40 CFR 98.233 - Calculating GHG emissions.

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§ 98.233 Calculating GHG emissions.

You must calculate and report the annual GHG emissions as prescribed in this section. For calculations that specify measurements in actual conditions, reporters may use a flow or volume measurement system that corrects to standard conditions and determine the flow or volume at standard conditions; otherwise, reporters must use average atmospheric conditions or typical operating conditions as applicable to the respective monitoring methods in this section.

(a) Natural gas pneumatic device venting. Calculate CH4 and CO2 volumetric emissions from continuous high bleed, continuous low bleed, and intermittent bleed natural gas pneumatic devices using Equation W-1 of this section.

Where:
Es,i = Annual total volumetric GHG emissions at standard conditions in standard cubic feet per year from natural gas pneumatic device vents, of types “t” (continuous high bleed, continuous low bleed, intermittent bleed), for GHGi.
Countt = Total number of natural gas pneumatic devices of type “t” (continuous high bleed, continuous low bleed, intermittent bleed) as determined in paragraph (a)(1) or (a)(2) of this section.
EFt = Population emission factors for natural gas pneumatic device vents (in standard cubic feet per hour per device) of each type “t” listed in Tables W-1A, W-3, and W-4 of this subpart for onshore petroleum and natural gas production, onshore natural gas transmission compression, and underground natural gas storage facilities, respectively. Onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting facilities must use the population emission factors listed in Table W-1A of this subpart.
GHGi = For onshore petroleum and natural gas production facilities, onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting facilities, onshore natural gas transmission compression facilities, and underground natural gas storage facilities, concentration of GHGi, CH4 or CO2, in produced natural gas or processed natural gas for each facility as specified in paragraphs (u)(2)(i), (iii), and (iv) of this section.
Tt = Average estimated number of hours in the operating year the devices, of each type “t”, were operational using engineering estimates based on best available data. Default is 8,760 hours.

(1) For all industry segments, determine “Countt” for Equation W-1 of this subpart for each type of natural gas pneumatic device (continuous high bleed, continuous low bleed, and intermittent bleed) by counting the devices, except as specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. The reported number of devices must represent the total number of devices for the reporting year.

(2) For the onshore petroleum and natural gas production industry segment, you have the option in the first two consecutive calendar years to determine “Countt” for Equation W-1 of this section for each type of natural gas pneumatic device (continuous high bleed, continuous low bleed, and intermittent bleed) using engineering estimates based on best available data. For the onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting industry segment, you have the option in the first two consecutive calendar years to determine “Countt” for Equation W-1 for each type of natural gas pneumatic device (continuous high bleed, continuous low bleed, and intermittent bleed) using engineering estimates based on best available data.

(3) For all industry segments, determine the type of pneumatic device using engineering estimates based on best available information.

(4) Calculate both CH4 and CO2 mass emissions from volumetric emissions using calculations in paragraph (v) of this section.

(b) [Reserved]

(c) Natural gas driven pneumatic pump venting.

(1) Calculate CH4 and CO2 volumetric emissions from natural gas driven pneumatic pump venting using Equation W-2 of this section. Natural gas driven pneumatic pumps covered in paragraph (e) of this section do not have to report emissions under this paragraph (c).

Where:
Es,i = Annual total volumetric GHG emissions at standard conditions in standard cubic feet per year from all natural gas driven pneumatic pump venting, for GHGi.
Count = Total number of natural gas driven pneumatic pumps.
EF = Population emissions factors for natural gas driven pneumatic pumps (in standard cubic feet per hour per pump) listed in Table W-1A of this subpart for onshore petroleum and natural gas production and onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting facilities.
GHGi = Concentration of GHGi, CH4, or CO2, in produced natural gas as defined in paragraph (u)(2)(i) of this section.
T = Average estimated number of hours in the operating year the pumps were operational using engineering estimates based on best available data. Default is 8,760 hours.

(2) Calculate both CH4 and CO2 mass emissions from volumetric emissions using calculations in paragraph (v) of this section.

(d) Acid gas removal (AGR) vents. For AGR vents (including processes such as amine, membrane, molecular sieve or other absorbents and adsorbents), calculate emissions for CO2 only (not CH4) vented directly to the atmosphere or emitted through a flare, engine (e.g., permeate from a membrane or de-adsorbed gas from a pressure swing adsorber used as fuel supplement), or sulfur recovery plant, using any of the calculation methods described in this paragraph (d), as applicable.

(1) Calculation Method 1. If you operate and maintain a continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMS) that has both a CO2 concentration monitor and volumetric flow rate monitor, you must calculate CO2 emissions under this subpart by following the Tier 4 Calculation Method and all associated calculation, quality assurance, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements for Tier 4 in subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources). Alternatively, you may follow the manufacturer's instructions or industry standard practice. If a CO2 concentration monitor and volumetric flow rate monitor are not available, you may elect to install a CO2 concentration monitor and a volumetric flow rate monitor that comply with all of the requirements specified for the Tier 4 Calculation Method in subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources). The calculation and reporting of CH4 and N2O emissions is not required as part of the Tier 4 requirements for AGR units.

(2) Calculation Method 2. If a CEMS is not available but a vent meter is installed, use the CO2 composition and annual volume of vent gas to calculate emissions using Equation W-3 of this section.

Where:
Ea,CO2 = Annual volumetric CO2 emissions at actual conditions, in cubic feet per year.
VS = Total annual volume of vent gas flowing out of the AGR unit in cubic feet per year at actual conditions as determined by flow meter using methods set forth in § 98.234(b). Alternatively, you may follow the manufacturer's instructions or industry standard practice for calibration of the vent meter.
VolCO2 = Annual average volumetric fraction of CO2 content in vent gas flowing out of the AGR unit as determined in paragraph (d)(6) of this section.

(3) Calculation Method 3. If a CEMS or a vent meter is not installed, you may use the inlet or outlet gas flow rate of the acid gas removal unit to calculate emissions for CO2 using Equations W-4A or W-4B of this section. If inlet gas flow rate is known, use Equation W-4A. If outlet gas flow rate is known, use Equation W-4B.

Where:
Ea, CO2 = Annual volumetric CO2 emissions at actual conditions, in cubic feet per year.
Vin = Total annual volume of natural gas flow into the AGR unit in cubic feet per year at actual conditions as determined using methods specified in paragraph (d)(5) of this section.
Vout = Total annual volume of natural gas flow out of the AGR unit in cubic feet per year at actual conditions as determined using methods specified in paragraph (d)(5) of this section.
VolI = Annual average volumetric fraction of CO2 content in natural gas flowing into the AGR unit as determined in paragraph (d)(7) of this section.
Volo = Annual average volumetric fraction of CO2 content in natural gas flowing out of the AGR unit as determined in paragraph (d)(8) of this section.

(4) Calculation Method 4. If CEMS or a vent meter is not installed, you may calculate emissions using any standard simulation software package, such as AspenTech HYSYS®, or API 4679 AMINECalc, that uses the Peng-Robinson equation of state and speciates CO2 emissions. A minimum of the following, determined for typical operating conditions over the calendar year by engineering estimate and process knowledge based on best available data, must be used to characterize emissions:

(i) Natural gas feed temperature, pressure, and flow rate.

(ii) Acid gas content of feed natural gas.

(iii) Acid gas content of outlet natural gas.

(iv) Unit operating hours, excluding downtime for maintenance or standby.

(v) Exit temperature of natural gas.

(vi) Solvent pressure, temperature, circulation rate, and weight.

(5) For Calculation Method 3, determine the gas flow rate of the inlet when using Equation W-4A of this section or the gas flow rate of the outlet when using Equation W-4B of this section for the natural gas stream of an AGR unit using a meter according to methods set forth in § 98.234(b). If you do not have a continuous flow meter, either install a continuous flow meter or use an engineering calculation to determine the flow rate.

(6) For Calculation Method 2, if a continuous gas analyzer is not available on the vent stack, either install a continuous gas analyzer or take quarterly gas samples from the vent gas stream for each quarter that the AGR unit is operating to determine VolCO2 in Equation W-3 of this section, according to the methods set forth in § 98.234(b).

(7) For Calculation Method 3, if a continuous gas analyzer is installed on the inlet gas stream, then the continuous gas analyzer results must be used. If a continuous gas analyzer is not available, either install a continuous gas analyzer or take quarterly gas samples from the inlet gas stream for each quarter that the AGR unit is operating to determine VolI in Equation W-4A or W-4B of this section, according to the methods set forth in § 98.234(b).

(8) For Calculation Method 3, determine annual average volumetric fraction of CO2 content in natural gas flowing out of the AGR unit using one of the methods specified in paragraphs (d)(8)(i) through (d)(8)(iii) of this section.

(i) If a continuous gas analyzer is installed on the outlet gas stream, then the continuous gas analyzer results must be used. If a continuous gas analyzer is not available, you may install a continuous gas analyzer.

(ii) If a continuous gas analyzer is not available or installed, quarterly gas samples may be taken from the outlet gas stream for each quarter that the AGR unit is operating to determine VolO in Equation W-4A or W-4B of this section, according to the methods set forth in § 98.234(b).

(iii) If a continuous gas analyzer is not available or installed, you may use the outlet pipeline quality specification for CO2 in natural gas.

(9) Calculate annual volumetric CO2 emissions at standard conditions using calculations in paragraph (t) of this section.

(10) Calculate annual mass CO2 emissions using calculations in paragraph (v) of this section.

(11) Determine if CO2 emissions from the AGR unit are recovered and transferred outside the facility. Adjust the CO2 emissions estimated in paragraphs (d)(1) through (d)(10) of this section downward by the magnitude of CO2 emissions recovered and transferred outside the facility.

(e) Dehydrator vents. For dehydrator vents, calculate annual CH4 and CO2 emissions using the applicable calculation methods described in paragraphs (e)(1) through (e)(4) of this section. If emissions from dehydrator vents are routed to a vapor recovery system, you must adjust the emissions downward according to paragraph (e)(5) of this section. If emissions from dehydrator vents are routed to a flare or regenerator fire-box/fire tubes, you must calculate CH4, CO2, and N2O annual emissions as specified in paragraph (e)(6) of this section.

(1) Calculation Method 1. Calculate annual mass emissions from glycol dehydrators that have an annual average of daily natural gas throughput that is greater than or equal to 0.4 million standard cubic feet per day by using a software program, such as AspenTech HYSYS® or GRI-GLYCalc TM, that uses the Peng-Robinson equation of state to calculate the equilibrium coefficient, speciates CH4 and CO2 emissions from dehydrators, and has provisions to include regenerator control devices, a separator flash tank, stripping gas and a gas injection pump or gas assist pump. The following parameters must be determined by engineering estimate based on best available data and must be used at a minimum to characterize emissions from dehydrators:

(i) Feed natural gas flow rate.

(ii) Feed natural gas water content.

(iii) Outlet natural gas water content.

(iv) Absorbent circulation pump type (e.g., natural gas pneumatic/air pneumatic/electric).

(v) Absorbent circulation rate.

(vi) Absorbent type (e.g., triethylene glycol (TEG), diethylene glycol (DEG) or ethylene glycol (EG)).

(vii) Use of stripping gas.

(viii) Use of flash tank separator (and disposition of recovered gas).

(ix) Hours operated.

(x) Wet natural gas temperature and pressure.

(xi) Wet natural gas composition. Determine this parameter using one of the methods described in paragraphs (e)(1)(xi)(A) through (D) of this section.

(A) Use the GHG mole fraction as defined in paragraph (u)(2)(i) or (ii) of this section.

(B) If the GHG mole fraction cannot be determined using paragraph (u)(2)(i) or (ii) of this section, select a representative analysis.

(C) You may use an appropriate standard method published by a consensus-based standards organization if such a method exists or you may use an industry standard practice as specified in § 98.234(b) to sample and analyze wet natural gas composition.

(D) If only composition data for dry natural gas is available, assume the wet natural gas is saturated.

(2) Calculation Method 2. Calculate annual volumetric emissions from glycol dehydrators that have an annual average of daily natural gas throughput that is less than 0.4 million standard cubic feet per day using Equation W-5 of this section:

Where:
Es,i = Annual total volumetric GHG emissions (either CO2 or CH4) at standard conditions in cubic feet.
EFi = Population emission factors for glycol dehydrators in thousand standard cubic feet per dehydrator per year. Use 73.4 for CH4 and 3.21 for CO2 at 60 °F and 14.7 psia.
Count = Total number of glycol dehydrators that have an annual average of daily natural gas throughput that is less than 0.4 million standard cubic feet per day.
1000 = Conversion of EFi in thousand standard cubic feet to standard cubic feet.

(3) Calculation Method 3. For dehydrators of any size that use desiccant, you must calculate emissions from the amount of gas vented from the vessel when it is depressurized for the desiccant refilling process using Equation W-6 of this section. Desiccant dehydrator emissions covered in this paragraph do not have to be calculated separately using the method specified in paragraph (i) of this section for blowdown vent stacks.

Where:
Es,n = Annual natural gas emissions at standard conditions in cubic feet.
H = Height of the dehydrator vessel (ft).
D = Inside diameter of the vessel (ft).
P1 = Atmospheric pressure (psia).
P2 = Pressure of the gas (psia).
π = pi (3.14).
%G = Percent of packed vessel volume that is gas.
N = Number of dehydrator openings in the calendar year.
100 = Conversion of %G to fraction.

(4) For glycol dehydrators that use the calculation method in paragraph (e)(2) of this section, calculate both CH4 and CO2 mass emissions from volumetric GHGi emissions using calculations in paragraph (v) of this section. For desiccant dehydrators that use the calculation method in paragraph (e)(3) of this section, calculate both CH4 and CO2 volumetric and mass emissions from volumetric natural gas emissions using calculations in paragraphs (u) and (v) of this section.

(5) Determine if the dehydrator unit has vapor recovery. Adjust the emissions estimated in paragraphs (e)(1), (2), and (3) of this section downward by the magnitude of emissions recovered using a vapor recovery system as determined by engineering estimate based on best available data.

(6) Calculate annual emissions from dehydrator vents to flares or regenerator fire-box/fire tubes as follows:

(i) Use the dehydrator vent volume and gas composition as determined in paragraphs (e)(1) through (5) of this section, as applicable.

(ii) Use the calculation method of flare stacks in paragraph (n) of this section to determine dehydrator vent emissions from the flare or regenerator combustion gas vent.

(f) Well venting for liquids unloadings. Calculate annual volumetric natural gas emissions from well venting for liquids unloading using one of the calculation methods described in paragraphs (f)(1), (2), or (3) of this section. Calculate annual CH4 and CO2 volumetric and mass emissions using the method described in paragraph (f)(4) of this section.

(1) Calculation Method 1. Calculate emissions from wells with plunger lifts and wells without plunger lifts separately. For at least one well of each unique well tubing diameter group and pressure group combination in each sub-basin category (see § 98.238 for the definitions of tubing diameter group, pressure group, and sub-basin category), where gas wells are vented to the atmosphere to expel liquids accumulated in the tubing, install a recording flow meter on the vent line used to vent gas from the well (e.g., on the vent line off the wellhead separator or atmospheric storage tank) according to methods set forth in § 98.234(b). Calculate the total emissions from well venting to the atmosphere for liquids unloading using Equation W-7A of this section. For any tubing diameter group and pressure group combination in a sub-basin where liquids unloading occurs both with and without plunger lifts, Equation W-7A will be used twice, once for wells with plunger lifts and once for wells without plunger lifts.

Where:
Ea = Annual natural gas emissions for all wells of the same tubing diameter group and pressure group combination in a sub-basin at actual conditions, a, in cubic feet. Calculate emission from wells with plunger lifts and wells without plunger lifts separately.
h = Total number of wells of the same tubing diameter group and pressure group combination in a sub-basin either with or without plunger lifts.
p = Wells 1 through h of the same tubing diameter group and pressure group combination in a sub-basin.
Tp = Cumulative amount of time in hours of venting for each well, p, of the same tubing diameter group and pressure group combination in a sub-basin during the year. If the available venting data do not contain a record of the date of the venting events and data are not available to provide the venting hours for the specific time period of January 1 to December 31, you may calculate an annualized vent time, Tp, using Equation W-7B of this section.
FR = Average flow rate in cubic feet per hour for all measured wells of the same tubing diameter group and pressure group combination in a sub-basin, over the duration of the liquids unloading, under actual conditions as determined in paragraph (f)(1)(i) of this section.
Where:
HRp = Cumulative amount of time in hours of venting for each well, p, during the monitoring period.
MPp = Time period, in days, of the monitoring period for each well, p. A minimum of 300 days in a calendar year are required. The next period of data collection must start immediately following the end of data collection for the previous reporting year.
Dp = Time period, in days during which the well, p, was in production (365 if the well was in production for the entire year).

