# 40 CFR § 98.3 - What are the general monitoring, reporting, recordkeeping and verification requirements of this part?

§ 98.3 What are the general monitoring, reporting, recordkeeping and verification requirements of this part?

The owner or operator of a facility or supplier that is subject to the requirements of this part must submit GHG reports to the Administrator, as specified in this section.

(a) General. Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, follow the procedures for emission calculation, monitoring, quality assurance, missing data, recordkeeping, and reporting that are specified in each relevant subpart of this part.

(b) Schedule. The annual GHG report for reporting year 2010 must be submitted no later than September 30, 2011. The annual report for reporting years 2011 and beyond must be submitted no later than March 31 of each calendar year for GHG emissions in the previous calendar year, except as provided in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(1) For reporting year 2011, facilities with one or more of the subparts listed in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) through (b)(1)(xi) of this section and suppliers listed in paragraph (b)(1)(xii) of this section are required to submit their annual GHG report no later than September 28, 2012. Facilities and suppliers that are submitting their second annual GHG report in 2012 and that are reporting on one or more subparts listed in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) through (b)(1)(xii) of this section must notify EPA by March 31, 2012 that they are not required to submit their annual GHG report until September 28, 2012.

(i) Electronics Manufacturing (subpart I).

(ii) Fluorinated Gas Production (subpart L).

(iii) Magnesium Production (subpart T).

(iv) Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems (subpart W).

(v) Use of Electric Transmission and Distribution Equipment (subpart DD).

(vi) Underground Coal Mines (subpart FF).

(vii) Industrial Wastewater Treatment (subpart II).

(viii) Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide (subpart RR).

(ix) Manufacture of Electric Transmission and Distribution (subpart SS).

(x) Industrial Waste Landfills (subpart TT).

(xi) Injection of Carbon Dioxide (subpart UU).

(xii) Imports and Exports of Equipment Pre-charged with Fluorinated GHGs or Containing Fluorinated GHGs in Closed-cell Foams (subpart QQ).

(2) For a new facility or supplier that begins operation on or after January 1, 2010 and becomes subject to the rule in the year that it becomes operational, report emissions beginning with the first operating month and ending on December 31 of that year. Each subsequent annual report must cover emissions for the calendar year, beginning on January 1 and ending on December 31.

(3) For any facility or supplier that becomes subject to this rule because of a physical or operational change that is made after January 1, 2010, report emissions for the first calendar year in which the change occurs, beginning with the first month of the change and ending on December 31 of that year. For a facility or supplier that becomes subject to this rule solely because of an increase in hours of operation or level of production, the first month of the change is the month in which the increased hours of operation or level of production, if maintained for the remainder of the year, would cause the facility or supplier to exceed the applicable threshold. Each subsequent annual report must cover emissions for the calendar year, beginning on January 1 and ending on December 31.

(4) Unless otherwise stated, if the final day of any time period falls on a weekend or a federal holiday, the time period shall be extended to the next business day.

(c) Content of the annual report. Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each annual GHG report shall contain the following information:

(1) Facility name or supplier name (as appropriate), and physical street address of the facility or supplier, including the city, State, and zip code. If the facility does not have a physical street address, then the facility must provide the latitude and longitude representing the geographic centroid or center point of facility operations in decimal degree format. This must be provided in a comma-delimited “latitude, longitude” coordinate pair reported in decimal degrees to at least four digits to the right of the decimal point.

(2) Year and months covered by the report.

(3) Date of submittal.

(4) For facilities, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (c)(12) of this section, report annual emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O, each fluorinated GHG (as defined in § 98.6), and each fluorinated heat transfer fluid (as defined in § 98.98) as follows.

(i) Annual emissions (excluding biogenic CO2) aggregated for all GHG from all applicable source categories, expressed in metric tons of CO2e calculated using Equation A-1 of this subpart. For electronics manufacturing (as defined in § 98.90), starting in reporting year 2012 the CO2e calculation must include each fluorinated heat transfer fluid (as defined in § 98.98) whether or not it is also a fluorinated GHG.

(ii) Annual emissions of biogenic CO2 aggregated for all applicable source categories, expressed in metric tons.

