40 CFR § 1065.530 - Emission test sequence.
(a) Time the start of testing as follows:
(1) Perform one of the following if you precondition the engine as described in § 1065.518:
(i) For cold-start duty cycles, shut down the engine. Unless the standard-setting part specifies that you may only perform a natural engine cooldown, you may perform a forced engine cooldown. Use good engineering judgment to set up systems to send cooling air across the engine, to send cool oil through the engine lubrication system, to remove heat from coolant through the engine cooling system, and to remove heat from any exhaust aftertreatment systems. In the case of a forced aftertreatment cooldown, good engineering judgment would indicate that you not start flowing cooling air until the aftertreatment system has cooled below its catalytic activation temperature. For platinum-group metal catalysts, this temperature is about 200 °C. Once the aftertreatment system has naturally cooled below its catalytic activation temperature, good engineering judgment would indicate that you use clean air with a temperature of at least 15 °C, and direct the air through the aftertreatment system in the normal direction of exhaust flow. Do not use any cooling procedure that results in unrepresentative emissions (see § 1065.10(c)(1)). You may start a cold-start duty cycle when the temperatures of an engine's lubricant, coolant, and aftertreatment systems are all between (20 and 30) °C.
(ii) For hot-start emission measurements, shut down the engine immediately after completing the last preconditioning cycle. For any repeat cycles, start the hot-start transient emission test within 60 seconds after completing the last preconditioning cycle (this is optional for manufacturer testing).
(iii) For testing that involves hot-stabilized emission measurements, such as any steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle, start the hot-stabilized emission test within 60 seconds after completing the last preconditioning cycle (the time between cycles is optional for manufacturer testing). If the hot-stabilized cycle begins and ends with different operating conditions, add a linear transition period of 20 seconds between hot-stabilized cycles where you linearly ramp the (denormalized) reference speed and torque values over the transition period. See § 1065.501(c)(2)(i) for discrete-mode cycles.
(2) If you do not precondition the engine as described in § 1065.518, perform one of the following:
(i) For cold-start duty cycles, prepare the engine according to paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section.
(ii) For hot-start duty cycles, first operate the engine at any speed above peak-torque speed and at (65 to 85) % of maximum mapped power until either the engine coolant, block, or head absolute temperature is within ±2% of its mean value for at least 2 min or until the engine thermostat controls engine temperature. Shut down the engine. Start the duty cycle within 20 min of engine shutdown.
(iii) For testing that involves hot-stabilized emission measurements, bring the engine either to warm idle or the first operating point of the duty cycle. Start the test within 10 min of achieving temperature stability. Determine temperature stability as the point at which the engine thermostat controls engine temperature or as the point at which measured operating temperature has stayed within ±2% of the mean value for at least 2 min based on the following parameters:
(A) Engine coolant or block or head absolute temperatures for water-cooled engines.
(b) Take the following steps before emission sampling begins:
(1) For batch sampling, connect clean storage media, such as evacuated bags or tare-weighed filters.
(3) Start dilution systems, sample pumps, cooling fans, and the data-collection system.
(4) Pre-heat or pre-cool heat exchangers in the sampling system to within their operating temperature tolerances for a test.
(5) Allow heated or cooled components such as sample lines, filters, chillers, and pumps to stabilize at their operating temperatures.
(7) Adjust the sample flow rates to desired levels, using bypass flow, if desired.
(9) Select gas analyzer ranges. You may automatically or manually switch gas analyzer ranges during a test only if switching is performed by changing the span over which the digital resolution of the instrument is applied. During a test you may not switch the gains of an analyzer's analog operational amplifier(s).
(10) Zero and span all continuous analyzers using NIST-traceable gases that meet the specifications of § 1065.750. Span FID analyzers on a carbon number basis of one (1), C1. For example, if you use a C3H8 span gas of concentration 200 µmol/mol, span the FID to respond with a value of 600 µmol/mol. Span FID analyzers consistent with the determination of their respective response factors, RF, and penetration fractions, PF, according to § 1065.365.
(11) We recommend that you verify gas analyzer responses after zeroing and spanning by sampling a calibration gas that has a concentration near one-half of the span gas concentration. Based on the results and good engineering judgment, you may decide whether or not to re-zero, re-span, or re-calibrate a gas analyzer before starting a test.
(12) Drain any accumulated condensate from the intake air system before starting a duty cycle, as described in § 1065.125(e)(1). If engine and aftertreatment preconditioning cycles are run before the duty cycle, treat the preconditioning cycles and any associated soak period as part of the duty cycle for the purpose of opening drains and draining condensate. Note that you must close any intake air condensate drains that are not representative of those normally open during in-use operation.
(c) Start and run each test interval as described in this paragraph (c). The procedure varies depending on whether the test interval is part of a discrete-mode cycle, and whether the test interval includes engine starting. Note that the standard-setting part may apply different requirements for running test intervals. For example, 40 CFR part 1033 specifies a different way to perform discrete-mode testing.