(i) Determine the well vent average flow rate (“FR” in Equation W-7A of this section) as specified in paragraphs (f)(1)(i)(A) through (C) of this section for at least one well in a unique well tubing diameter group and pressure group combination in each sub-basin category. Calculate emissions from wells with plunger lifts and wells without plunger lifts separately.

(A) Calculate the average flow rate per hour of venting for each unique tubing diameter group and pressure group combination in each sub-basin category by dividing the recorded total annual flow by the recorded time (in hours) for all measured liquid unloading events with venting to the atmosphere.

(B) Apply the average hourly flow rate calculated under paragraph (f)(1)(i)(A) of this section to all wells in the same pressure group that have the same tubing diameter group, for the number of hours of venting these wells.

(C) Calculate a new average flow rate every other calendar year starting with the first calendar year of data collection. For a new producing sub-basin category, calculate an average flow rate beginning in the first year of production.

(ii) Calculate natural gas volumetric emissions at standard conditions using calculations in paragraph (t) of this section.

(2) Calculation Method 2. Calculate the total emissions for each sub-basin from well venting to the atmosphere for liquids unloading without plunger lift assist using Equation W-8 of this section.

Where:
Es = Annual natural gas emissions for each sub-basin at standard conditions, s, in cubic feet per year.
W = Total number of wells with well venting for liquids unloading for each sub-basin.
p = Wells 1 through W with well venting for liquids unloading for each sub-basin.
Vp = Total number of unloading events in the monitoring period per well, p.
0.37 × 10−3 = {3.14 (pi)/4}/{14.7*144} (psia converted to pounds per square feet).
CDp = Casing internal diameter for each well, p, in inches.
WDp = Well depth from either the top of the well or the lowest packer to the bottom of the well, for each well, p, in feet.
SPp = For each well, p, shut-in pressure or surface pressure for wells with tubing production, or casing pressure for each well with no packers, in pounds per square inch absolute (psia). If casing pressure is not available for each well, you may determine the casing pressure by multiplying the tubing pressure of each well with a ratio of casing pressure to tubing pressure from a well in the same sub-basin for which the casing pressure is known. The tubing pressure must be measured during gas flow to a flow-line. The shut-in pressure, surface pressure, or casing pressure must be determined just prior to liquids unloading when the well production is impeded by liquids loading or closed to the flow-line by surface valves.
SFRp = Average flow-line rate of gas for well, p, at standard conditions in cubic feet per hour. Use Equation W-33 of this section to calculate the average flow-line rate at standard conditions.
HRp,q = Hours that each well, p, was left open to the atmosphere during each unloading event, q.
1.0 = Hours for average well to blowdown casing volume at shut-in pressure.
q = Unloading event.
Zp,q = If HRp,q is less than 1.0 then Zp,q is equal to 0. If HRp,q is greater than or equal to 1.0 then Zp,q is equal to 1.

(3) Calculation Method 3. Calculate the total emissions for each sub-basin from well venting to the atmosphere for liquids unloading with plunger lift assist using Equation W-9 of this section.

Where:
Es = Annual natural gas emissions for each sub-basin at standard conditions, s, in cubic feet per year.
W = Total number of wells with plunger lift assist and well venting for liquids unloading for each sub-basin.
p = Wells 1 through W with well venting for liquids unloading for each sub-basin.
Vp = Total number of unloading events in the monitoring period for each well, p.
0.37 × 10−3 = {3.14 (pi)/4}/{14.7*144} (psia converted to pounds per square feet).
TDp = Tubing internal diameter for each well, p, in inches.
WDp = Tubing depth to plunger bumper for each well, p, in feet.
SPp = Flow-line pressure for each well, p, in pounds per square inch absolute (psia), using engineering estimate based on best available data.
SFRp = Average flow-line rate of gas for well, p, at standard conditions in cubic feet per hour. Use Equation W-33 of this section to calculate the average flow-line rate at standard conditions.
HRp,q = Hours that each well, p, was left open to the atmosphere during each unloading event, q.
0.5 = Hours for average well to blowdown tubing volume at flow-line pressure.
q = Unloading event.
Zp,q = If HRp,q is less than 0.5 then Zp,q is equal to 0. If HRp,q is greater than or equal to 0.5 then Zp,q is equal to 1.

(4) Calculate CH4 and CO2 volumetric and mass emissions from volumetric natural gas emissions using calculations in paragraphs (u) and (v) of this section.

(g) Well venting during completions and workovers with hydraulic fracturing. Calculate annual volumetric natural gas emissions from gas well and oil well venting during completions and workovers involving hydraulic fracturing using Equation W-10A or Equation W-10B of this section. Equation W-10A applies to well venting when the gas flowback rate is measured from a specified number of example completions or workovers and Equation W-10B applies when the gas flowback vent or flare volume is measured for each completion or workover. Completion and workover activities are separated into two periods, an initial period when flowback is routed to open pits or tanks and a subsequent period when gas content is sufficient to route the flowback to a separator or when the gas content is sufficient to allow measurement by the devices specified in paragraph (g)(1) of this section, regardless of whether a separator is actually utilized. If you elect to use Equation W-10A, you must follow the procedures specified in paragraph (g)(1). If you elect to use Equation W-10B, you must use a recording flow meter installed on the vent line, downstream of a separator and ahead of a flare or vent, to measure the gas flowback. For either equation, emissions must be calculated separately for completions and workovers, for each sub-basin, and for each well type combination identified in paragraph (g)(2) of this section. You must calculate CH4 and CO2 volumetric and mass emissions as specified in paragraph (g)(3) of this section. If emissions from well venting during completions and workovers with hydraulic fracturing are routed to a flare, you must calculate CH4, CO2, and N2O annual emissions as specified in paragraph (g)(4) of this section.

Where:
Es,n = Annual volumetric natural gas emissions in standard cubic feet from gas venting during well completions or workovers following hydraulic fracturing for each sub-basin and well type combination.
W = Total number of wells completed or worked over using hydraulic fracturing in a sub-basin and well type combination.
Tp,s = Cumulative amount of time of flowback, after sufficient quantities of gas are present to enable separation, where gas vented or flared for the completion or workover, in hours, for each well, p, in a sub-basin and well type combination during the reporting year. This may include non-contiguous periods of venting or flaring.
Tp,i = Cumulative amount of time of flowback to open tanks/pits, from when gas is first detected until sufficient quantities of gas are present to enable separation, for the completion or workover, in hours, for each well, p, in a sub-basin and well type combination during the reporting year. This may include non-contiguous periods of routing to open tanks/pits but does not include periods when the oil well ceases to produce fluids to the surface.
FRMs = Ratio of average gas flowback, during the period when sufficient quantities of gas are present to enable separation, of well completions and workovers from hydraulic fracturing to 30-day production rate for the sub-basin and well type combination, calculated using procedures specified in paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section.
FRMi = Ratio of initial gas flowback rate during well completions and workovers from hydraulic fracturing to 30-day gas production rate for the sub-basin and well type combination, calculated using procedures specified in paragraph (g)(1)(iv) of this section, for the period of flow to open tanks/pits.
PRs,p = Average gas production flow rate during the first 30 days of production after completions of newly drilled wells or well workovers using hydraulic fracturing in standard cubic feet per hour of each well p, that was measured in the sub-basin and well type combination. If applicable, PRs,p may be calculated for oil wells using procedures specified in paragraph (g)(1)(vii) of this section.
EnFs,p = Volume of N2 injected gas in cubic feet at standard conditions that was injected into the reservoir during an energized fracture job or during flowback for each well, p, as determined by using an appropriate meter according to methods described in § 98.234(b), or by using receipts of gas purchases that are used for the energized fracture job or injection during flowback. Convert to standard conditions using paragraph (t) of this section. If the fracture process did not inject gas into the reservoir or if the injected gas is CO2 then EnFs,p is 0.
FVs,p = Flow volume of vented or flared gas for each well, p, in standard cubic feet measured using a recording flow meter (digital or analog) on the vent line to measure gas flowback during the separation period of the completion or workover according to methods set forth in § 98.234(b).
FRp,i = Flow rate vented or flared of each well, p, in standard cubic feet per hour measured using a recording flow meter (digital or analog) on the vent line to measure the flowback, at the beginning of the period of time when sufficient quantities of gas are present to enable separation, of the completion or workover according to methods set forth in § 98.234(b).

(1) If you elect to use Equation W-10A of this section on gas wells, you must use Calculation Method 1 as specified in paragraph (g)(1)(i) of this section, or Calculation Method 2 as specified in paragraph (g)(1)(ii) of this section, to determine the value of FRMs and FRMi. If you elect to use Equation W-10A of this section on oil wells, you must use Calculation Method 1 as specified in paragraph (g)(1)(i) to determine the value of FRMs and FRMi. These values must be based on the flow rate for flowback gases, once sufficient gas is present to enable separation. The number of measurements or calculations required to estimate FRMs and FRMi must be determined individually for completions and workovers per sub-basin and well type combination as follows: Complete measurements or calculations for at least one completion or workover for less than or equal to 25 completions or workovers for each well type combination within a sub-basin; complete measurements or calculations for at least two completions or workovers for 26 to 50 completions or workovers for each sub-basin and well type combination; complete measurements or calculations for at least three completions or workovers for 51 to 100 completions or workovers for each sub-basin and well type combination; complete measurements or calculations for at least four completions or workovers for 101 to 250 completions or workovers for each sub-basin and well type combination; and complete measurements or calculations for at least five completions or workovers for greater than 250 completions or workovers for each sub-basin and well type combination.

(i) Calculation Method 1. You must use Equation W-12A of this section as specified in paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section to determine the value of FRMs. You must use Equation W-12B of this section as specified in paragraph (g)(1)(iv) of this section to determine the value of FRMi. The procedures specified in paragraphs (g)(1)(v) and (vi) of this section also apply. When making gas flowback measurements for use in Equations W-12A and W-12B of this section, you must use a recording flow meter (digital or analog) installed on the vent line, downstream of a separator and ahead of a flare or vent, to measure the gas flowback rates in units of standard cubic feet per hour according to methods set forth in § 98.234(b).

(ii) Calculation Method 2 (for gas wells). You must use Equation W-12A as specified in paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section to determine the value of FRMs. You must use Equation W-12B as specified in paragraph (g)(1)(iv) of this section to determine the value of FRMi. The procedures specified in paragraphs (g)(1)(v) and (vi) also apply. When calculating the flowback rates for use in Equations W-12A and W-12B of this section based on well parameters, you must record the well flowing pressure immediately upstream (and immediately downstream in subsonic flow) of a well choke according to methods set forth in § 98.234(b) to calculate the well flowback. The upstream pressure must be surface pressure and reservoir pressure cannot be assumed. The downstream pressure must be measured after the choke and atmospheric pressure cannot be assumed. Calculate flowback rate using Equation W-11A of this section for subsonic flow or Equation W-11B of this section for sonic flow. You must use best engineering estimates based on best available data along with Equation W-11C of this section to determine whether the predominant flow is sonic or subsonic. If the value of R in Equation W-11C of this section is greater than or equal to 2, then flow is sonic; otherwise, flow is subsonic. Convert calculated FRa values from actual conditions upstream of the restriction orifice to standard conditions (FRs,p and FRi,p) for use in Equations W-12A and W-12B of this section using Equation W-33 in paragraph (t) of this section.

Where:
FRa = Flowback rate in actual cubic feet per hour, under actual subsonic flow conditions.
A = Cross sectional open area of the restriction orifice (m 2).
P1 = Pressure immediately upstream of the choke (psia).
Tu = Temperature immediately upstream of the choke (degrees Kelvin).
P2 = Pressure immediately downstream of the choke (psia).
3430 = Constant with units of m 2/(sec 2 * K).
1.27*10 5 = Conversion from m 3/second to ft 3/hour.
Where:
FRa = Flowback rate in actual cubic feet per hour, under actual sonic flow conditions.
A = Cross sectional open area of the restriction orifice (m 2).
Tu = Temperature immediately upstream of the choke (degrees Kelvin).
187.08 = Constant with units of m 2/(sec 2 * K).
1.27*10 5 = Conversion from m 3/second to ft 3/hour.
Where:
R = Pressure ratio.
P1 = Pressure immediately upstream of the choke (psia).
P2 = Pressure immediately downstream of the choke (psia).

(iii) For Equation W-10A of this section, calculate FRMs using Equation W-12A of this section.

Where:
FRMs = Ratio of average gas flowback rate, during the period of time when sufficient quantities of gas are present to enable separation, of well completions and workovers from hydraulic fracturing to 30-day gas production rate for each sub-basin and well type combination.
FRs,p = Measured average gas flowback rate from Calculation Method 1 described in paragraph (g)(1)(i) of this section or calculated average flowback rate from Calculation Method 2 described in paragraph (g)(1)(ii) of this section, during the separation period in standard cubic feet per hour for well(s) p for each sub-basin and well type combination. Convert measured and calculated FRa values from actual conditions upstream of the restriction orifice (FRa) to standard conditions (FRs,p) for each well p using Equation W-33 in paragraph (t) of this section. You may not use flow volume as used in Equation W-10B of this section converted to a flow rate for this parameter.
PRs,p = Average gas production flow rate during the first 30 days of production after completions of newly drilled wells or well workovers using hydraulic fracturing, in standard cubic feet per hour for each well, p, that was measured in the sub-basin and well type combination. For oil wells for which production is not measured continuously during the first 30 days of production, the average flow rate may be based on individual well production tests conducted within the first 30 days of production. Alternatively, if applicable, PRs,p may be calculated for oil wells using procedures specified in paragraph (g)(1)(vii) of this section.
N = Number of measured or calculated well completions or workovers using hydraulic fracturing in a sub-basin and well type combination.

(iv) For Equation W-10A of this section, calculate FRMi using Equation W-12B of this section.

Where:
FRMi = Ratio of initial gas flowback rate during well completions and workovers from hydraulic fracturing to 30-day gas production rate for the sub-basin and well type combination, for the period of flow to open tanks/pits.
FRi,p = Initial measured gas flowback rate from Calculation Method 1 described in paragraph (g)(1)(i) of this section or initial calculated flow rate from Calculation Method 2 described in paragraph (g)(1)(ii) of this section in standard cubic feet per hour for well(s), p, for each sub-basin and well type combination. Measured and calculated FRi,p values must be based on flow conditions at the beginning of the separation period and must be expressed at standard conditions.
PRs,p = Average gas production flow rate during the first 30-days of production after completions of newly drilled wells or well workovers using hydraulic fracturing, in standard cubic feet per hour of each well, p, that was measured in the sub-basin and well type combination. For oil wells for which production is not measured continuously during the first 30 days of production, the average flow rate may be based on individual well production tests conducted within the first 30 days of production. Alternatively, if applicable, PRs,p may be calculated for oil wells using procedures specified in paragraph (g)(1)(vii) of this section.
N = Number of measured or calculated well completions or workovers using hydraulic fracturing in a sub-basin and well type combination.

(v) For Equation W-10A of this section, the ratio of gas flowback rate during well completions and workovers from hydraulic fracturing to 30-day gas production rate are applied to all well completions and well workovers, respectively, in the sub-basin and well type combination for the total number of hours of flowback and for the first 30 day average gas production rate for each of these wells.

(vi) For Equations W-12A and W-12B of this section, calculate new flowback rates for well completions and well workovers in each sub-basin and well type combination once every two years starting in the first calendar year of data collection.

(vii) For oil wells where the gas production rate is not metered and you elect to use Equation W-10A of this section, calculate the average gas production rate (PRs,p) using Equation W-12C of this section. If GOR cannot be determined from your available data, then you must use one of the procedures specified in paragraph (g)(1)(vii)(A) or (B) of this section to determine GOR. If GOR from each well is not available, use the GOR from a cluster of wells in the same sub-basin category.

