40 CFR 98.238 - Definitions.

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§ 98.238 Definitions.
Except as provided in this section, all terms used in this subpart have the same meaning given in the Clean Air Act and subpart A of this part.
Acid gas means hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and/or carbon dioxide (CO2) contaminants that are separated from sour natural gas by an acid gas removal unit.
Acid gas removal unit (AGR) means a process unit that separates hydrogen sulfide and/or carbon dioxide from sour natural gas using liquid or solid absorbents or membrane separators.
Acid gas removal vent emissions mean the acid gas separated from the acid gas absorbing medium (e.g., an amine solution) and released with methane and other light hydrocarbons to the atmosphere or a flare.
Associated with a single well-pad means associated with the hydrocarbon stream as produced from one or more wells located on that single well-pad. The association ends where the stream from a single well-pad is combined with streams from one or more additional single well-pads, where the point of combination is located off that single well-pad. Onshore production storage tanks on or associated with a single well-pad are considered a part of the onshore production facility.
Basin means geologic provinces as defined by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) Geologic Note: AAPG-CSD Geologic Provinces Code Map: AAPG Bulletin, Prepared by Richard F. Meyer, Laure G. Wallace, and Fred J. Wagner, Jr., Volume 75, Number 10 (October 1991) (incorporated by reference, see § 98.7) and the Alaska Geological Province Boundary Map, Compiled by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Committee on Statistics of Drilling in Cooperation with the USGS, 1978 (incorporated by reference, see § 98.7).
Component means each metal to metal joint or seal of non-welded connection separated by a compression gasket, screwed thread (with or without thread sealing compound), metal to metal compression, or fluid barrier through which natural gas or liquid can escape to the atmosphere.
Compressor means any machine for raising the pressure of a natural gas or CO2 by drawing in low pressure natural gas or CO2 and discharging significantly higher pressure natural gas or CO2.
Condensate means hydrocarbon and other liquid, including both water and hydrocarbon liquids, separated from natural gas that condenses due to changes in the temperature, pressure, or both, and remains liquid at storage conditions.
Distribution pipeline means a pipeline that is designated as such by the Pipeline and Hazardous Material Safety Administration (PHMSA) 49 CFR 192.3.
Engineering estimation, for purposes of subpart W, means an estimate of emissions based on engineering principles applied to measured and/or approximated physical parameters such as dimensions of containment, actual pressures, actual temperatures, and compositions.
Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) means the use of certain methods such as water flooding or gas injection into existing wells to increase the recovery of crude oil from a reservoir. In the context of this subpart, EOR applies to injection of critical phase or immiscible carbon dioxide into a crude oil reservoir to enhance the recovery of oil.
Equipment leak means those emissions which could not reasonably pass through a stack, chimney, vent, or other functionally-equivalent opening.
Equipment leak detection means the process of identifying emissions from equipment, components, and other point sources.
External combustion means fired combustion in which the flame and products of combustion are separated from contact with the process fluid to which the energy is delivered. Process fluids may be air, hot water, or hydrocarbons. External combustion equipment may include fired heaters, industrial boilers, and commercial and domestic combustion units.
Facility with respect to natural gas distribution for purposes of reporting under this subpart and for the corresponding subpart A requirements means the collection of all distribution pipelines and metering-regulating stations that are operated by a Local Distribution Company (LDC) within a single state that is regulated as a separate operating company by a public utility commission or that are operated as an independent municipally-owned distribution system.
Facility with respect to natural gas distribution for purposes of reporting under this subpart and for the corresponding subpart A requirements means the collection of all distribution pipelines and metering-regulating stations that are operated by a Local Distribution Company (LDC) within a single state that is regulated as a separate operating company by a public utility commission or that are operated as an independent municipally-owned distribution system.
Facility with respect to onshore petroleum and natural gas production for purposes of reporting under this subpart and for the corresponding subpart A requirements means all petroleum or natural gas equipment on a single well-pad or associated with a single well-pad and CO2 EOR operations that are under common ownership or common control including leased, rented, or contracted activities by an onshore petroleum and natural gas production owner or operator and that are located in a single hydrocarbon basin as defined in § 98.238. Where a person or entity owns or operates more than one well in a basin, then all onshore petroleum and natural gas production equipment associated with all wells that the person or entity owns or operates in the basin would be considered one facility.