(1) For steady-state discrete-mode duty cycles, start the duty cycle with the engine warmed-up and running as described in § 1065.501(c)(2)(i). Run each mode in the sequence specified in the standard-setting part. This will require controlling engine speed, engine load, or other operator demand settings as specified in the standard-setting part. Simultaneously start any electronic integrating devices, continuous data recording, and batch sampling. We recommend that you stabilize the engine for at least 5 minutes for each mode. Once sampling begins, sample continuously for at least 1 minute. Note that longer sample times may be needed for accurately measuring very low emission levels.
(2) For transient and steady-state ramped-modal duty cycles that do not include engine starting, start the test interval with the engine running as soon as practical after completing engine preconditioning. Simultaneously start any electronic integrating devices, continuous data recording, batch sampling, and execution of the duty cycle.
(3) If engine starting is part of the test interval, simultaneously start any electronic integrating devices, continuous data recording, and batch sampling before attempting to start the engine. Initiate the sequence of points in the duty cycle when the engine starts.
(4) For batch sampling systems, you may advance or delay the start and end of sampling at the beginning and end of the test interval to improve the accuracy of the batch sample, consistent with good engineering judgment.
(d) At the end of each test interval, continue to operate all sampling and dilution systems to allow the sampling system's response time to elapse. Then stop all sampling and recording, including the recording of background samples. Finally, stop any integrating devices and indicate the end of the duty cycle in the recorded data.
(e) Shut down the engine if you have completed testing or if it is part of the duty cycle.
(f) If testing involves another duty cycle after a soak period with the engine off, start a timer when the engine shuts down, and repeat the steps in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section as needed.
(g) Take the following steps after emission sampling is complete:
(1) For any proportional batch sample, such as a bag sample or PM sample, verify that proportional sampling was maintained according to § 1065.545. Void any samples that did not maintain proportional sampling according to § 1065.545.
(2) Place any used PM samples into covered or sealed containers and return them to the PM-stabilization environment. Follow the PM sample post-conditioning and total weighing procedures in § 1065.595.
(3) As soon as practical after the duty cycle is complete, or during the soak period if practical, perform the following:
(ii) Analyze any conventional gaseous batch samples no later than 30 minutes after the duty cycle is complete, or during the soak period if practical.
(iii) Analyze background samples no later than 60 minutes after the duty cycle is complete.
(iv) Analyze non-conventional gaseous batch samples, such as ethanol (NMHCE) as soon as practical using good engineering judgment.
(4) After quantifying exhaust gases, verify drift as follows:
(i) For batch and continuous gas analyzers, record the mean analyzer value after stabilizing a zero gas to the analyzer. Stabilization may include time to purge the analyzer of any sample gas, plus any additional time to account for analyzer response.
(ii) Record the mean analyzer value after stabilizing the span gas to the analyzer. Stabilization may include time to purge the analyzer of any sample gas, plus any additional time to account for analyzer response.
(iii) Use these data to validate and correct for drift as described in § 1065.550.
(5) If you perform carbon balance error verification, verify carbon balance error as specified in the standard-setting part and § 1065.543. Calculate and report the three carbon balance error quantities for each test interval; carbon mass absolute error for a test interval (εaC), carbon mass rate absolute error for a test interval (εaCrate), and carbon mass relative error for a test interval (εrC). For duty cycles with multiple test intervals, you may calculate and report the composite carbon mass relative error, εrCcomp, for the whole duty cycle. If you report εrCcomp, you must still calculate and report εaC, εaCrate, and εrC for each test interval.
(1) If the criteria void the test, you may retest using the same denormalized duty cycle, or you may re-map the engine, denormalize the reference duty cycle based on the new map and retest the engine using the new denormalized duty cycle.
(i) Determine the first and last feedback speeds at which maximum test torque was commanded.
(ii) If the last speed is greater than or equal to 90% of the first speed, the test is void. You may retest using the same denormalized duty cycle, or you may re-map the engine, denormalize the reference duty cycle based on the new map and retest the engine using the new denormalized duty cycle.
(iii) If the last speed is less than 90% of the first speed, reduce maximum test torque by 5%, and proceed as follows:
(B) Retest the engine using the denormalized test cycle that is based on the reduced maximum test torque.
(C) If your engine still fails the cycle criteria, reduce the maximum test torque by another 5% of the original maximum test torque.
(D) If your engine fails after repeating this procedure four times, such that your engine still fails after you have reduced the maximum test torque by 20% of the original maximum test torque, notify us and we will consider specifying a more appropriate duty cycle for your engine under the provisions of § 1065.10(c).
(j) Measure and record ambient temperature, pressure, and humidity, as appropriate. For testing the following engines, you must record ambient temperature continuously to verify that it remains within the pre-test temperature range as specified in § 1065.520(b):
(1) Air-cooled engines.
(2) Engines equipped with auxiliary emission control devices that sense and respond to ambient temperature.