Where:
PRs,p = Average gas production flow rate during the first 30 days of production after completions of newly drilled wells or well workovers using hydraulic fracturing in standard cubic feet per hour of well p, in the sub-basin and well type combination.
GORp = Average gas to oil ratio during the first 30 days of production after completions of newly drilled wells or workovers using hydraulic fracturing in standard cubic feet of gas per barrel of oil for each well p, that was measured in the sub-basin and well type combination; oil here refers to hydrocarbon liquids produced of all API gravities.
Vp = Volume of oil produced during the first 30 days of production after completions of newly drilled wells or well workovers using hydraulic fracturing in barrels of each well p, that was measured in the sub-basin and well type combination.
720 = Conversion from 30 days of production to hourly production rate.

(A) You may use an appropriate standard method published by a consensus-based standards organization if such a method exists.

(B) You may use an industry standard practice as described in § 98.234(b).

(2) For paragraphs (g) introductory text and (g)(1) of this section, measurements and calculations are completed separately for workovers and completions per sub-basin and well type combination. A well type combination is a unique combination of the parameters listed in paragraphs (g)(2)(i) through (iv) of this section.

(2) For paragraphs (g) introductory text and (g)(1) of this section, measurements and calculations are completed separately for workovers and completions per sub-basin and well type combination. A well type combination is a unique combination of the parameters listed in paragraphs (g)(2)(i) through (iii) of this section.

(i) Vertical or horizontal (directional drilling).

(ii) With flaring or without flaring.

(iii) Reduced emission completion/workover or not reduced emission completion/workover.

(iv) Oil well or gas well.

(3) Calculate both CH4 and CO2 volumetric and mass emissions from total natural gas volumetric emissions using calculations in paragraphs (u) and (v) of this section.

(4) Calculate annual emissions from well venting during well completions and workovers from hydraulic fracturing where all or a portion of the gas is flared as specified in paragraphs (g)(4)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) Use the volumetric total natural gas emissions vented to the atmosphere during well completions and workovers as determined in paragraph (g) of this section to calculate volumetric and mass emissions using paragraphs (u) and (v) of this section.

(ii) Use the calculation method of flare stacks in paragraph (n) of this section to adjust emissions for the portion of gas flared during well completions and workovers using hydraulic fracturing. This adjustment to emissions from completions using flaring, versus completions without flaring, accounts for the conversion of CH4 to CO2 in the flare and for the formation on N2O during flaring.

(h) Gas well venting during completions and workovers without hydraulic fracturing. Calculate annual volumetric natural gas emissions from each gas well venting during workovers without hydraulic fracturing using Equation W-13A of this section. Calculate annual volumetric natural gas emissions from each gas well venting during completions without hydraulic fracturing using Equation W-13B of this section. You must convert annual volumetric natural gas emissions to CH4 and CO2 volumetric and mass emissions as specified in paragraph (h)(1) of this section. If emissions from gas well venting during completions and workovers without hydraulic fracturing are routed to a flare, you must calculate CH4, CO2, and N2O annual emissions as specified in paragraph (h)(2) of this section.

Where:
Es,wo = Annual volumetric natural gas emissions in standard cubic feet from gas well venting during well workovers without hydraulic fracturing.
Nwo = Number of workovers per sub-basin category that do not involve hydraulic fracturing in the reporting year.
EFwo = Emission factor for non-hydraulic fracture well workover venting in standard cubic feet per workover. Use 3,114 standard cubic feet natural gas per well workover without hydraulic fracturing.
Es,p = Annual volumetric natural gas emissions in standard cubic feet from gas well venting during well completions without hydraulic fracturing.
p = Well completions 1 through f in a sub-basin.
f = Total number of well completions without hydraulic fracturing in a sub-basin category.
Vp = Average daily gas production rate in standard cubic feet per hour for each well, p, undergoing completion without hydraulic fracturing. This is the total annual gas production volume divided by total number of hours the wells produced to the flow-line. For completed wells that have not established a production rate, you may use the average flow rate from the first 30 days of production. In the event that the well is completed less than 30 days from the end of the calendar year, the first 30 days of the production straddling the current and following calendar years shall be used.
Tp = Time that gas is vented to either the atmosphere or a flare for each well, p, undergoing completion without hydraulic fracturing, in hours during the year.

(1) Calculate both CH4 and CO2 volumetric emissions from natural gas volumetric emissions using calculations in paragraph (u) of this section. Calculate both CH4 and CO2 mass emissions from volumetric emissions vented to atmosphere using calculations in paragraph (v) of this section.

(2) Calculate annual emissions of CH4, CO2, and N2O from gas well venting to flares during well completions and workovers not involving hydraulic fracturing as specified in paragraphs (h)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) Use the gas well venting volume and gas composition during well completions and workovers that are flared as determined using the methods specified in paragraphs (h) and (h)(1) of this section.

(ii) Use the calculation method of flare stacks in paragraph (n) of this section to determine emissions from the flare for gas well venting to a flare during completions and workovers without hydraulic fracturing.

(i) Blowdown vent stacks. Calculate CO2 and CH4 blowdown vent stack emissions from the depressurization of equipment to reduce system pressure for planned or emergency shutdowns resulting from human intervention or to take equipment out of service for maintenance as specified in either paragraph (i)(2) or (3) of this section. You may use the method in paragraph (i)(2) of this section for some blowdown vent stacks at your facility and the method in paragraph (i)(3) of this section for other blowdown vent stacks at your facility. Equipment with a unique physical volume of less than 50 cubic feet as determined in paragraph (i)(1) of this section are not subject to the requirements in paragraphs (i)(2) through (4) of this section. The requirements in this paragraph (i) do not apply to blowdown vent stack emissions from depressurizing to a flare, over-pressure relief, operating pressure control venting, blowdown of non-GHG gases, and desiccant dehydrator blowdown venting before reloading.

(1) Method for calculating unique physical volumes. You must calculate each unique physical volume (including pipelines, compressor case or cylinders, manifolds, suction bottles, discharge bottles, and vessels) between isolation valves, in cubic feet, by using engineering estimates based on best available data.

(2) Method for determining emissions from blowdown vent stacks according to equipment or event type. If you elect to determine emissions according to each equipment or event type, using unique physical volumes as calculated in paragraph (i)(1) of this section, you must calculate emissions as specified in paragraph (i)(2)(i) of this section and either paragraph (i)(2)(ii) or, if applicable, paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this section for each equipment or event type. For industry segments other than onshore natural gas transmission pipeline, equipment or event types must be grouped into the following seven categories: Facility piping (i.e., piping within the facility boundary other than physical volumes associated with distribution pipelines), pipeline venting (i.e., physical volumes associated with distribution pipelines vented within the facility boundary), compressors, scrubbers/strainers, pig launchers and receivers, emergency shutdowns (this category includes emergency shutdown blowdown emissions regardless of equipment type), and all other equipment with a physical volume greater than or equal to 50 cubic feet. If a blowdown event resulted in emissions from multiple equipment types and the emissions cannot be apportioned to the different equipment types, then categorize the blowdown event as the equipment type that represented the largest portion of the emissions for the blowdown event. For the onshore natural gas transmission pipeline segment, pipeline segments or event types must be grouped into the following eight categories: Pipeline integrity work (e.g., the preparation work of modifying facilities, ongoing assessments, maintenance or mitigation), traditional operations or pipeline maintenance, equipment replacement or repair (e.g., valves), pipe abandonment, new construction or modification of pipelines including commissioning and change of service, operational precaution during activities (e.g. excavation near pipelines), emergency shutdowns including pipeline incidents as defined in 49 CFR 191.3, and all other pipeline segments with a physical volume greater than or equal to 50 cubic feet. If a blowdown event resulted in emissions from multiple categories and the emissions cannot be apportioned to the different categories, then categorize the blowdown event in the category that represented the largest portion of the emissions for the blowdown event.

(i) Calculate the total annual natural gas emissions from each unique physical volume that is blown down using either Equation W-14A or W-14B of this section.

Where:
Es,n = Annual natural gas emissions at standard conditions from each unique physical volume that is blown down, in cubic feet.
N = Number of occurrences of blowdowns for each unique physical volume in the calendar year.
V = Unique physical volume between isolation valves, in cubic feet, as calculated in paragraph (i)(1) of this section.
C = Purge factor is 1 if the unique physical volume is not purged, or 0 if the unique physical volume is purged using non-GHG gases.
Ts = Temperature at standard conditions (60 °F).
Ta = Temperature at actual conditions in the unique physical volume ( °F). For emergency blowdowns at onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting facilities, engineering estimates based on best available information may be used to determine the temperature.
Ps = Absolute pressure at standard conditions (14.7 psia).
Pa = Absolute pressure at actual conditions in the unique physical volume (psia). For emergency blowdowns at onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting facilities, engineering estimates based on best available information may be used to determine the pressure.
Za = Compressibility factor at actual conditions for natural gas. You may use either a default compressibility factor of 1, or a site-specific compressibility factor based on actual temperature and pressure conditions.
Where:
Es,n = Annual natural gas emissions at standard conditions from each unique physical volume that is blown down, in cubic feet.
p = Individual occurrence of blowdown for the same unique physical volume.
N = Number of occurrences of blowdowns for each unique physical volume in the calendar year.
Vp = Unique physical volume between isolation valves, in cubic feet, for each blowdown “p.”
Ts = Temperature at standard conditions (60 °F).
Ta,p = Temperature at actual conditions in the unique physical volume ( °F) for each blowdown “p”.
Ps = Absolute pressure at standard conditions (14.7 psia).
Pa,b,p = Absolute pressure at actual conditions in the unique physical volume (psia) at the beginning of the blowdown “p”.
Pa,e,p = Absolute pressure at actual conditions in the unique physical volume (psia) at the end of the blowdown “p”; 0 if blowdown volume is purged using non-GHG gases.
Za = Compressibility factor at actual conditions for natural gas. You may use either a default compressibility factor of 1, or a site-specific compressibility factor based on actual temperature and pressure conditions.

(ii) Except as allowed in paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this section, calculate annual CH4 and CO2 volumetric and mass emissions from each unique physical volume that is blown down by using the annual natural gas emission value as calculated in either Equation W-14A or Equation W-14B of paragraph (i)(2)(i) of this section and the calculation method specified in paragraph (i)(4) of this section. Calculate the total annual CH4 and CO2 emissions for each equipment or event type by summing the annual CH4 and CO2 mass emissions for all unique physical volumes associated with the equipment or event type.

(iii) For onshore natural gas transmission compression facilities and LNG import and export equipment, as an alternative to using the procedures in paragraph (i)(2)(ii) of this section, you may elect to sum the annual natural gas emissions as calculated using either Equation W-14A or Equation W-14B of paragraph (i)(2)(i) of this section for all unique physical volumes associated with the equipment type or event type. Calculate the total annual CH4 and CO2 volumetric and mass emissions for each equipment type or event type using the sums of the total annual natural gas emissions for each equipment type and the calculation method specified in paragraph (i)(4) of this section.

(3) Method for determining emissions from blowdown vent stacks using a flow meter. In lieu of determining emissions from blowdown vent stacks as specified in paragraph (i)(2) of this section, you may use a flow meter and measure blowdown vent stack emissions for any unique physical volumes determined according to paragraph (i)(1) of this section to be greater than or equal to 50 cubic feet. If you choose to use this method, you must measure the natural gas emissions from the blowdown(s) through the monitored stack(s) using a flow meter according to methods in § 98.234(b), and calculate annual CH4 and CO2 volumetric and mass emissions measured by the meters according to paragraph (i)(4) of this section.

(4) Method for converting from natural gas emissions to GHG volumetric and mass emissions. Calculate both CH4 and CO2 volumetric and mass emissions using the methods specified in paragraphs (u) and (v) of this section.

(j) Onshore production and onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting storage tanks. Calculate CH4, CO2, and N2O (when flared) emissions from atmospheric pressure fixed roof storage tanks receiving hydrocarbon produced liquids from onshore petroleum and natural gas production facilities and onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting facilities (including stationary liquid storage not owned or operated by the reporter), as specified in this paragraph (j). For gas-liquid separators or onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting non-separator equipment (e.g., stabilizers, slug catchers) with annual average daily throughput of oil greater than or equal to 10 barrels per day, calculate annual CH4 and CO2 using Calculation Method 1 or 2 as specified in paragraphs (j)(1) and (2) of this section. For wells flowing directly to atmospheric storage tanks without passing through a separator with throughput greater than or equal to 10 barrels per day, calculate annual CH4 and CO2 emissions using Calculation Method 2 as specified in paragraph (j)(2) of this section. For hydrocarbon liquids flowing to gas-liquid separators or non-separator equipment or directly to atmospheric storage tanks with throughput less than 10 barrels per day, use Calculation Method 3 as specified in paragraph (j)(3) of this section. If you use Calculation Method 1 or Calculation Method 2 for separators, you must also calculate emissions that may have occurred due to dump valves not closing properly using the method specified in paragraph (j)(6) of this section. If emissions from atmospheric pressure fixed roof storage tanks are routed to a vapor recovery system, you must adjust the emissions downward according to paragraph (j)(4) of this section. If emissions from atmospheric pressure fixed roof storage tanks are routed to a flare, you must calculate CH4, CO2, and N2O annual emissions as specified in paragraph (j)(5) of this section.

(1) Calculation Method 1. Calculate annual CH4 and CO2 emissions from onshore production storage tanks and onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting storage tanks using operating conditions in the last gas-liquid separator or non-separator equipment before liquid transfer to storage tanks. Calculate flashing emissions with a software program, such as AspenTech HYSYS® or API 4697 E&P Tank, that uses the Peng-Robinson equation of state, models flashing emissions, and speciates CH4 and CO2 emissions that will result when the oil from the separator or non-separator equipment enters an atmospheric pressure storage tank. The following parameters must be determined for typical operating conditions over the year by engineering estimate and process knowledge based on best available data, and must be used at a minimum to characterize emissions from liquid transferred to tanks: P>(i) Separator or non-separator equipment temperature.

(ii) Separator or non-separator equipment pressure.

(iii) Sales oil or stabilized oil API gravity.

(iv) Sales oil or stabilized oil production rate.

(v) Ambient air temperature.

(vi) Ambient air pressure.

(vii) Separator or non-separator equipment oil composition and Reid vapor pressure. If this data is not available, determine these parameters by using one of the methods described in paragraphs (j)(1)(vii)(A) through (C) of this section.

(A) If separator or non-separator equipment oil composition and Reid vapor pressure default data are provided with the software program, select the default values that most closely match your separator or non-separator equipment pressure first, and API gravity secondarily.

(B) If separator or non-separator equipment oil composition and Reid vapor pressure data are available through your previous analysis, select the latest available analysis that is representative of produced crude oil or condensate from the sub-basin category for onshore petroleum and natural gas production or from the county for onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting.

(C) Analyze a representative sample of separator or non-separator equipment oil in each sub-basin category for onshore petroleum and natural gas production or each county for onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting for oil composition and Reid vapor pressure using an appropriate standard method published by a consensus-based standards organization.

(2) Calculation Method 2. Calculate annual CH4 and CO2 emissions using the methods in paragraph (j)(2)(i) of this section for gas-liquid separators with annual average daily throughput of oil greater than or equal to 10 barrels per day. Calculate annual CH4 and CO2 emissions using the methods in paragraph (j)(2)(ii) of this section for wells with annual average daily oil production greater than or equal to 10 barrels per day that flow directly to atmospheric storage tanks in onshore petroleum and natural gas production and onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting (if applicable). Calculate annual CH4 and CO2 emissions using the methods in paragraph (j)(2)(iii) of this section for non-separator equipment with annual average daily hydrocarbon liquids throughput greater than or equal to 10 barrels per day that flow directly to atmospheric storage tanks in onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting.

(i) Flow to storage tank after passing through a separator. Assume that all of the CH4 and CO2 in solution at separator temperature and pressure is emitted from oil sent to storage tanks. You may use an appropriate standard method published by a consensus-based standards organization if such a method exists or you may use an industry standard practice as described in § 98.234(b) to sample and analyze separator oil composition at separator pressure and temperature.

(ii) Flow to storage tank direct from wells. Calculate CH4 and CO2 emissions using either of the methods in paragraph (j)(2)(ii)(A) or (B) of this section.

