender unless the corporate parent or owner itself qualifies as an eligible lender under section 435(d) of the Act.
(i) The term eligible lender does not include any lender that the Secretary determines, after notice and opportunity for a hearing before a designated Department official, has, directly or through an agent or contractor -
(A) Except as provided in paragraph (5)(ii) of this definition, offered, directly or indirectly, points, premiums, payments (including payments for referrals, finder fees or processing fees), or other inducements to any school, any employee of a school, or any individual or entity in order to secure applications for FFEL loans or FFEL loan volume. This includes but is not limited to -
(1) Payments or offerings of other benefits, including prizes or additional financial aid funds, to a prospective borrower or to a school or school employee in exchange for applying for or accepting a FFEL loan from the lender;
(2) Payments or other benefits, including payments of stock or other securities, tuition payments or reimbursements, to a school, a school employee, any school-affiliated organization, or to any other individual in exchange for FFEL loan applications, application referrals, or a specified volume or dollar amount of loans made, or placement on a school's list of recommended or suggested lenders;
(3) Payments or other benefits provided to a student at a school who acts as the lender's representative to secure FFEL loan applications from individual prospective borrowers, unless the student is also employed by the lender for other purposes and discloses that employment to school administrators and to prospective borrowers;
(5) Payment to another lender or any other party, including a school, a school employee, or a school-affiliated organization or its employees, of referral fees, finder fees or processing fees, except those processing fees necessary to comply with Federal or State law;
(6) Compensation to an employee of a school's financial aid office or other employee who has responsibilities with respect to student loans or other financial aid provided by the school or compensation to a school-affiliated organization or its employees, to serve on a lender's advisory board, commission or other group established by the lender, except that the lender may reimburse the employee for reasonable expenses incurred in providing the service;
(8) Payment of entertainment expenses, including expenses for private hospitality suites, tickets to shows or sporting events, meals, alcoholic beverages, and any lodging, rental, transportation, and other gratuities related to lender-sponsored activities for employees of a school or a school-affiliated organization;
(9) Philanthropic activities, including providing scholarships, grants, restricted gifts, or financial contributions in exchange for FFEL loan applications or application referrals, or a specified volume or dollar amount of FFEL loans made, or placement on a school's list of recommended or suggested lenders;
(10) Performance of, or payment to another third party to perform, any school function required under title IV, except that the lender may perform entrance counseling and, as provided in § 682.604(a), exit counseling, and may provide services to participating foreign schools at the direction of the Secretary, as a third-party servicer; and
(11) Any type of consulting arrangement or other contract with an employee of a financial aid office at a school, or an employee of a school who otherwise has responsibilities with respect to student loans or other financial aid provided by the school under which the employee would provide services to the lender.
(B) Conducted unsolicited mailings, by postal or electronic means, of student loan application forms to students enrolled in secondary schools or postsecondary institutions or to family members of such students, except to a student or borrower who previously has received a FFEL loan from the lender;
(D) Engaged in fraudulent or misleading advertising with respect to its FFEL loan activities.
(ii) Notwithstanding paragraph (5)(i) of this definition, a lender, in carrying out its role in the FFEL program and in attempting to provide better service, may provide -
(A) Technical assistance to a school that is comparable to the kinds of technical assistance provided to a school by the Secretary under the Direct Loan program, as identified by the Secretary in a public announcement, such as a notice in the Federal Register;
(B) Support of and participation in a school's or a guaranty agency's student aid and financial literacy-related outreach activities, including in-person entrance and exit counseling, as long as the name of the entity that developed and paid for any materials is provided to the participants and the lender does not promote its student loan or other products;
(C) Meals, refreshments, and receptions that are reasonable in cost and scheduled in conjunction with training, meeting, or conference events if those meals, refreshments, or receptions are open to all training, meeting, or conference attendees;
(D) Toll-free telephone numbers for use by schools or others to obtain information about FFEL loans and free data transmission service for use by schools to electronically submit applicant loan processing information or student status confirmation data;
(F) A reduced interest rate as provided under the Act;
(H) Purchase of a loan made by another lender at a premium;
(I) Other benefits to a borrower under a repayment incentive program that requires, at a minimum, one or more scheduled payments to receive or retain the benefit or under a loan forgiveness program for public service or other targeted purposes approved by the Secretary, provided these benefits are not marketed to secure loan applications or loan guarantees;
(K) Other services as identified and approved by the Secretary through a public announcement, such as a notice in the Federal Register.