Farm Taps are pressure regulation stations that deliver gas directly from transmission pipelines to generally rural customers. In some cases a nearby LDC may handle the billing of the gas to the customer(s).
Field means oil and gas fields identified in the United States as defined by the Energy Information Administration Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 2008, DOE/EIA 0370(08) (incorporated by reference, see § 98.7).
Flare, for the purposes of subpart W, means a combustion device, whether at ground level or elevated, that uses an open or closed flame to combust waste gases without energy recovery.
Flare combustion efficiency means the fraction of hydrocarbon gas, on a volume or mole basis, that is combusted at the flare burner tip.
Flare stack emissions means CO2 and N2O from partial combustion of hydrocarbon gas sent to a flare plus CH4 emissions resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon gas in flares.
Forced extraction of natural gas liquids means removal of ethane or higher carbon number hydrocarbons existing in the vapor phase in natural gas, by removing ethane or heavier hydrocarbons derived from natural gas into natural gas liquids by means of a forced extraction process. Forced extraction processes include but are not limited to refrigeration, absorption (lean oil), cryogenic expander, and combinations of these processes. Forced extraction does not include in and of itself; natural gas dehydration, or the collection or gravity separation of water or hydrocarbon liquids from natural gas at ambient temperature or heated above ambient temperatures, or the condensation of water or hydrocarbon liquids through passive reduction in pressure or temperature, or portable dewpoint suppression skids.
Horizontal well means a well bore that has a planned deviation from primarily vertical to a primarily horizontal inclination or declination tracking in parallel with and through the target formation.
Internal combustion means the combustion of a fuel that occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and -pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to a component of the engine, such as pistons, turbine blades, or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, generating useful mechanical energy. Internal combustion equipment may include gasoline and diesel industrial engines, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines, and gas turbines.
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) means natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure.
LNG boil-off gas means natural gas in the gaseous phase that vents from LNG storage tanks due to ambient heat leakage through the tank insulation and heat energy dissipated in the LNG by internal pumps.
Meter/regulator run means a series of components used in regulating pressure or metering natural gas flow or both.
Metering-regulating station means a station that meters the flowrate, regulates the pressure, or both, of natural gas in a natural gas distribution facility. This does not include customer meters, customer regulators, or farm taps.
Natural gas means a naturally occurring mixture or process derivative of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gases found in geologic formations beneath the earth's surface, of which its constituents include, but are not limited to, methane, heavier hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide. Natural gas may be field quality, pipeline quality, or process gas.
Offshore means seaward of the terrestrial borders of the United States, including waters subject to the ebb and flow of the tide, as well as adjacent bays, lakes or other normally standing waters, and extending to the outer boundaries of the jurisdiction and control of the United States under the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act.
Onshore petroleum and natural gas production owner or operator means the person or entity who holds the permit to operate petroleum and natural gas wells on the drilling permit or an operating permit where no drilling permit is issued, which operates an onshore petroleum and/or natural gas production facility (as described in § 98.230(a)(2). Where petroleum and natural gas wells operate without a drilling or operating permit, the person or entity that pays the State or Federal business income taxes is considered the owner or operator.
Operating pressure means the containment pressure that characterizes the normal state of gas or liquid inside a particular process, pipeline, vessel or tank.
Pressure groups as applicable to each sub-basin are defined as follows: Less than or equal to 25 psig; greater than 25 psig and less than or equal to 60 psig; greater than 60 psig and less than or equal to 110 psig; greater than 110 psig and less than or equal to 200 psig; and greater than 200 psig. The pressure in the context of pressure groups is either the well shut-in pressure; well casing pressure; or you may use the casing-to-tubing pressure of one well from the same sub-basin multiplied by the tubing pressure for each well in the sub-basin.
Pump means a device used to raise pressure, drive, or increase flow of liquid streams in closed or open conduits.
Pump seals means any seal on a pump drive shaft used to keep methane and/or carbon dioxide containing light liquids from escaping the inside of a pump case to the atmosphere.