(A) If well production oil and gas compositions are available through a previous analysis, select the latest available analysis that is representative of produced oil and gas from the sub-basin category and assume all of the CH4 and CO2 in both oil and gas are emitted from the tank.

(B) If well production oil and gas compositions are not available, use default oil and gas compositions in software programs, such as API 4697 E&P Tank, that most closely match the well production gas/oil ratio and API gravity and assume all of the CH4 and CO2 in both oil and gas are emitted from the tank.

(iii) Flow to storage tank direct from non-separator equipment. Calculate CH4 and CO2 emissions using either of the methods in paragraph (j)(2)(iii)(A) or (B) of this section.

(A) If other non-separator equipment liquid and gas compositions are available through a previous analysis, select the latest available analysis that is representative of liquid and gas from non-separator equipment in the same county and assume all of the CH4 and CO2 in both hydrocarbon liquids and gas are emitted from the tank.

(B) If non-separator equipment liquid and gas compositions are not available, use default liquid and gas compositions in software programs, such as API 4697 E&P Tank, that most closely match the non-separator equipment gas/liquid ratio and API gravity and assume all of the CH4 and CO2 in both hydrocarbon liquids and gas are emitted from the tank.

(3) Calculation Method 3. Calculate CH4 and CO2 emissions using Equation W-15 of this section:

Where:
Es,i = Annual total volumetric GHG emissions (either CO2 or CH4) at standard conditions in cubic feet.
EFi = Population emission factor for separators, wells, or non-separator equipment in thousand standard cubic feet per separator, well, or non-separator equipment per year, for crude oil use 4.2 for CH4 and 2.8 for CO2 at 60 °F and 14.7 psia, and for gas condensate use 17.6 for CH4 and 2.8 for CO2 at 60 °F and 14.7 psia.
Count = Total number of separators, wells, or non-separator equipment with annual average daily throughput less than 10 barrels per day. Count only separators, wells, or non-separator equipment that feed oil directly to the storage tank.
1,000 = Conversion from thousand standard cubic feet to standard cubic feet.

(4) Determine if the storage tank receiving your separator oil has a vapor recovery system.

(i) Adjust the emissions estimated in paragraphs (j)(1) through (3) of this section downward by the magnitude of emissions recovered using a vapor recovery system as determined by engineering estimate based on best available data.

(ii) [Reserved]

(5) Determine if the storage tank receiving your separator oil is sent to flare(s).

(i) Use your separator flash gas volume and gas composition as determined in this section.

(ii) Use the calculation method of flare stacks in paragraph (n) of this section to determine storage tank emissions from the flare.

(6) If you use Calculation Method 1 or Calculation Method 2 in paragraph (j)(1) or (2) of this section, calculate emissions from occurrences of gas-liquid separator liquid dump valves not closing during the calendar year by using Equation W-16 of this section.

Where:
Es,i,o = Annual volumetric GHG emissions at standard conditions from each storage tank in cubic feet that resulted from the dump valve on the gas-liquid separator not closing properly.
En = Storage tank emissions as determined in paragraphs (j)(1), (j)(2) and, if applicable, (j)(4) of this section in standard cubic feet per year.
Tn = Total time a dump valve is not closing properly in the calendar year in hours. Estimate Tn based on maintenance, operations, or routine separator inspections that indicate the period of time when the valve was malfunctioning in open or partially open position.
CFn = Correction factor for tank emissions for time period Tn is 2.87 for crude oil production. Correction factor for tank emissions for time period Tn is 4.37 for gas condensate production.
8,760 = Conversion to hourly emissions.

(7) Calculate both CH4 and CO2 mass emissions from natural gas volumetric emissions using calculations in paragraph (v) of this section.

(k) Transmission storage tanks. For vent stacks connected to one or more transmission condensate storage tanks, either water or hydrocarbon, without vapor recovery, in onshore natural gas transmission compression, calculate CH4 and CO2 annual emissions from compressor scrubber dump valve leakage as specified in paragraphs (k)(1) through (k)(4) of this section. If emissions from compressor scrubber dump valve leakage are routed to a flare, you must calculate CH4, CO2, and N2O annual emissions as specified in paragraph (k)(5) of this section.

(1) Except as specified in paragraph (k)(1)(iv) of this section, you must monitor the tank vapor vent stack annually for emissions using one of the methods specified in paragraphs (k)(1)(i) through (iii) of this section.

(i) Use an optical gas imaging instrument according to methods set forth in § 98.234(a)(1).

(ii) Measure the tank vent directly using a flow meter or high volume sampler according to methods in § 98.234(b) or (d) for a duration of 5 minutes.

(iii) Measure the tank vent using a calibrated bag according to methods in § 98.234(c) for a duration of 5 minutes or until the bag is full, whichever is shorter.

(iv) You may annually monitor leakage through compressor scrubber dump valve(s) into the tank using an acoustic leak detection device according to methods set forth in § 98.234(a)(5).

(2) If the tank vapors from the vent stack are continuous for 5 minutes, or the optical gas imaging instrument or acoustic leak detection device detects a leak, then you must use one of the methods in either paragraph (k)(2)(i) or (ii) of this section.

(i) Use a flow meter, such as a turbine meter, calibrated bag, or high volume sampler to estimate tank vapor volumes from the vent stack according to methods set forth in § 98.234(b) through (d). If you do not have a continuous flow measurement device, you may install a flow measuring device on the tank vapor vent stack. If the vent is directly measured for five minutes under paragraph (k)(1)(ii) or (iii) of this section to detect continuous leakage, this serves as the measurement.

(ii) Use an acoustic leak detection device on each scrubber dump valve connected to the tank according to the method set forth in § 98.234(a)(5).

(3) If a leaking dump valve is identified, the leak must be counted as having occurred since the beginning of the calendar year, or from the previous test that did not detect leaking in the same calendar year. If the leaking dump valve is fixed following leak detection, the leak duration will end upon being repaired. If a leaking dump valve is identified and not repaired, the leak must be counted as having occurred through the rest of the calendar year.

(4) Use the requirements specified in paragraphs (k)(4)(i) and (ii) of this section to quantify annual emissions.

(i) Use the appropriate gas composition in paragraph (u)(2)(iii) of this section.

(ii) Calculate CH4 and CO2 volumetric and mass emissions at standard conditions using calculations in paragraphs (t), (u), and (v) of this section, as applicable to the monitoring equipment used.

(5) Calculate annual emissions from storage tanks to flares as specified in paragraphs (k)(5)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) Use the storage tank emissions volume and gas composition as determined in paragraphs (k)(1) through (4) of this section.

(ii) Use the calculation method of flare stacks in paragraph (n) of this section to determine storage tank emissions sent to a flare.

(l) Well testing venting and flaring. Calculate CH4 and CO2 annual emissions from well testing venting as specified in paragraphs (l)(1) through (5) of this section. If emissions from well testing venting are routed to a flare, you must calculate CH4, CO2, and N2O annual emissions as specified in paragraph (l)(6) of this section.

(1) Determine the gas to oil ratio (GOR) of the hydrocarbon production from oil well(s) tested. Determine the production rate from gas well(s) tested.

(2) If GOR cannot be determined from your available data, then you must measure quantities reported in this section according to one of the procedures specified in paragraph (l)(2)(i) or (ii) of this section to determine GOR.

(i) You may use an appropriate standard method published by a consensus-based standards organization if such a method exists.

(ii) You may use an industry standard practice as described in § 98.234(b).

(3) Estimate venting emissions using Equation W-17A (for oil wells) or Equation W-17B (for gas wells) of this section.

Where:
Ea,n = Annual volumetric natural gas emissions from well(s) testing in cubic feet under actual conditions.
GOR = Gas to oil ratio in cubic feet of gas per barrel of oil; oil here refers to hydrocarbon liquids produced of all API gravities.
FR = Average annual flow rate in barrels of oil per day for the oil well(s) being tested.
PR = Average annual production rate in actual cubic feet per day for the gas well(s) being tested.
D = Number of days during the calendar year that the well(s) is tested.

(4) Calculate natural gas volumetric emissions at standard conditions using calculations in paragraph (t) of this section.

(5) Calculate both CH4 and CO2 volumetric and mass emissions from natural gas volumetric emissions using calculations in paragraphs (u) and (v) of this section.

(6) Calculate emissions from well testing if emissions are routed to a flare as specified in paragraphs (l)(6)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) Use the well testing emissions volume and gas composition as determined in paragraphs (l)(1) through (4) of this section.

(ii) Use the calculation method of flare stacks in paragraph (n) of this section to determine well testing emissions from the flare.

(m) Associated gas venting and flaring. Calculate CH4 and CO2 annual emissions from associated gas venting not in conjunction with well testing (refer to paragraph (l): Well testing venting and flaring of this section) as specified in paragraphs (m)(1) through (4) of this section. If emissions from associated gas venting are routed to a flare, you must calculate CH4, CO2, and N2O annual emissions as specified in paragraph (m)(5) of this section.

(1) Determine the GOR of the hydrocarbon production from each well whose associated natural gas is vented or flared. If GOR from each well is not available, use the GOR from a cluster of wells in the same sub-basin category.

(2) If GOR cannot be determined from your available data, then you must use one of the procedures specified in paragraphs (m)(2)(i) or (ii) of this section to determine GOR.

(i) You may use an appropriate standard method published by a consensus-based standards organization if such a method exists.

(ii) You may use an industry standard practice as described in § 98.234(b).

(3) Estimate venting emissions using Equation W-18 of this section.

Where:
Es,n = Annual volumetric natural gas emissions, at the facility level, from associated gas venting at standard conditions, in cubic feet.
GORp,q = Gas to oil ratio, for well p in sub-basin q, in standard cubic feet of gas per barrel of oil; oil here refers to hydrocarbon liquids produced of all API gravities.
Vp,q = Volume of oil produced, for well p in sub-basin q, in barrels in the calendar year during time periods in which associated gas was vented or flared.
SGp,q = Volume of associated gas sent to sales, for well p in sub-basin q, in standard cubic feet of gas in the calendar year during time periods in which associated gas was vented or flared.
x = Total number of wells in sub-basin that vent or flare associated gas.
y = Total number of sub-basins in a basin that contain wells that vent or flare associated gas.

(4) Calculate both CH4 and CO2 volumetric and mass emissions from volumetric natural gas emissions using calculations in paragraphs (u) and (v) of this section.

(5) Calculate emissions from associated natural gas if emissions are routed to a flare as specified in paragraphs (m)(5)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) Use the associated natural gas volume and gas composition as determined in paragraph (m)(1) through (4) of this section.

(ii) Use the calculation method of flare stacks in paragraph (n) of this section to determine associated gas emissions from the flare.

(n) Flare stack emissions. Calculate CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions from a flare stack as specified in paragraphs (n)(1) through (9) of this section.

(1) If you have a continuous flow measurement device on the flare, you must use the measured flow volumes to calculate the flare gas emissions. If all of the flare gas is not measured by the existing flow measurement device, then the flow not measured can be estimated using engineering calculations based on best available data or company records. If you do not have a continuous flow measurement device on the flare, you can use engineering calculations based on process knowledge, company records, and best available data.

(2) If you have a continuous gas composition analyzer on gas to the flare, you must use these compositions in calculating emissions. If you do not have a continuous gas composition analyzer on gas to the flare, you must use the appropriate gas compositions for each stream of hydrocarbons going to the flare as specified in paragraphs (n)(2)(i) through (iii) of this section.

(i) For onshore natural gas production and onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting, determine the GHG mole fraction using paragraph (u)(2)(i) of this section.

(ii) For onshore natural gas processing, when the stream going to flare is natural gas, use the GHG mole fraction in feed natural gas for all streams upstream of the de-methanizer or dew point control, and GHG mole fraction in facility specific residue gas to transmission pipeline systems for all emissions sources downstream of the de-methanizer overhead or dew point control for onshore natural gas processing facilities. For onshore natural gas processing plants that solely fractionate a liquid stream, use the GHG mole fraction in feed natural gas liquid for all streams.

(iii) For any industry segment required to report to flare stack emissions under § 98.232, when the stream going to the flare is a hydrocarbon product stream, such as methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane-plus and mixed light hydrocarbons, then you may use a representative composition from the source for the stream determined by engineering calculation based on process knowledge and best available data.

(3) Determine flare combustion efficiency from manufacturer. If not available, assume that flare combustion efficiency is 98 percent.

(4) Convert GHG volumetric emissions to standard conditions using calculations in paragraph (t) of this section.

(5) Calculate GHG volumetric emissions from flaring at standard conditions using Equations W-19 and W-20 of this section.

Where:
Es,CH4 = Annual CH4 emissions from flare stack in cubic feet, at standard conditions.
Es,CO2 = Annual CO2 emissions from flare stack in cubic feet, at standard conditions.
Vs = Volume of gas sent to flare in standard cubic feet, during the year as determined in paragraph (n)(1) of this section.
η = Flare combustion efficiency, expressed as fraction of gas combusted by a burning flare (default is 0.98).
XCH4 = Mole fraction of CH4 in the feed gas to the flare as determined in paragraph (n)(2) of this section.
XCO2 = Mole fraction of CO2 in the feed gas to the flare as determined in paragraph (n)(2) of this section.
ZU = Fraction of the feed gas sent to an un-lit flare determined by engineering estimate and process knowledge based on best available data and operating records.
ZL = Fraction of the feed gas sent to a burning flare (equal to 1 − ZU).
Yj = Mole fraction of hydrocarbon constituents j (such as methane, ethane, propane, butane, and pentanes-plus) in the feed gas to the flare as determined in paragraph (n)(1) of this section.
Rj = Number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon constituent j in the feed gas to the flare: 1 for methane, 2 for ethane, 3 for propane, 4 for butane, and 5 for pentanes-plus).

(6) Calculate both CH4 and CO2 mass emissions from volumetric emissions using calculation in paragraph (v) of this section.

(7) Calculate N2O emissions from flare stacks using Equation W-40 in paragraph (z) of this section.

(8) If you operate and maintain a CEMS that has both a CO2 concentration monitor and volumetric flow rate monitor for the combustion gases from the flare, you must calculate only CO2 emissions for the flare. You must follow the Tier 4 Calculation Method and all associated calculation, quality assurance, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements for Tier 4 in subpart C of this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources). If a CEMS is used to calculate flare stack emissions, the requirements specified in paragraphs (n)(1) through (7) of this section are not required.

(9) The flare emissions determined under this paragraph (n) must be corrected for flare emissions calculated and reported under other paragraphs of this section to avoid double counting of these emissions.

(o) Centrifugal compressor venting. If you are required to report emissions from centrifugal compressor venting as specified in § 98.232(d)(2), (e)(2), (f)(2), (g)(2), and (h)(2), you must conduct volumetric emission measurements specified in paragraph (o)(1) of this section using methods specified in paragraphs (o)(2) through (5) of this section; perform calculations specified in paragraphs (o)(6) through (9) of this section; and calculate CH4 and CO2 mass emissions as specified in paragraph (o)(11) of this section. If emissions from a compressor source are routed to a flare, paragraphs (o)(1) through (11) do not apply and instead you must calculate CH4, CO2, and N2O emissions as specified in paragraph (o)(12) of this section. If emissions from a compressor source are captured for fuel use or are routed to a thermal oxidizer, paragraphs (o)(1) through (12) do not apply and instead you must calculate and report emissions as specified in subpart C of this part. If emissions from a compressor source are routed to vapor recovery, paragraphs (o)(1) through (12) do not apply. If you are required to report emissions from centrifugal compressor venting at an onshore petroleum and natural gas production facility as specified in § 98.232(c)(19) or an onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting facility as specified in § 98.232(j)(8), you must calculate volumetric emissions as specified in paragraph (o)(10); and calculate CH4 and CO2 mass emissions as specified in paragraph (o)(11).

(1) General requirements for conducting volumetric emission measurements. You must conduct volumetric emission measurements on each centrifugal compressor as specified in this paragraph. Compressor sources (as defined in § 98.238) without manifolded vents must use a measurement method specified in paragraph (o)(1)(i) or (ii) of this section. Manifolded compressor sources (as defined in § 98.238) must use a measurement method specified in paragraph (o)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), or (iv) of this section.