(iii) For the purposes of this paragraph (5) -
(A) The term “school-affiliated organization” is defined in § 682.200.
(B) The term “applications” includes the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), FFEL loan master promissory notes, and FFEL Consolidation loan application and promissory notes.
(C) The term “other benefits” includes, but is not limited to, preferential rates for or access to the lender's other financial products, information technology equipment, or non-loan processing or non-financial aid-related computer software at below market rental or purchase cost, and printing and distribution of college catalogs and other materials at reduced or no cost.
(i) Is debarred or suspended, or any of whose principals or affiliates (as those terms are defined in 2 CFR parts 180 and 3485) is debarred or suspended under Executive Order (E.O.) 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189) or the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR), 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4;
(iii) Employs a person who is debarred or suspended under E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189) or the FAR, 48 CFR part 9, subpart 9.4, in a capacity that involves the administration or receipt of FFEL Program funds.
(8) As of January 1, 2007, and for loans first disbursed on or after that date under a trustee arrangement, an eligible lender operating as a trustee under a contract entered into on or before September 30, 2006, and which continues in effect with a school or a school-affiliated organization -
(i) Must not -
(A) Make a loan to any undergraduate student;
(B) Make a loan other than a Federal Stafford loan to a graduate or professional student; or
(iii) Must, for any fiscal year beginning on or after July 1, 2006 in which the school engages in activities as an eligible lender, submit an annual compliance audit that satisfies the following requirements:
(A) With regard to a school that is a governmental entity or a nonprofit organization, the audit must be conducted in accordance with § 682.305(c)(2)(v) and chapter 75 of title 31, United States Code, and in addition, during years when the student financial aid cluster (as defined in Office of Management and Budget Circular A-133, Appendix B, Compliance Supplement) is not audited as a “major program” (as defined under 31 U.S.C. 7501) must, without regard to the amount of loans made, include in such audit the school's lending activities as a major program.
(C) With regard to any school, the audit must include a determination that -
(1) The school used all payments and proceeds (i.e., special allowance and interest payments from borrowers, interest subsidy payments, proceeds from the sale or other disposition of loans) from the loans for need-based grant programs;
(2) Those need-based grants supplemented, rather than supplanted, the institution's use of non-Federal funds for such grants; and
(3) The school used no more than a reasonable portion of payments and proceeds from the loans for direct administrative expenses.
Nationwide consumer reporting agency. A consumer reporting agency that compiles and maintains files on consumers on a nationwide basis and as defined in 15 U.S.C. 1681a(p).
Origination relationship. A special business relationship between a school and a lender in which the lender delegates to the school, or to an entity or individual affiliated with the school, substantial functions or responsibilities normally performed by lenders before making FFEL program loans. In this situation, the school is considered to have “originated” a loan made by the lender.
Origination fee. A fee that the lender is required to pay the Secretary to help defray the Secretary's costs of subsidizing the loan. The lender may pass this fee on to the Stafford loan borrower. The lender must pass this fee on to the SLS or PLUS borrower.
Period of enrollment. The period for which a Stafford, SLS, or PLUS loan is intended. The period of enrollment must coincide with one or more bona fide academic terms established by the school for which institutional charges are generally assessed (e.g., a semester, trimester, or quarter in weeks of instructional time, an academic year, or the length of the student's program of study in weeks of instructional time). The period of enrollment is also referred to as the loan period.
Post-deferment grace period. For a loan made prior to October 1, 1981, a single period of six consecutive months beginning on the day following the last day of an authorized deferment period.
(1) For a Stafford loan, the period beginning on the date following the expiration of the grace period and ending no later than 10 years, or 25 years under an extended repayment schedule, from the date the first payment of principal is due from the borrower, exclusive of any period of deferment or forbearance.
(2) For unsubsidized Stafford loans, the period that begins on the day after the expiration of the applicable grace period that follows after the student ceases to be enrolled on at least a half-time basis and ending no later than 10 years or 25 years under an extended repayment schedule, from that date, exclusive of any period of deferment or forbearance. However, payments of interest are the responsibility of the borrower during the in-school and grace period, but may be capitalized by the lender.
(3) For SLS loans, the period that begins on the date the loan is disbursed, or if the loan is disbursed in more than one installment, on the date the last disbursement is made and ending no later than 10 years from that date, exclusive of any period of deferment or forbearance. The first payment of principal is due within 60 days after the loan is fully disbursed unless a borrower who is also a Stafford loan borrower but who, has not yet entered repayment on the Stafford loan requests that commencement of repayment on the SLS loan be delayed until the borrower's grace period on the Stafford loan expires. Interest on the loan accrues and is due and payable from the date of the first disbursement of the loan. The borrower is responsible for paying interest on the loan during the grace period and periods of deferment, but the interest may be capitalized by the lender.