Pump seal emissions means hydrocarbon gas released from the seal face between the pump internal chamber and the atmosphere.
Reservoir means a porous and permeable underground natural formation containing significant quantities of hydrocarbon liquids and/or gases.
Residue Gas and Residue Gas Compression mean, respectively, production lease natural gas from which gas liquid products and, in some cases, non-hydrocarbon components have been extracted such that it meets the specifications set by a pipeline transmission company, and/or a distribution company; and the compressors operated by the processing facility, whether inside the processing facility boundary fence or outside the fence-line, that deliver the residue gas from the processing facility to a transmission pipeline.
Separator means a vessel in which streams of multiple phases are gravity separated into individual streams of single phase.
Sub-basin category, for onshore natural gas production, means a subdivision of a basin into the unique combination of wells with the surface coordinates within the boundaries of an individual county and subsurface completion in one or more of each of the following five formation types: Oil, high permeability gas, shale gas, coal seam, or other tight reservoir rock. The distinction between high permeability gas and tight gas reservoirs shall be designated as follows: High permeability gas reservoirs with >0.1 millidarcy permeability, and tight gas reservoirs with ≤0.1 millidarcy permeability. Permeability for a reservoir type shall be determined by engineering estimate. Wells that produce from high permeability gas, shale gas, coal seam, or other tight reservoir rock are considered gas wells; gas wells producing from more than one of these formation types shall be classified into only one type based on the formation with the most contribution to production as determined by engineering knowledge. All wells that produce hydrocarbon liquids and do not meet the definition of a gas well in this sub-basin category definition are considered to be in the oil formation. All emission sources that handle condensate from gas wells in high permeability gas, shale gas, or tight reservoir rock formations are considered to be in the formation that the gas well belongs to and not in the oil formation.
Transmission-distribution (T-D) transfer station means a metering-regulating station where a local distribution company takes part or all of the natural gas from a transmission pipeline and puts it into a distribution pipeline.
Transmission pipeline means a Federal Energy Regulatory Commission rate-regulated Interstate pipeline, a state rate-regulated Intrastate pipeline, or a pipeline that falls under the “Hinshaw Exemption” as referenced in section 1(c) of the Natural Gas Act, 15 U.S.C. 717-717 (w)(1994).
Tubing diameter groups are defined as follows: Outer diameter less than or equal to 1 inch; outer diameter greater than 1 inch and less than 2.375 inch; and outer diameter greater than or equal to 2.375 inch.
Tubing systems means piping equal to or less than one half inch diameter as per nominal pipe size.
Turbine meter means a flow meter in which a gas or liquid flow rate through the calibrated tube spins a turbine from which the spin rate is detected and calibrated to measure the fluid flow rate.
Vented emissions means intentional or designed releases of CH4 or CO2 containing natural gas or hydrocarbon gas (not including stationary combustion flue gas), including process designed flow to the atmosphere through seals or vent pipes, equipment blowdown for maintenance, and direct venting of gas used to power equipment (such as pneumatic devices).
Vertical well means a well bore that is primarily vertical but has some unintentional deviation or one or more intentional deviations to enter one or more subsurface targets that are off-set horizontally from the surface location, intercepting the targets either vertically or at an angle.
Well testing venting and flaring means venting and/or flaring of natural gas at the time the production rate of a well is determined for regulatory, commercial, or technical purposes. If well testing is conducted immediately after well completion or workover, then it is considered part of well completion or workover.
[75 FR 74488, Nov. 30, 2010, as amended at 76 FR 80590, Dec. 23, 2011]

Title 40 published on 2014-07-01

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  • 2014-12-24; vol. 79 # 247 - Wednesday, December 24, 2014
    1. 79 FR 77391 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Addition of Global Warming Potentials to the General Provisions and Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for Fluorinated Gas Production; Correction
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      Final rule; correction.
      Effective January 1, 2015.
      40 CFR Part 98

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Title 40 published on 2014-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 40 CFR 98 after this date.

  • 2015-02-05; vol. 80 # 24 - Thursday, February 5, 2015
    1. 80 FR 6495 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: 2015 Revisions and Confidentiality Determinations for Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems; Extension of Comment Period
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      Proposed rule.
      The comment period for the proposed rule published on December 9, 2014 (79 FR 73147) has been extended. Comments must be received on or before February 24, 2015.
      40 CFR Part 98