(i) Centrifugal compressor source as found measurements. Measure venting from each compressor according to either paragraph (o)(1)(i)(A) or (B) of this section at least once annually, based on the compressor mode (as defined in § 98.238) in which the compressor was found at the time of measurement, except as specified in paragraphs (o)(1)(i)(C) and (D) of this section. If additional measurements beyond the required annual testing are performed (including duplicate measurements or measurement of additional operating modes), then all measurements satisfying the applicable monitoring and QA/QC that is required by this paragraph (o) must be used in the calculations specified in this section.

(A) For a compressor measured in operating-mode, you must measure volumetric emissions from blowdown valve leakage through the blowdown vent as specified in either paragraph (o)(2)(i)(A) or (B) of this section and, if the compressor has wet seal oil degassing vents, measure volumetric emissions from wet seal oil degassing vents as specified in paragraph (o)(2)(ii) of this section.

(B) For a compressor measured in not-operating-depressurized-mode, you must measure volumetric emissions from isolation valve leakage as specified in either paragraph (o)(2)(i)(A), (B), or (C) of this section. If a compressor is not operated and has blind flanges in place throughout the reporting period, measurement is not required in this compressor mode.

(C) You must measure the compressor as specified in paragraph (o)(1)(i)(B) of this section at least once in any three consecutive calendar years, provided the measurement can be taken during a scheduled shutdown. If three consecutive calendar years occur without measuring the compressor in not-operating-depressurized-mode, you must measure the compressor as specified in paragraph (o)(1)(i)(B) of this section at the next scheduled depressurized shutdown. The requirement specified in this paragraph does not apply if the compressor has blind flanges in place throughout the reporting year. For purposes of this paragraph, a scheduled shutdown means a shutdown that requires a compressor to be taken off-line for planned or scheduled maintenance. A scheduled shutdown does not include instances when a compressor is taken offline due to a decrease in demand but must remain available.

(D) An annual as found measurement is not required in the first year of operation for any new compressor that begins operation after as found measurements have been conducted for all existing compressors. For only the first year of operation of new compressors, calculate emissions according to paragraph (o)(6)(ii) of this section.

(ii) Centrifugal compressor source continuous monitoring. Instead of measuring the compressor source according to paragraph (o)(1)(i) of this section for a given compressor, you may elect to continuously measure volumetric emissions from a compressor source as specified in paragraph (o)(3) of this section.

(iii) Manifolded centrifugal compressor source as found measurements. For a compressor source that is part of a manifolded group of compressor sources (as defined in § 98.238), instead of measuring the compressor source according to paragraph (o)(1)(i), (ii), or (iv) of this section, you may elect to measure combined volumetric emissions from the manifolded group of compressor sources by conducting measurements at the common vent stack as specified in paragraph (o)(4) of this section. The measurements must be conducted at the frequency specified in paragraphs (o)(1)(iii)(A) and (B) of this section.

(A) A minimum of one measurement must be taken for each manifolded group of compressor sources in a calendar year.

(B) The measurement may be performed while the compressors are in any compressor mode.

(iv) Manifolded centrifugal compressor source continuous monitoring. For a compressor source that is part of a manifolded group of compressor sources, instead of measuring the compressor source according to paragraph (o)(1)(i), (ii), or (iii) of this section, you may elect to continuously measure combined volumetric emissions from the manifolded group of compressor sources as specified in paragraph (o)(5) of this section.

(2) Methods for performing as found measurements from individual centrifugal compressor sources. If conducting measurements for each compressor source, you must determine the volumetric emissions from blowdown valves and isolation valves as specified in paragraph (o)(2)(i) of this section, and the volumetric emissions from wet seal oil degassing vents as specified in paragraph (o)(2)(ii) of this section.

(i) For blowdown valves on compressors in operating-mode and for isolation valves on compressors in not-operating-depressurized-mode, determine the volumetric emissions using one of the methods specified in paragraphs (o)(2)(i)(A) through (D) of this section.

(A) Determine the volumetric flow at standard conditions from the blowdown vent using calibrated bagging or high volume sampler according to methods set forth in § 98.234(c) and § 98.234(d), respectively.

(B) Determine the volumetric flow at standard conditions from the blowdown vent using a temporary meter such as a vane anemometer according to methods set forth in § 98.234(b).

(C) Use an acoustic leak detection device according to methods set forth in § 98.234(a)(5).

(D) You may choose to use any of the methods set forth in § 98.234(a) to screen for emissions. If emissions are detected using the methods set forth in § 98.234(a), then you must use one of the methods specified in paragraph (o)(2)(i)(A) through (C) of this section. If emissions are not detected using the methods in § 98.234(a), then you may assume that the volumetric emissions are zero. For the purposes of this paragraph, when using any of the methods in § 98.234(a), emissions are detected whenever a leak is detected according to the methods.

(ii) For wet seal oil degassing vents in operating-mode, determine vapor volumes at standard conditions, using a temporary meter such as a vane anemometer or permanent flow meter according to methods set forth in § 98.234(b).

(3) Methods for continuous measurement from individual centrifugal compressor sources. If you elect to conduct continuous volumetric emission measurements for an individual compressor source as specified in paragraph (o)(1)(ii) of this section, you must measure volumetric emissions as specified in paragraphs (o)(3)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) Continuously measure the volumetric flow for the individual compressor source at standard conditions using a permanent meter according to methods set forth in § 98.234(b).

(ii) If compressor blowdown emissions are included in the metered emissions specified in paragraph (o)(3)(i) of this section, the compressor blowdown emissions may be included with the reported emissions for the compressor source and do not need to be calculated separately using the method specified in paragraph (i) of this section for blowdown vent stacks.

(4) Methods for performing as found measurements from manifolded groups of centrifugal compressor sources. If conducting measurements for a manifolded group of compressor sources, you must measure volumetric emissions as specified in paragraphs (o)(4)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) Measure at a single point in the manifold downstream of all compressor inputs and, if practical, prior to comingling with other non-compressor emission sources.

(ii) Determine the volumetric flow at standard conditions from the common stack using one of the methods specified in paragraphs (o)(4)(ii)(A) through (E) of this section.

(A) A temporary meter such as a vane anemometer according the methods set forth in § 98.234(b).

(B) Calibrated bagging according to methods set forth in § 98.234(c).

(C) A high volume sampler according to methods set forth § 98.234(d).

(D) An acoustic leak detection device according to methods set forth in § 98.234(a)(5).

(E) You may choose to use any of the methods set forth in § 98.234(a) to screen for emissions. If emissions are detected using the methods set forth in § 98.234(a), then you must use one of the methods specified in paragraph (o)(4)(ii)(A) through (o)(4)(ii)(D) of this section. If emissions are not detected using the methods in § 98.234(a), then you may assume that the volumetric emissions are zero. For the purposes of this paragraph, when using any of the methods in § 98.234(a), emissions are detected whenever a leak is detected according to the method.

(5) Methods for continuous measurement from manifolded groups of centrifugal compressor sources. If you elect to conduct continuous volumetric emission measurements for a manifolded group of compressor sources as specified in paragraph (o)(1)(iv) of this section, you must measure volumetric emissions as specified in paragraphs (o)(5)(i) through (iii) of this section.

(i) Measure at a single point in the manifold downstream of all compressor inputs and, if practical, prior to comingling with other non-compressor emission sources.

(ii) Continuously measure the volumetric flow for the manifolded group of compressor sources at standard conditions using a permanent meter according to methods set forth in § 98.234(b).

(iii) If compressor blowdown emissions are included in the metered emissions specified in paragraph (o)(5)(ii) of this section, the compressor blowdown emissions may be included with the reported emissions for the manifolded group of compressor sources and do not need to be calculated separately using the method specified in paragraph (i) of this section for blowdown vent stacks.

(6) Method for calculating volumetric GHG emissions from as found measurements for individual centrifugal compressor sources. For compressor sources measured according to paragraph (o)(1)(i) of this section, you must calculate annual GHG emissions from the compressor sources as specified in paragraphs (o)(6)(i) through (iv) of this section.

(i) Using Equation W-21 of this section, calculate the annual volumetric GHG emissions for each centrifugal compressor mode-source combination specified in paragraphs (o)(1)(i)(A) and (B) of this section that was measured during the reporting year.

Where:
Es,i,m = Annual volumetric GHGi (either CH4 or CO2) emissions for measured compressor mode-source combination m, at standard conditions, in cubic feet.
MTs,m = Volumetric gas emissions for measured compressor mode-source combination m, in standard cubic feet per hour, measured according to paragraph (o)(2) of this section. If multiple measurements are performed for a given mode-source combination m, use the average of all measurements.
Tm = Total time the compressor is in the mode-source combination for which Es,i,m is being calculated in the reporting year, in hours.
GHGi,m = Mole fraction of GHGi in the vent gas for measured compressor mode-source combination m; use the appropriate gas compositions in paragraph (u)(2) of this section.
m = Compressor mode-source combination specified in paragraph (o)(1)(i)(A) or (o)(1)(i)(B) of this section that was measured for the reporting year.

(ii) Using Equation W-22 of this section, calculate the annual volumetric GHG emissions from each centrifugal compressor mode-source combination specified in paragraph (o)(1)(i)(A) and (B) of this section that was not measured during the reporting year.

Where:
Es,i,m = Annual volumetric GHGi (either CH4 or CO2) emissions for unmeasured compressor mode-source combination m, at standard conditions, in cubic feet.
EFs,m = Reporter emission factor for compressor mode-source combination m, in standard cubic feet per hour, as calculated in paragraph (o)(6)(iii) of this section.
Tm = Total time the compressor was in the unmeasured mode-source combination m, for which Es,i,m is being calculated in the reporting year, in hours.
GHGi,m = Mole fraction of GHGi in the vent gas for unmeasured compressor mode-source combination m; use the appropriate gas compositions in paragraph (u)(2) of this section.
m = Compressor mode-source combination specified in paragraph (o)(1)(i)(A) or (o)(1)(i)(B) of this section that was not measured in the reporting year.

(iii) Using Equation W-23 of this section, develop an emission factor for each compressor mode-source combination specified in paragraph (o)(1)(i)(A) and (B) of this section. These emission factors must be calculated annually and used in Equation W-22 of this section to determine volumetric emissions from a centrifugal compressor in the mode-source combinations that were not measured in the reporting year.

Where:
EFs,m = Reporter emission factor to be used in Equation W-22 of this section for compressor mode-source combination m, in standard cubic feet per hour. The reporter emission factor must be based on all compressors measured in compressor mode-source combination m in the current reporting year and the preceding two reporting years.
MTs,m,p = Average volumetric gas emission measurement for compressor mode-source combination m, for compressor p, in standard cubic feet per hour, calculated using all volumetric gas emission measurements (MTs,m in Equation W-21 of this section) for compressor mode-source combination m for compressor p in the current reporting year and the preceding two reporting years.
Countm = Total number of compressors measured in compressor mode-source combination m in the current reporting year and the preceding two reporting years.
m = Compressor mode-source combination specified in paragraph (o)(1)(i)(A) or (o)(1)(i)(B) of this section.

(iv) The reporter emission factor in Equation W-23 of this section may be calculated by using all measurements from a single owner or operator instead of only using measurements from a single facility. If you elect to use this option, the reporter emission factor must be applied to all reporting facilities for the owner or operator.

(7) Method for calculating volumetric GHG emissions from continuous monitoring of individual centrifugal compressor sources. For compressor sources measured according to paragraph (o)(1)(ii) of this section, you must use the continuous volumetric emission measurements taken as specified in paragraph (o)(3) of this section and calculate annual volumetric GHG emissions associated with the compressor source using Equation W-24A of this section.

Where:
Es,i,v = Annual volumetric GHGi (either CH4 or CO2) emissions from compressor source v, at standard conditions, in cubic feet.
Qs,v = Volumetric gas emissions from compressor source v, for reporting year, in standard cubic feet.
GHGi,v = Mole fraction of GHGi in the vent gas for compressor source v; use the appropriate gas compositions in paragraph (u)(2) of this section.

(8) Method for calculating volumetric GHG emissions from as found measurements of manifolded groups of centrifugal compressor sources. For manifolded groups of compressor sources measured according to paragraph (o)(1)(iii) of this section, you must calculate annual volumetric GHG emissions using Equation W-24B of this section. If the centrifugal compressors included in the manifolded group of compressor sources share the manifold with reciprocating compressors, you must follow the procedures in either this paragraph (o)(8) or paragraph (p)(8) of this section to calculate emissions from the manifolded group of compressor sources.

Where:
Es,i,g = Annual volumetric GHGi (either CH4 or CO2) emissions for manifolded group of compressor sources g, at standard conditions, in cubic feet.
Tg = Total time the manifolded group of compressor sources g had potential for emissions in the reporting year, in hours. Include all time during which at least one compressor source in the manifolded group of compressor sources g was in a mode-source combination specified in either paragraph (o)(1)(i)(A), (o)(1)(i)(B), (p)(1)(i)(A), (p)(1)(i)(B), or (p)(1)(i)(C) of this section. Default of 8760 hours may be used.
MTs,g,avg = Average volumetric gas emissions of all measurements performed in the reporting year according to paragraph (o)(4) of this section for the manifolded group of compressor sources g, in standard cubic feet per hour.
GHGi,g = Mole fraction of GHG i in the vent gas for manifolded group of compressor sources g; use the appropriate gas compositions in paragraph (u)(2) of this section.

(9) Method for calculating volumetric GHG emissions from continuous monitoring of manifolded group of centrifugal compressor sources. For a manifolded group of compressor sources measured according to paragraph (o)(1)(iv) of this section, you must use the continuous volumetric emission measurements taken as specified in paragraph (o)(5) of this section and calculate annual volumetric GHG emissions associated with each manifolded group of compressor sources using Equation W-24C of this section. If the centrifugal compressors included in the manifolded group of compressor sources share the manifold with reciprocating compressors, you must follow the procedures in either this paragraph (o)(9) or paragraph (p)(9) of this section to calculate emissions from the manifolded group of compressor sources.

Where:
Es,i,g = Annual volumetric GHGi (either CH4 or CO2) emissions from manifolded group of compressor sources g, at standard conditions, in cubic feet.
Qs,g = Volumetric gas emissions from manifolded group of compressor sources g, for reporting year, in standard cubic feet.
GHGi,g = Mole fraction of GHG i in the vent gas for measured manifolded group of compressor sources g; use the appropriate gas compositions in paragraph (u)(2) of this section.

(10) Method for calculating volumetric GHG emissions from wet seal oil degassing vents at an onshore petroleum and natural gas production facility or an onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting facility. You must calculate emissions from centrifugal compressor wet seal oil degassing vents at an onshore petroleum and natural gas production facility or an onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting facility using Equation W-25 of this section.

Where:
Es,i = Annual volumetric GHGi (either CH4 or CO2) emissions from centrifugal compressor wet seals, at standard conditions, in cubic feet.
Count = Total number of centrifugal compressors that have wet seal oil degassing vents.
EFi,s = Emission factor for GHGi. Use 1.2 × 10 7 standard cubic feet per year per compressor for CH4 and 5.30 × 10 5 standard cubic feet per year per compressor for CO2 at 60 °F and 14.7 psia.

(11) Method for converting from volumetric to mass emissions. You must calculate both CH4 and CO2 mass emissions from volumetric emissions using calculations in paragraph (v) of this section.

(12) General requirements for calculating volumetric GHG emissions from centrifugal compressors routed to flares. You must calculate and report emissions from all centrifugal compressor sources that are routed to a flare as specified in paragraphs (o)(12)(i) through (iii) of this section.

(i) Paragraphs (o)(1) through (11) of this section are not required for compressor sources that are routed to a flare.

(ii) If any compressor sources are routed to a flare, calculate the emissions for the flare stack as specified in paragraph (n) of this section and report emissions from the flare as specified in § 98.236(n), without subtracting emissions attributable to compressor sources from the flare.

(iii) Report all applicable activity data for compressors with compressor sources routed to flares as specified in § 98.236(o).