(4) For Federal PLUS loans, the period that begins on the date the loan is disbursed, or if the loan is disbursed in more than one installment, on the date the last disbursement is made and ending no later than 10 years, or 25 years under an extended repayment schedule, from that date, exclusive of any period of deferment or forbearance. Interest on the loan accrues and is due and payable from the date of the first disbursement of the loan.
(5) For Federal Consolidation loans, the period that begins on the date the loan is disbursed and ends no later than 10, 12, 15, 20, 25, or 30 years from that date depending upon the sum of the amount of the Consolidation loan, and the unpaid balance on other student loans, exclusive of any period of deferment or forbearance.
Satisfactory repayment arrangement.
(1) For purposes of regaining eligibility under the title IV student financial assistance programs, the making of six consecutive, on-time, voluntary full monthly payments on a defaulted loan. A borrower may only obtain the benefit of this paragraph with respect to renewed eligibility once.
(2) The required full monthly payment amount may not be more than is reasonable and affordable based on the borrower's total financial circumstances. Voluntary payments are payments made directly by the borrower, and do not include payments obtained by income tax off-set, garnishment, or income or asset execution. “On-time” means a payment received by the Secretary or a guaranty agency or its agent within 20 days of the scheduled due date.
(3) A borrower has not used the one opportunity to renew eligibility for title IV assistance if the borrower makes six consecutive, on-time, voluntary, full monthly payments under an agreement to rehabilitate a defaulted loan but does not receive additional title IV assistance prior to defaulting on that loan again.
(1) An “institution of higher education” as that term is defined in 34 CFR 600.4.
(2) For purposes of an in-school deferment, the term includes an institution of higher education, whether or not it participates in any title IV program or has lost its eligibility to participate in the FFEL program because of a high default rate.
School-affiliated organization. A school-affiliated organization is any organization that is directly or indirectly related to a school and includes, but is not limited to, alumni organizations, foundations, athletic organizations, and social, academic, and professional organizations.
Stafford Loan Program. The loan program authorized by Title IV-B of the Act which encourages the making of subsidized and unsubsidized loans to undergraduate, graduate, and professional students and is one of the Federal Family Education Loan programs.
State lender. In any State, a single State agency or private nonprofit agency designated by the State that has entered into a contract of guarantee under this part with the Secretary, or a similar agreement with a guaranty agency.
Substantial gainful activity. A level of work performed for pay or profit that involves doing significant physical or mental activities, or a combination of both.
Temporarily totally disabled. The condition of an individual who, though not totally and permanently disabled, is unable to work and earn money or attend school, during a period of at least 60 days needed to recover from injury or illness. With regard to a disabled dependent of a borrower, this term means a spouse or other dependent who, during a period of injury or illness, requires continuous nursing or similar services for a period of at least 90 days.
Third-party servicer. Any State or private, profit or nonprofit organization or any individual that enters into a contract with a lender or guaranty agency to administer, through either manual or automated processing, any aspect of the lender's or guaranty agency's FFEL programs required by any statutory provision of or applicable to Title IV of the HEA, any regulatory provision prescribed under that statutory authority, or any applicable special arrangement, agreement, or limitation entered into under the authority of statutes applicable to Title IV of the HEA that governs the FFEL programs, including, any applicable function described in the definition of third-party servicer in 34 CFR part 668; originating, guaranteeing, monitoring, processing, servicing, or collecting loans; claims submission; or billing for interest benefits and special allowance.
Totally and permanently disabled. The condition of an individual who -
(1) Is unable to engage in any substantial gainful activity by reason of any medically determinable physical or mental impairment that -
(i) Can be expected to result in death;
(ii) Has lasted for a continuous period of not less than 60 months; or
(iii) Can be expected to last for a continuous period of not less than 60 months; or
(2) Has been determined by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs to be unemployable due to a service-connected disability.
Unsubsidized Stafford loan. A loan made after October 1, 1992, authorized under section 428H of the Act for borrowers who do not qualify for interest benefits under § 682.301(b) but do qualify for special allowance under § 682.302.
Write-off. Cessation of collection activity on a defaulted FFEL loan due to a determination in accordance with applicable standards that no further collection activity is warranted.