(p) Reciprocating compressor venting. If you are required to report emissions from reciprocating compressor venting as specified in § 98.232(d)(1), (e)(1), (f)(1), (g)(1), and (h)(1), you must conduct volumetric emission measurements specified in paragraph (p)(1) of this section using methods specified in paragraphs (p)(2) through (5) of this section; perform calculations specified in paragraphs (p)(6) through (9) of this section; and calculate CH4 and CO2 mass emissions as specified in paragraph (p)(11) of this section. If emissions from a compressor source are routed to a flare, paragraphs (p)(1) through (11) do not apply and instead you must calculate CH4, CO2, and N2O emissions as specified in paragraph (p)(12) of this section. If emissions from a compressor source are captured for fuel use or are routed to a thermal oxidizer, paragraphs (p)(1) through (12) do not apply and instead you must calculate and report emissions as specified in subpart C of this part. If emissions from a compressor source are routed to vapor recovery, paragraphs (p)(1) through (12) do not apply. If you are required to report emissions from reciprocating compressor venting at an onshore petroleum and natural gas production facility as specified in § 98.232(c)(11) or an onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting facility as specified in § 98.232(j)(5), you must calculate volumetric emissions as specified in paragraph (p)(10); and calculate CH4 and CO2 mass emissions as specified in paragraph (p)(11).

(1) General requirements for conducting volumetric emission measurements. You must conduct volumetric emission measurements on each reciprocating compressor as specified in this paragraph. Compressor sources (as defined in § 98.238) without manifolded vents must use a measurement method specified in paragraph (p)(1)(i) or (ii) of this section. Manifolded compressor sources (as defined in § 98.238) must use a measurement method specified in paragraph (p)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), or (iv) of this section.

(i) Reciprocating compressor source as found measurements. Measure venting from each compressor according to either paragraph (p)(1)(i)(A), (B), or (C) of this section at least once annually, based on the compressor mode (as defined in § 98.238) in which the compressor was found at the time of measurement, except as specified in paragraphs (p)(1)(i)(D) and (E) of this section. If additional measurements beyond the required annual testing are performed (including duplicate measurements or measurement of additional operating modes), then all measurements satisfying the applicable monitoring and QA/QC that is required by this paragraph (o) must be used in the calculations specified in this section.

(A) For a compressor measured in operating-mode, you must measure volumetric emissions from blowdown valve leakage through the blowdown vent as specified in either paragraph (p)(2)(i)(A) or (B) of this section, and measure volumetric emissions from reciprocating rod packing as specified in paragraph (p)(2)(ii) of this section.

(B) For a compressor measured in standby-pressurized-mode, you must measure volumetric emissions from blowdown valve leakage through the blowdown vent as specified in either paragraph (p)(2)(i)(A) or (B) of this section.

(C) For a compressor measured in not-operating-depressurized-mode, you must measure volumetric emissions from isolation valve leakage as specified in either paragraph (p)(2)(i)(A), (B), or (C) of this section. If a compressor is not operated and has blind flanges in place throughout the reporting period, measurement is not required in this compressor mode.

(D) You must measure the compressor as specified in paragraph (p)(1)(i)(C) of this section at least once in any three consecutive calendar years, provided the measurement can be taken during a scheduled shutdown. If there is no scheduled shutdown within three consecutive calendar years, you must measure the compressor as specified in paragraph (p)(1)(i)(C) of this section at the next scheduled depressurized shutdown. For purposes of this paragraph, a scheduled shutdown means a shutdown that requires a compressor to be taken off-line for planned or scheduled maintenance. A scheduled shutdown does not include instances when a compressor is taken offline due to a decrease in demand but must remain available.

(E) An annual as found measurement is not required in the first year of operation for any new compressor that begins operation after as found measurements have been conducted for all existing compressors. For only the first year of operation of new compressors, calculate emissions according to paragraph (p)(6)(ii) of this section.

(ii) Reciprocating compressor source continuous monitoring. Instead of measuring the compressor source according to paragraph (p)(1)(i) of this section for a given compressor, you may elect to continuously measure volumetric emissions from a compressor source as specified in paragraph (p)(3) of this section.

(iii) Manifolded reciprocating compressor source as found measurements. For a compressor source that is part of a manifolded group of compressor sources (as defined in § 98.238), instead of measuring the compressor source according to paragraph (p)(1)(i), (ii), or (iv) of this section, you may elect to measure combined volumetric emissions from the manifolded group of compressor sources by conducting measurements at the common vent stack as specified in paragraph (p)(4) of this section. The measurements must be conducted at the frequency specified in paragraphs (p)(1)(iii)(A) and (B) of this section.

(A) A minimum of one measurement must be taken for each manifolded group of compressor sources in a calendar year.

(B) The measurement may be performed while the compressors are in any compressor mode.

(iv) Manifolded reciprocating compressor source continuous monitoring. For a compressor source that is part of a manifolded group of compressor sources, instead of measuring the compressor source according to paragraph (p)(1)(i), (ii), or (iii) of this section, you may elect to continuously measure combined volumetric emissions from the manifolded group of compressors sources as specified in paragraph (p)(5) of this section.

(2) Methods for performing as found measurements from individual reciprocating compressor sources. If conducting measurements for each compressor source, you must determine the volumetric emissions from blowdown valves and isolation valves as specified in paragraph (p)(2)(i) of this section. You must determine the volumetric emissions from reciprocating rod packing as specified in paragraph (p)(2)(ii) or (iii) of this section.

(i) For blowdown valves on compressors in operating-mode or standby-pressurized-mode, and for isolation valves on compressors in not-operating-depressurized-mode, determine the volumetric emissions using one of the methods specified in paragraphs (p)(2)(i)(A) through (D) of this section.

(A) Determine the volumetric flow at standard conditions from the blowdown vent using calibrated bagging or high volume sampler according to methods set forth in § 98.234(c) and (d), respectively.

(B) Determine the volumetric flow at standard conditions from the blowdown vent using a temporary meter such as a vane anemometer, according to methods set forth in § 98.234(b).

(C) Use an acoustic leak detection device according to methods set forth in § 98.234(a)(5).

(D) You may choose to use any of the methods set forth in § 98.234(a) to screen for emissions. If emissions are detected using the methods set forth in § 98.234(a), then you must use one of the methods specified in paragraphs (p)(2)(i)(A) through (C) of this section. If emissions are not detected using the methods in § 98.234(a), then you may assume that the volumetric emissions are zero. For the purposes of this paragraph, when using any of the methods in § 98.234(a), emissions are detected whenever a leak is detected according to the method.

(ii) For reciprocating rod packing equipped with an open-ended vent line on compressors in operating-mode, determine the volumetric emissions using one of the methods specified in paragraphs (p)(2)(ii)(A) through (C) of this section.

(A) Determine the volumetric flow at standard conditions from the open-ended vent line using calibrated bagging or high volume sampler according to methods set forth in § 98.234(c) and (d), respectively.

(B) Determine the volumetric flow at standard conditions from the open-ended vent line using a temporary meter such as a vane anemometer, according to methods set forth in § 98.234(b).

(C) You may choose to use any of the methods set forth in § 98.234(a) to screen for emissions. If emissions are detected using the methods set forth in § 98.234(a), then you must use one of the methods specified in paragraph (p)(2)(ii)(A) and (p)(4)(ii)(B) of this section. If emissions are not detected using the methods in § 98.234(a), then you may assume that the volumetric emissions are zero. For the purposes of this paragraph, when using any of the methods in § 98.234(a), emissions are detected whenever a leak is detected according to the method.

(iii) For reciprocating rod packing not equipped with an open-ended vent line on compressors in operating-mode, you must determine the volumetric emissions using the method specified in paragraphs (p)(2)(iii)(A) and (B) of this section.

(A) You must use the methods described in § 98.234(a) to conduct annual leak detection of equipment leaks from the packing case into an open distance piece, or for compressors with a closed distance piece, conduct annual detection of gas emissions from the rod packing vent, distance piece vent, compressor crank case breather cap, or other vent emitting gas from the rod packing.

(B) You must measure emissions found in paragraph (p)(2)(iii)(A) of this section using an appropriate meter, calibrated bag, or high volume sampler according to methods set forth in § 98.234(b), (c), and (d), respectively.

(3) Methods for continuous measurement from individual reciprocating compressor sources. If you elect to conduct continuous volumetric emission measurements for an individual compressor source as specified in paragraph (p)(1)(ii) of this section, you must measure volumetric emissions as specified in paragraphs (p)(3)(i) and (p)(3)(ii) of this section.

(i) Continuously measure the volumetric flow for the individual compressor sources at standard conditions using a permanent meter according to methods set forth in § 98.234(b).

(ii) If compressor blowdown emissions are included in the metered emissions specified in paragraph (p)(3)(i) of this section, the compressor blowdown emissions may be included with the reported emissions for the compressor source and do not need to be calculated separately using the method specified in paragraph (i) of this section for blowdown vent stacks.

(4) Methods for performing as found measurements from manifolded groups of reciprocating compressor sources. If conducting measurements for a manifolded group of compressor sources, you must measure volumetric emissions as specified in paragraphs (p)(4)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) Measure at a single point in the manifold downstream of all compressor inputs and, if practical, prior to comingling with other non-compressor emission sources.

(ii) Determine the volumetric flow at standard conditions from the common stack using one of the methods specified in paragraph (p)(4)(ii)(A) through (E) of this section.

(A) A temporary meter such as a vane anemometer according the methods set forth in § 98.234(b).

(B) Calibrated bagging according to methods set forth in § 98.234(c).

(C) A high volume sampler according to methods set forth § 98.234(d).

(D) An acoustic leak detection device according to methods set forth in § 98.234(a)(5).

(E) You may choose to use any of the methods set forth in § 98.234(a) to screen for emissions. If emissions are detected using the methods set forth in § 98.234(a), then you must use one of the methods specified in paragraph (p)(4)(ii)(A) through (D) of this section. If emissions are not detected using the methods in § 98.234(a), then you may assume that the volumetric emissions are zero. For the purposes of this paragraph, when using any of the methods in § 98.234(a), emissions are detected whenever a leak is detected according to the method.

(5) Methods for continuous measurement from manifolded groups of reciprocating compressor sources. If you elect to conduct continuous volumetric emission measurements for a manifolded group of compressor sources as specified in paragraph (p)(1)(iv) of this section, you must measure volumetric emissions as specified in paragraphs (p)(5)(i) through (iii) of this section.

(i) Measure at a single point in the manifold downstream of all compressor inputs and, if practical, prior to comingling with other non-compressor emission sources.

(ii) Continuously measure the volumetric flow for the manifolded group of compressor sources at standard conditions using a permanent meter according to methods set forth in § 98.234(b).

(iii) If compressor blowdown emissions are included in the metered emissions specified in paragraph (p)(5)(ii) of this section, the compressor blowdown emissions may be included with the reported emissions for the manifolded group of compressor sources and do not need to be calculated separately using the method specified in paragraph (i) of this section for blowdown vent stacks.

(6) Method for calculating volumetric GHG emissions from as found measurements for individual reciprocating compressor sources. For compressor sources measured according to paragraph (p)(1)(i) of this section, you must calculate GHG emissions from the compressor sources as specified in paragraphs (p)(6)(i) through (iv) of this section.

(i) Using Equation W-26 of this section, calculate the annual volumetric GHG emissions for each reciprocating compressor mode-source combination specified in paragraphs (p)(1)(i)(A) through (C) of this section that was measured during the reporting year.

Where:
Es,i,m = Annual volumetric GHGi (either CH4 or CO2) emissions for measured compressor mode-source combination m, at standard conditions, in cubic feet.
MTs,m = Volumetric gas emissions for measured compressor mode-source combination m, in standard cubic feet per hour, measured according to paragraph (p)(2) of this section. If multiple measurements are performed for a given mode-source combination m, use the average of all measurements.
Tm = Total time the compressor is in the mode-source combination m, for which Es,i,m is being calculated in the reporting year, in hours.
GHGi,m = Mole fraction of GHGi in the vent gas for measured compressor mode-source combination m; use the appropriate gas compositions in paragraph (u)(2) of this section.
m = Compressor mode-source combination specified in paragraph (p)(1)(i)(A), (B), or (C) of this section that was measured for the reporting year.

(ii) Using Equation W-27 of this section, calculate the annual volumetric GHG emissions from each reciprocating compressor mode-source combination specified in paragraph (p)(1)(i)(A), (B), and (C) of this section that was not measured during the reporting year.

Where:
Es,i,m = Annual volumetric GHGi (either CH4 or CO2) emissions for unmeasured compressor mode-source combination m, at standard conditions, in cubic feet.
EFs,m = Reporter emission factor for compressor mode-source combination m, in standard cubic feet per hour, as calculated in paragraph (p)(6)(iii) of this section.
Tm = Total time the compressor was in the unmeasured mode-source combination m, for which Es,i,m is being calculated in the reporting year, in hours.
GHGi,m = Mole fraction of GHGi in the vent gas for unmeasured compressor mode-source combination m; use the appropriate gas compositions in paragraph (u)(2) of this section.
m = Compressor mode-source combination specified in paragraph (p)(1)(i)(A), (p)(1)(i)(B), or (p)(1)(i)(C) of this section that was not measured for the reporting year.

(iii) Using Equation W-28 of this section, develop an emission factor for each compressor mode-source combination specified in paragraph (p)(1)(i)(A), (B), and (C) of this section. These emission factors must be calculated annually and used in Equation W-27 of this section to determine volumetric emissions from a reciprocating compressor in the mode-source combinations that were not measured in the reporting year.

Where:
EFs,m = Reporter emission factor to be used in Equation W-27 of this section for compressor mode-source combination m, in standard cubic feet per hour. The reporter emission factor must be based on all compressors measured in compressor mode-source combination m in the current reporting year and the preceding two reporting years.
MTs,m,p = Average volumetric gas emission measurement for compressor mode-source combination m, for compressor p, in standard cubic feet per hour, calculated using all volumetric gas emission measurements (MTs,m in Equation W-26 of this section) for compressor mode-source combination m for compressor p in the current reporting year and the preceding two reporting years.
Countm = Total number of compressors measured in compressor mode-source combination m in the current reporting year and the preceding two reporting years.
m = Compressor mode-source combination specified in paragraph (p)(1)(i)(A), (B), or (C) of this section.

(iv) The reporter emission factor in Equation W-28 of this section may be calculated by using all measurements from a single owner or operator instead of only using measurements from a single facility. If you elect to use this option, the reporter emission factor must be applied to all reporting facilities for the owner or operator.

(7) Method for calculating volumetric GHG emissions from continuous monitoring of individual reciprocating compressor sources. For compressor sources measured according to paragraph (p)(1)(ii) of this section, you must use the continuous volumetric emission measurements taken as specified in paragraph (p)(3) of this section and calculate annual volumetric GHG emissions associated with the compressor source using Equation W-29A of this section.

Where:
Es,i,v = Annual volumetric GHGi (either CH4 or CO2) emissions from compressor source v, at standard conditions, in cubic feet.
Qs,v = Volumetric gas emissions from compressor source v, for reporting year, in standard cubic feet.
GHGi,v = Mole fraction of GHGi in the vent gas for compressor source v; use the appropriate gas compositions in paragraph (u)(2) of this section.

(8) Method for calculating volumetric GHG emissions from as found measurements of manifolded groups of reciprocating compressor sources. For manifolded groups of compressor sources measured according to paragraph (p)(1)(iii) of this section, you must calculate annual GHG emissions using Equation W-29B of this section. If the reciprocating compressors included in the manifolded group of compressor sources share the manifold with centrifugal compressors, you must follow the procedures in either this paragraph (p)(8) or paragraph (o)(8) of this section to calculate emissions from the manifolded group of compressor sources.

Where:
Es,i,g = Annual volumetric GHGi (either CH4 or CO2) emissions for manifolded group of compressor sources g, at standard conditions, in cubic feet.
Tg = Total time the manifolded group of compressor sources g had potential for emissions in the reporting year, in hours. Include all time during which at least one compressor source in the manifolded group of compressor sources g was in a mode-source combination specified in either paragraph (o)(1)(i)(A), (o)(1)(i)(B), (p)(1)(i)(A), (p)(1)(i)(B), or (p)(1)(i)(C) of this section. Default of 8760 hours may be used.
MTs,g,avg = Average volumetric gas emissions of all measurements performed in the reporting year according to paragraph (p)(4) of this section for the manifolded group of compressor sources g, in standard cubic feet per hour.
GHGi,g = Mole fraction of GHGi in the vent gas for manifolded group of compressor sources g; use the appropriate gas compositions in paragraph (u)(2) of this section.

(9) Method for calculating volumetric GHG emissions from continuous monitoring of manifolded group of reciprocating compressor sources. For a manifolded group of compressor sources measured according to paragraph (p)(1)(iv) of this section, you must use the continuous volumetric emission measurements taken as specified in paragraph (p)(5) of this section and calculate annual volumetric GHG emissions associated with each manifolded group of compressor sources using Equation W-29C of this section. If the reciprocating compressors included in the manifolded group of compressor sources share the manifold with centrifugal compressors, you must follow the procedures in either this paragraph (p)(9) or paragraph (o)(9) of this section to calculate emissions from the manifolded group of compressor sources.

Where:
Es,i,g = Annual volumetric GHGi (either CH4 or CO2) emissions from manifolded group of compressor sources g, at standard conditions, in cubic feet.
Qs,g = Volumetric gas emissions from manifolded group of compressor sources g, for reporting year, in standard cubic feet.
GHGi,g = Mole fraction of GHGi in the vent gas for measured manifolded group of compressor sources g; use the appropriate gas compositions in paragraph (u)(2) of this section.

(10) Method for calculating volumetric GHG emissions from reciprocating compressor venting at an onshore petroleum and natural gas production facility or an onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting facility. You must calculate emissions from reciprocating compressor venting at an onshore petroleum and natural gas production facility or an onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting facility using Equation W-29D of this section.

Where:
Es,i = Annual volumetric GHGi (either CH4 or CO2) emissions from reciprocating compressors, at standard conditions, in cubic feet.
Count = Total number of reciprocating compressors.
EFi,s = Emission factor for GHGi. Use 9.48 × 10 3 standard cubic feet per year per compressor for CH4 and 5.27 × 10 2 standard cubic feet per year per compressor for CO2 at 60 °F and 14.7 psia.

(11) Method for converting from volumetric to mass emissions. You must calculate both CH4 and CO2 mass emissions from volumetric emissions using calculations in paragraph (v) of this section.

(12) General requirements for calculating volumetric GHG emissions from reciprocating compressors routed to flares. You must calculate and report emissions from all reciprocating compressor sources that are routed to a flare as specified in paragraphs (p)(12)(i) through (iii) of this section.

(i) Paragraphs (p)(1) through (11) of this section are not required for compressor sources that are routed to a flare.

(ii) If any compressor sources are routed to a flare, calculate the emissions for the flare stack as specified in paragraph (n) of this section and report emissions from the flare as specified in § 98.236(n), without subtracting emissions attributable to compressor sources from the flare.

(iii) Report all applicable activity data for compressors with compressor sources routed to flares as specified in § 98.236(p).

(q) Equipment leak surveys. You must use the methods described in § 98.234(a) to conduct leak detection(s) of equipment leaks from all component types listed in § 98.232(d)(7), (e)(7), (f)(5), (g)(3), (h)(4), and (i)(1). This paragraph (q) applies to component types in streams with gas content greater than 10 percent CH4 plus CO2 by weight. Component types in streams with gas content less than or equal to 10 percent CH4 plus CO2 by weight are exempt from the requirements of this paragraph (q) and do not need to be reported. Tubing systems equal to or less than one half inch diameter are exempt from the requirements of this paragraph (q) and do not need to be reported. For industry segments listed in § 98.230(a)(3) through (8), if equipment leaks are detected for component types listed in this paragraph (q), then you must calculate equipment leak emissions per component type per reporting facility using Equation W-30 of this section. For the industry segment listed in § 98.230(a)(8), the results from Equation W-30 are used to calculate population emission factors on a meter/regulator run basis using Equation W-31 of this section. If you chose to conduct equipment leak surveys at all above grade transmission-distribution transfer stations over multiple years, “n,” according to paragraph (q)(8)(i) of this section, then you must calculate the emissions from all above grade transmission-distribution transfer stations as specified in paragraph (q)(9) of this section.

Where:
Es,p,i = Annual total volumetric emissions of GHGi from specific component type “p” (listed in § 98.232(d)(7), (e)(7), (f)(5), (g)(3), (h)(4), and (i)(1)) in standard (“s”) cubic feet, as specified in paragraphs (q)(1) through (q)(8) of this section.
xp = Total number of specific component type “p” detected as leaking during annual leak surveys.
EFs,p = Leaker emission factor for specific component types listed in Table W-2 through Table W-7 of this subpart.
GHGi = For onshore natural gas processing facilities, concentration of GHGi, CH4 or CO2, in the total hydrocarbon of the feed natural gas; for onshore natural gas transmission compression and underground natural gas storage, GHGi equals 0.975 for CH4 and 1.1 × 10−2 for CO2 ; for LNG storage and LNG import and export equipment, GHGi equals 1 for CH4 and 0 for CO2 ; and for natural gas distribution, GHGi equals 1 for CH4 and 1.1 × 10−2 CO2.
Tp,z = The total time the surveyed component “z”, component type “p”, was assumed to be leaking and operational, in hours. If one leak detection survey is conducted in the calendar year, assume the component was leaking for the entire calendar year, accounting for time the component was not operational (i.e., not operating under pressure) using engineering estimate based on best available data. If multiple leak detection surveys are conducted in the calendar year, assume that the component found to be leaking has been leaking since the previous survey (if not found leaking in the previous survey) or the beginning of the calendar year (if it was found leaking in the previous survey), accounting for time the component was not operational using engineering estimate based on best available data. For the last leak detection survey in the calendar year, assume that all leaking components continue to leak until the end of the calendar year, accounting for time the component was not operational using engineering estimate based on best available data.

(1) You must conduct either one leak detection survey in a calendar year or multiple complete leak detection surveys in a calendar year. The leak detection surveys selected must be conducted during the calendar year.

(2) Calculate both CO2 and CH4 mass emissions using calculations in paragraph (v) of this section.

(3) Onshore natural gas processing facilities must use the appropriate default total hydrocarbon leaker emission factors for compressor components in gas service and non-compressor components in gas service listed in Table W-2 of this subpart.

(4) Onshore natural gas transmission compression facilities must use the appropriate default total hydrocarbon leaker emission factors for compressor components in gas service and non-compressor components in gas service listed in Table W-3 of this subpart.

(5) Underground natural gas storage facilities must use the appropriate default total hydrocarbon leaker emission factors for storage stations in gas service listed in Table W-4 of this subpart.

(6) LNG storage facilities must use the appropriate default methane leaker emission factors for LNG storage components in gas service listed in Table W-5 of this subpart.

(7) LNG import and export facilities must use the appropriate default methane leaker emission factors for LNG terminals components in LNG service listed in Table W-6 of this subpart.

(8) Natural gas distribution facilities must use Equation W-30 of this section and the default methane leaker emission factors for transmission-distribution transfer station components in gas service listed in Table W-7 of this subpart to calculate component emissions from annual equipment leak surveys conducted at above grade transmission-distribution transfer stations. Natural gas distribution facilities are required to perform equipment leak surveys only at above grade stations that qualify as transmission-distribution transfer stations. Below grade transmission-distribution transfer stations and all metering-regulating stations that do not meet the definition of transmission-distribution transfer stations are not required to perform equipment leak surveys under this section.

(i) Natural gas distribution facilities may choose to conduct equipment leak surveys at all above grade transmission-distribution transfer stations over multiple years “n”, not exceeding a five year period to cover all above grade transmission-distribution transfer stations. If the facility chooses to use the multiple year option, then the number of transmission-distribution transfer stations that are monitored in each year should be approximately equal across all years in the cycle.

(ii) Use Equation W-31 of this section to determine the meter/regulator run population emission factors for each GHGi. As additional survey data become available, you must recalculate the meter/regulator run population emission factors for each GHGi annually according to paragraph (q)(8)(iii) of this section.

Where:
EFs,MR,i = Meter/regulator run population emission factor for GHGi based on all surveyed above grade transmission-distribution transfer stations over “n” years, in standard cubic feet of GHGi per operational hour of all meter/regulator runs.
Es,p,i,y = Annual total volumetric emissions at standard conditions of GHGi from component type “p” during year “y” in standard (“s”) cubic feet, as calculated using Equation W-30 of this section.
p = Seven component types listed in Table W-7 of this subpart for transmission-distribution transfer stations.
Tw,y = The total time the surveyed meter/regulator run “w” was operational, in hours during survey year “y” using engineering estimate based on best available data.
CountMR,y = Count of meter/regulator runs surveyed at above grade transmission-distribution transfer stations in year “y”.
y = Year of data included in emission factor “EFs,MR,i” according to paragraph (q)(8)(iii) of this section.
n = Number of years of data, according to paragraph (q)(8)(i) of this section, whose results are used to calculate emission factor “EFs,MR,i” according to paragraph (q)(8)(iii) of this section.

(iii) The emission factor “EFs,MR,i”, based on annual equipment leak surveys at above grade transmission-distribution transfer stations, must be calculated annually. If you chose to conduct equipment leak surveys at all above grade transmission-distribution transfer stations over multiple years, “n,” according to paragraph (q)(8)(i) of this section and you have submitted a smaller number of annual reports than the duration of the selected cycle period of 5 years or less, then all available data from the current year and previous years must be used in the calculation of the emission factor “EFs,MR,i” from Equation W-31 of this section. After the first survey cycle of “n” years is completed and beginning in calendar year (n 1), the survey will continue on a rolling basis by including the survey results from the current calendar year “y” and survey results from all previous (n-1) calendar years, such that each annual calculation of the emission factor “EFs,MR,i” from Equation W-31 of this section is based on survey results from “n” years. Upon completion of a cycle, you may elect to change the number of years in the next cycle period (to be 5 years or less). If the number of years in the new cycle is greater than the number of years in the previous cycle, calculate “EFs,MR,i” from Equation W-31 of this section in each year of the new cycle using the survey results from the current calendar year and the survey results from the preceding number years that is equal to the number of years in the previous cycle period. If the number of years, “nnew”, in the new cycle is smaller than the number of years in the previous cycle, “n”, calculate “EFs,MR,i” from Equation W-31 of this section in each year of the new cycle using the survey results from the current calendar year and survey results from all previous (nnew−1) calendar years.

(9) If you chose to conduct equipment leak surveys at all above grade transmission-distribution transfer stations over multiple years, “n,” according to paragraph (q)(8)(i) of this section, you must use the meter/regulator run population emission factors calculated using Equation W-31 of this section and the total count of all meter/regulator runs at above grade transmission-distribution transfer stations to calculate emissions from all above grade transmission-distribution transfer stations using Equation W-32B in paragraph (r) of this section.

(r) Equipment leaks by population count. This paragraph (r) applies to emissions sources listed in § 98.232 (c)(21), (f)(5), (g)(3), (h)(4), (i)(2), (i)(3), (i)(4), (i)(5), (i)(6), (j)(10), and (j)(11) on streams with gas content greater than 10 percent CH4 plus CO2 by weight. Emissions sources in streams with gas content less than or equal to 10 percent CH4 plus CO2 by weight are exempt from the requirements of this paragraph (r) and do not need to be reported. Tubing systems equal to or less than one half inch diameter are exempt from the requirements of paragraph (r) of this section and do not need to be reported. You must calculate emissions from all emission sources listed in this paragraph using Equation W-32A of this section, except for natural gas distribution facility emission sources listed in § 98.232(i)(3). Natural gas distribution facility emission sources listed in § 98.232(i)(3) must calculate emissions using Equation W-32B of this section and according to paragraph (r)(6)(ii) of this section.

Where:
Es,e,i = Annual volumetric emissions of GHGi from the emission source type in standard cubic feet. The emission source type may be a component (e.g. connector, open-ended line, etc.), below grade metering-regulating station, below grade transmission-distribution transfer station, distribution main, distribution service, or gathering pipeline.
Es,MR,i = Annual volumetric emissions of GHGi from all meter/regulator runs at above grade metering regulating stations that are not above grade transmission-distribution transfer stations or, when used to calculate emissions according to paragraph (q)(9) of this section, the annual volumetric emissions of GHGi from all meter/regulator runs at above grade transmission-distribution transfer stations, in standard cubic feet.
Counte = Total number of the emission source type at the facility. For onshore petroleum and natural gas production facilities and onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting facilities, average component counts are provided by major equipment piece in Tables W-1B and Table W-1C of this subpart. Use average component counts as appropriate for operations in Eastern and Western U.S., according to Table W-1D of this subpart. Onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting facilities must also count the miles of gathering pipelines by material type (protected steel, unprotected steel, plastic, or cast iron). Underground natural gas storage facilities must count each component listed in Table W-4 of this subpart. LNG storage facilities must count the number of vapor recovery compressors. LNG import and export facilities must count the number of vapor recovery compressors. Natural gas distribution facilities must count: (1) The number of distribution services by material type; (2) miles of distribution mains by material type; and (3) number of below grade metering-regulating stations, by pressure type; as listed in Table W-7 of this subpart.
CountMR = Total number of meter/regulator runs at above grade metering-regulating stations that are not above grade transmission-distribution transfer stations or, when used to calculate emissions according to paragraph (q)(9) of this section, the total number of meter/regulator runs at above grade transmission-distribution transfer stations.
EFs,e = Population emission factor for the specific emission source type, as listed in Tables W-1A and W-4 through W-7 of this subpart. Use appropriate population emission factor for operations in Eastern and Western U.S., according to Table W-1D of this subpart.
EFs,MR,i = Meter/regulator run population emission factor for GHGi based on all surveyed above grade transmission-distribution transfer stations over “n” years, in standard cubic feet of GHGi per operational hour of all meter/regulator runs, as determined in Equation W-31 of this section.
GHGi = For onshore petroleum and natural gas production facilities and onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting facilities, concentration of GHGi, CH4, or CO2, in produced natural gas as defined in paragraph (u)(2) of this section; for onshore natural gas transmission compression and underground natural gas storage, GHGi equals 0.975 for CH4 and 1.1 × 10−2 for CO2; for LNG storage and LNG import and export equipment, GHGi equals 1 for CH4 and 0 for CO2; and for natural gas distribution, GHGi equals 1 for CH4 and 1.1 × 10−2 CO2.
Te = Average estimated time that each emission source type associated with the equipment leak emission was operational in the calendar year, in hours, using engineering estimate based on best available data.
Tw,avg = Average estimated time that each meter/regulator run was operational in the calendar year, in hours per meter/regulator run, using engineering estimate based on best available data.

(1) Calculate both CH4 and CO2 mass emissions from volumetric emissions using calculations in paragraph (v) of this section.

(2) Onshore petroleum and natural gas production facilities and onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting facilities must use the appropriate default whole gas population emission factors listed in Table W-1A of this subpart. Major equipment and components associated with gas wells and onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting systems are considered gas service components in reference to Table W-1A of this subpart and major natural gas equipment in reference to Table W-1B of this subpart. Major equipment and components associated with crude oil wells are considered crude service components in reference to Table W-1A of this subpart and major crude oil equipment in reference to Table W-1C of this subpart. Where facilities conduct EOR operations the emissions factor listed in Table W-1A of this subpart shall be used to estimate all streams of gases, including recycle CO2 stream. The component count can be determined using either of the calculation methods described in this paragraph (r)(2), except for miles of gathering pipelines by material type, which must be determined using Component Count Method 2 in paragraph (r)(2)(ii) of this section. The same calculation method must be used for the entire calendar year.

(i) Component Count Method 1. For all onshore petroleum and natural gas production operations and onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting operations in the facility perform the following activities:

(A) Count all major equipment listed in Table W-1B and Table W-1C of this subpart. For meters/piping, use one meters/piping per well-pad for onshore petroleum and natural gas production operations and the number of meters in the facility for onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting operations.

(B) Multiply major equipment counts by the average component counts listed in Table W-1B of this subpart for onshore natural gas production and onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting; and Table W-1C of this subpart for onshore oil production. Use the appropriate factor in Table W-1A of this subpart for operations in Eastern and Western U.S. according to the mapping in Table W-1D of this subpart.

(ii) Component Count Method 2. Count each component individually for the facility. Use the appropriate factor in Table W-1A of this subpart for operations in Eastern and Western U.S. according to the mapping in Table W-1D of this subpart.

(3) Underground natural gas storage facilities must use the appropriate default total hydrocarbon population emission factors for storage wellheads in gas service listed in Table W-4 of this subpart.

(4) LNG storage facilities must use the appropriate default methane population emission factor for LNG storage compressors in gas service listed in Table W-5 of this subpart.

(5) LNG import and export facilities must use the appropriate default methane population emission factor for LNG terminal compressors in gas service listed in Table W-6 of this subpart.

(6) Natural gas distribution facilities must use the appropriate methane emission factors as described in paragraphs (r)(6)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) Below grade metering-regulating stations, distribution mains, and distribution services must use the appropriate default methane population emission factors listed in Table W-7 of this subpart. Below grade transmission-distribution transfer stations must use the emission factor for below grade metering-regulating stations.

(ii) Above grade metering-regulating stations that are not above grade transmission-distribution transfer stations must use the meter/regulator run population emission factor calculated in Equation W-31. Natural gas distribution facilities that do not have above grade transmission-distribution transfer stations are not required to calculate emissions for above grade metering-regulating stations and are not required to report GHG emissions in § 98.236(r)(2)(v).

(s) Offshore petroleum and natural gas production facilities. Report CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions for offshore petroleum and natural gas production from all equipment leaks, vented emission, and flare emission source types as identified in the data collection and emissions estimation study conducted by BOEMRE in compliance with 30 CFR 250.302 through 304.

(1) Offshore production facilities under BOEMRE jurisdiction shall report the same annual emissions as calculated and reported by BOEMRE in data collection and emissions estimation study published by BOEMRE referenced in 30 CFR 250.302 through 304 (GOADS).

(i) For any calendar year that does not overlap with the most recent BOEMRE emissions study publication year, report the most recent BOEMRE reported emissions data published by BOEMRE referenced in 30 CFR 250.302 through 304 (GOADS). Adjust emissions based on the operating time for the facility relative to the operating time in the most recent BOEMRE published study.

(ii) [Reserved]

(2) Offshore production facilities that are not under BOEMRE jurisdiction must use the most recent monitoring methods and calculation methods published by BOEMRE referenced in 30 CFR 250.302 through 250.304 to calculate and report annual emissions (GOADS).

(i) For any calendar year that does not overlap with the most recent BOEMRE emissions study publication, you may report the most recently reported emissions data submitted to demonstrate compliance with this subpart of part 98, with emissions adjusted based on the operating time for the facility relative to operating time in the previous reporting period.

(ii) [Reserved]

(3) If BOEMRE discontinues or delays their data collection effort by more than 4 years, then offshore reporters shall once in every 4 years use the most recent BOEMRE data collection and emissions estimation methods to estimate emissions. These emission estimates would be used to report emissions from the facility sources as required in paragraph (s)(1)(i) of this section.

(4) For either first or subsequent year reporting, offshore facilities either within or outside of BOEMRE jurisdiction that were not covered in the previous BOEMRE data collection cycle must use the most recent BOEMRE data collection and emissions estimation methods published by BOEMRE referenced in 30 CFR 250.302 through 250.304 to calculate and report emissions.

(t) GHG volumetric emissions using actual conditions. If equation parameters in § 98.233 are already determined at standard conditions as provided in the introductory text in § 98.233, which results in volumetric emissions at standard conditions, then this paragraph does not apply. Calculate volumetric emissions at standard conditions as specified in paragraphs (t)(1) or (2) of this section, with actual pressure and temperature determined by engineering estimates based on best available data unless otherwise specified.

(1) Calculate natural gas volumetric emissions at standard conditions using actual natural gas emission temperature and pressure, and Equation W-33 of this section for conversions of Ea,n or conversions of FRa (whether sub-sonic or sonic).

Where:
Es,n = Natural gas volumetric emissions at standard temperature and pressure (STP) conditions in cubic feet, except Es,n equals FRs,p for each well p when calculating either subsonic or sonic flowrates under § 98.233(g).
Ea,n = Natural gas volumetric emissions at actual conditions in cubic feet, except Ea,n equals FRa,p for each well p when calculating either subsonic or sonic flowrates under § 98.233(g).
Ts = Temperature at standard conditions (60 °F).
Ta = Temperature at actual emission conditions ( °F).
Ps = Absolute pressure at standard conditions (14.7 psia).
Pa = Absolute pressure at actual conditions (psia).
Za = Compressibility factor at actual conditions for natural gas. You may use either a default compressibility factor of 1, or a site-specific compressibility factor based on actual temperature and pressure conditions.

(2) Calculate GHG volumetric emissions at standard conditions using actual GHG emissions temperature and pressure, and Equation W-34 of this section.

Where:
Es,i = GHG i volumetric emissions at standard temperature and pressure (STP) conditions in cubic feet.
Ea,i = GHG i volumetric emissions at actual conditions in cubic feet.
Ts = Temperature at standard conditions (60 °F).
Ta = Temperature at actual emission conditions ( °F).
Ps = Absolute pressure at standard conditions (14.7 psia).
Pa = Absolute pressure at actual conditions (psia).
Za = Compressibility factor at actual conditions for GHG i.

You may use either a default compressibility factor of 1, or a site-specific compressibility factor based on actual temperature and pressure conditions.

(3) Reporters using 68 °F for standard temperature may use the ratio 519.67/527.67 to convert volumetric emissions from 68 °F to 60 °F.

(u) GHG volumetric emissions at standard conditions. Calculate GHG volumetric emissions at standard conditions as specified in paragraphs (u)(1) and (2) of this section.

(1) Estimate CH4 and CO2 emissions from natural gas emissions using Equation W-35 of this section.

where:
Es,i = GHG i (either CH4 or CO2) volumetric emissions at standard conditions in cubic feet.
Es,n = Natural gas volumetric emissions at standard conditions in cubic feet.
Mi = Mole fraction of GHG i in the natural gas.

(2) For Equation W-35 of this section, the mole fraction, Mi, shall be the annual average mole fraction for each sub-basin category or facility, as specified in paragraphs (u)(2)(i) through (vii) of this section.

(i) GHG mole fraction in produced natural gas for onshore petroleum and natural gas production facilities and onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting facilities. If you have a continuous gas composition analyzer for produced natural gas, you must use an annual average of these values for determining the mole fraction. If you do not have a continuous gas composition analyzer, then you must use an annual average gas composition based on your most recent available analysis of the sub-basin category or facility, as applicable to the emission source.

(ii) GHG mole fraction in feed natural gas for all emissions sources upstream of the de-methanizer or dew point control and GHG mole fraction in facility specific residue gas to transmission pipeline systems for all emissions sources downstream of the de-methanizer overhead or dew point control for onshore natural gas processing facilities. For onshore natural gas processing plants that solely fractionate a liquid stream, use the GHG mole percent in feed natural gas liquid for all streams. If you have a continuous gas composition analyzer on feed natural gas, you must use these values for determining the mole fraction. If you do not have a continuous gas composition analyzer, then annual samples must be taken according to methods set forth in § 98.234(b).

(iii) GHG mole fraction in transmission pipeline natural gas that passes through the facility for the onshore natural gas transmission compression industry segment and the onshore natural gas transmission pipeline industry segment. You may use either a default 95 percent methane and 1 percent carbon dioxide fraction for GHG mole fraction in natural gas or site specific engineering estimates based on best available data.

(iv) GHG mole fraction in natural gas stored in the underground natural gas storage industry segment. You may use either a default 95 percent methane and 1 percent carbon dioxide fraction for GHG mole fraction in natural gas or site specific engineering estimates based on best available data.

(v) GHG mole fraction in natural gas stored in the LNG storage industry segment. You may use either a default 95 percent methane and 1 percent carbon dioxide fraction for GHG mole fraction in natural gas or site specific engineering estimates based on best available data.

(vi) GHG mole fraction in natural gas stored in the LNG import and export industry segment. For export facilities that receive gas from transmission pipelines, you may use either a default 95 percent methane and 1 percent carbon dioxide fraction for GHG mole fraction in natural gas or site specific engineering estimates based on best available data.

(vii) GHG mole fraction in local distribution pipeline natural gas that passes through the facility for natural gas distribution facilities. You may use either a default 95 percent methane and 1 percent carbon dioxide fraction for GHG mole fraction in natural gas or site specific engineering estimates based on best available data.

(v) GHG mass emissions. Calculate GHG mass emissions in metric tons by converting the GHG volumetric emissions at standard conditions into mass emissions using Equation W-36 of this section.

Where:
Massi = GHGi (either CH4, CO2, or N2O) mass emissions in metric tons.
Es,i = GHGi (either CH4, CO2, or N2O) volumetric emissions at standard conditions, in cubic feet.

ρi = Density of GHGi. Use 0.0526 kg/ft 3 for CO2 and N2O, and 0.0192 kg/ft 3 for CH4 at 60 °F and 14.7 psia.

(w) EOR injection pump blowdown. Calculate CO2 pump blowdown emissions from each EOR injection pump system as follows:

(1) Calculate the total injection pump system volume in cubic feet (including pipelines, manifolds and vessels) between isolation valves.

(2) Retain logs of the number of blowdowns per calendar year.

(3) Calculate the total annual CO2 emissions from each EOR injection pump system using Equation W-37 of this section:

View or download PDF

Where:
MassCO2 = Annual EOR injection pump system emissions in metric tons from blowdowns.
N = Number of blowdowns for the EOR injection pump system in the calendar year.
Vv = Total volume in cubic feet of EOR injection pump system chambers (including pipelines, manifolds and vessels) between isolation valves.
Rc = Density of critical phase EOR injection gas in kg/ft 3. You may use an appropriate standard method published by a consensus-based standards organization if such a method exists or you may use an industry standard practice to determine density of super critical EOR injection gas.
GHGCO2 = Mass fraction of CO2 in critical phase injection gas.
1 × 10−3 = Conversion factor from kilograms to metric tons.

(x) EOR hydrocarbon liquids dissolved CO 2. Calculate CO2 emissions downstream of the storage tank from dissolved CO2 in hydrocarbon liquids produced through EOR operations as follows:

(1) Determine the amount of CO2 retained in hydrocarbon liquids after flashing in tankage at STP conditions. Annual samples of hydrocarbon liquids downstream of the storage tank must be taken according to methods set forth in § 98.234(b) to determine retention of CO2 in hydrocarbon liquids immediately downstream of the storage tank. Use the annual analysis for the calendar year.

(2) Estimate emissions using Equation W-38 of this section.

View or download PDF

Where:
MassCO2 = Annual CO2 emissions from CO2 retained in hydrocarbon liquids produced through EOR operations beyond tankage, in metric tons.

Shl = Amount of CO2 retained in hydrocarbon liquids downstream of the storage tank, in metric tons per barrel, under standard conditions.

Vhl = Total volume of hydrocarbon liquids produced at the EOR operations in barrels in the calendar year.

(y) [Reserved]

(z) Onshore petroleum and natural gas production, onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting, and natural gas distribution combustion emissions. Calculate CO2, CH4, and N2O combustion-related emissions from stationary or portable equipment, except as specified in paragraphs (z)(3) and (4) of this section, as follows:

(1) If a fuel combusted in the stationary or portable equipment is listed in Table C-1 of subpart C of this part, or is a blend containing one or more fuels listed in Table C-1, calculate emissions according to paragraph (z)(1)(i) of this section. If the fuel combusted is natural gas and is of pipeline quality specification and has a minimum high heat value of 950 Btu per standard cubic foot, use the calculation method described in paragraph (z)(1)(i) of this section and you may use the emission factor provided for natural gas as listed in Table C-1. If the fuel is natural gas, and is not pipeline quality or has a high heat value of less than 950 Btu per standard cubic feet, calculate emissions according to paragraph (z)(2) of this section. If the fuel is field gas, process vent gas, or a blend containing field gas or process vent gas, calculate emissions according to paragraph (z)(2) of this section.

(i) For fuels listed in Table C-1 or a blend containing one or more fuels listed in Table C-1, calculate CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions according to any Tier listed in subpart C of this part. You must follow all applicable calculation requirements for that tier listed in § 98.33, any monitoring or QA/QC requirements listed for that tier in § 98.34, any missing data procedures specified in § 98.35, and any recordkeeping requirements specified in § 98.37.

(ii) Emissions from fuel combusted in stationary or portable equipment at onshore petroleum and natural gas production facilities, at onshore petroleum and natural gas gathering and boosting facilities, and at natural gas distribution facilities will be reported according to the requirements specified in § 98.236(z) and not according to the reporting requirements specified in subpart C of this part.

(2) For fuel combustion units that combust field gas, process vent gas, a blend containing field gas or process vent gas, or natural gas that is not of pipeline quality or that has a high heat value of less than 950 Btu per standard cubic feet, calculate combustion emissions as follows:

(i) You may use company records to determine the volume of fuel combusted in the unit during the reporting year.

(ii) If you have a continuous gas composition analyzer on fuel to the combustion unit, you must use these compositions for determining the concentration of gas hydrocarbon constituent in the flow of gas to the unit. If you do not have a continuous gas composition analyzer on gas to the combustion unit, you must use the appropriate gas compositions for each stream of hydrocarbons going to the combustion unit as specified in the applicable paragraph in (u)(2) of this section.

(iii) Calculate GHG volumetric emissions at actual conditions using Equations W-39A and W-39B of this section:

View or download PDF

Where:
Ea,CO2 = Contribution of annual CO2 emissions from portable or stationary fuel combustion sources in cubic feet, under actual conditions.
Va = Volume of gas sent to combustion unit in actual cubic feet, during the year.
YCO2 = Mole fraction of CO2 constituent in gas sent to combustion unit.
Ea,CH4 = Contribution of annual CH4 emissions from portable or stationary fuel combustion sources in cubic feet, under actual conditions.
η = Fraction of gas combusted for portable and stationary equipment determined using engineering estimation. For internal combustion devices, a default of 0.995 can be used.
Yj = Mole fraction of gas hydrocarbon constituents j (such as methane, ethane, propane, butane, and pentanes plus) in gas sent to combustion unit.
Rj = Number of carbon atoms in the gas hydrocarbon constituent j; 1 for methane, 2 for ethane, 3 for propane, 4 for butane, and 5 for pentanes plus, in gas sent to combustion unit.
YCH4 = Mole fraction of methane constituent in gas sent to combustion unit.

(iv) Calculate GHG volumetric emissions at standard conditions using calculations in paragraph (t) of this section.

(v) Calculate both combustion-related CH4 and CO2 mass emissions from volumetric CH4 and CO2 emissions using calculation in paragraph (v) of this section.

(vi) Calculate N2O mass emissions using Equation W-40 of this section.

Where:
MassN2O = Annual N2O emissions from the combustion of a particular type of fuel (metric tons).
Fuel = Annual mass or volume of the fuel combusted (mass or volume per year, choose appropriately to be consistent with the units of HHV).
HHV = Higher heating value of fuel, mmBtu/unit of fuel (in units consistent with the fuel quantity combusted). For field gas or process vent gas, you may use either a default higher heating value of 1.235 × 10−3 mmBtu/scf or a site-specific higher heating value. For natural gas that is not of pipeline quality or that has a high heat value less than 950 Btu per standard cubic foot, use a site-specific higher heating value.
EF = Use 1.0 × 10−4 kg N2O/mmBtu.
1 × 10−3 = Conversion factor from kilograms to metric tons.

(3) External fuel combustion sources with a rated heat capacity equal to or less than 5 mmBtu/hr do not need to report combustion emissions or include these emissions for threshold determination in § 98.231(a). You must report the type and number of each external fuel combustion unit.

(4) Internal fuel combustion sources, not compressor-drivers, with a rated heat capacity equal to or less than 1 mmBtu/hr (or the equivalent of 130 horsepower), do not need to report combustion emissions or include these emissions for threshold determination in § 98.231(a). You must report the type and number of each internal fuel combustion unit.

[75 FR 74488, Nov. 30, 2010, as amended at 76 FR 80575, Dec. 23, 2011; 77 FR 51490, Aug. 24, 2012; 78 FR 71960, Nov. 29, 2013; 79 FR 70408, Nov. 25, 2014; 80 FR 64284, Oct. 22, 2015]

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code

Title 40 published on 2015-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR Part 98 after this date.

  • 2015-10-23; vol. 80 # 205 - Friday, October 23, 2015
    1. 80 FR 64510 - Standards of Performance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions From New, Modified, and Reconstructed Stationary Sources: Electric Utility Generating Units
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
      Final rule.
      This final rule is effective on October 23, 2015. The incorporation by reference of certain publications listed in the rule is approved by the Director of the Federal Register as of October 23, 2015.
      40 CFR Parts 60, 70, 71, and 98