(iii) Annual emissions from each applicable source category, expressed in metric tons of each applicable GHG listed in paragraphs (c)(4)(iii)(A) through (F) of this section.

(A) Biogenic CO2.

(B) CO2 (excluding biogenic CO2).

(C) CH4.

(D) N2O.

(E) Each fluorinated GHG (as defined in § 98.6), except fluorinated gas production facilities must comply with § 98.126(a) rather than this paragraph (c)(4)(iii)(E). If a fluorinated GHG does not have a chemical-specific GWP in Table A-1 of this subpart, identify and report the fluorinated GHG group of which that fluorinated GHG is a member.

(F) For electronics manufacturing (as defined in § 98.90), each fluorinated heat transfer fluid (as defined in § 98.98) that is not also a fluorinated GHG as specified under (c)(4)(iii)(E) of this section. If a fluorinated heat transfer fluid does not have a chemical-specific GWP in Table A-1 of this subpart, identify and report the fluorinated GHG group of which that fluorinated heat transfer fluid is a member.

(G) For each reported fluorinated GHG and fluorinated heat transfer fluid, report the following identifying information:

(1) Chemical name. If the chemical is not listed in Table A-1 of this subpart, then use the method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).

(2) The CAS registry number assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Registry Service. If a CAS registry number is not assigned or is not associated with a single fluorinated GHG or fluorinated heat transfer fluid, then report an identification number assigned by EPA's Substance Registry Services.

(3) Linear chemical formula.

(iv) Except as provided in paragraph (c)(4)(vii) of this section, emissions and other data for individual units, processes, activities, and operations as specified in the “Data reporting requirements” section of each applicable subpart of this part.

(v) Indicate (yes or no) whether reported emissions include emissions from a cogeneration unit located at the facility.

(vi) [Reserved]

(vii) The owner or operator of a facility is not required to report the data elements specified in Table A-6 of this subpart for calendar years 2010 through 2011 until March 31, 2013. The owner or operator of a facility is not required to report the data elements specified in Table A-7 of this subpart for calendar years 2010 through 2013 until March 31, 2015 (as part of the annual report for reporting year 2014), except as otherwise specified in Table A-7 of this subpart.

(viii) Applicable source categories means stationary fuel combustion sources (subpart C of this part), miscellaneous use of carbonates (subpart U of this part), and all of the source categories listed in Table A-3 and Table A-4 of this subpart present at the facility.

(5) For suppliers, report annual quantities of CO2, CH4, N2O, and each fluorinated GHG (as defined in § 98.6) that would be emitted from combustion or use of the products supplied, imported, and exported during the year. Calculate and report quantities at the following levels:

(i) Total quantity of GHG aggregated for all GHG from all applicable supply categories in Table A-5 of this subpart and expressed in metric tons of CO2e calculated using Equation A-1 of this subpart.

(ii) Quantity of each GHG from each applicable supply category in Table A-5 to this subpart, expressed in metric tons of each GHG. For each reported fluorinated GHG, report the following identifying information:

(A) Chemical name. If the chemical is not listed in Table A-1 of this subpart, then use the method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).

(B) The CAS registry number assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Registry Service. If a CAS registry number is not assigned or is not associated with a single fluorinated GHG, then report an identification number assigned by EPA's Substance Registry Services.

(C) Linear chemical formula.

(iii) Any other data specified in the “Data reporting requirements” section of each applicable subpart of this part.

(6) A written explanation, as required under § 98.3(e), if you change emission calculation methodologies during the reporting period.

(7) A brief description of each “best available monitoring method” used, the parameter measured using the method, and the time period during which the “best available monitoring method” was used, if applicable.

(8) Each parameter for which a missing data procedure was used according to the procedures of an applicable subpart and the total number of hours in the year that a missing data procedure was used for each parameter. Parameters include not only reported data elements, but any data element required for monitoring and calculating emissions.

(9) A signed and dated certification statement provided by the designated representative of the owner or operator, according to the requirements of § 98.4(e)(1).

(10) NAICS code(s) that apply to the facility or supplier.

(i) Primary NAICS code. Report the NAICS code that most accurately describes the facility or supplier's primary product/activity/service. The primary product/activity/service is the principal source of revenue for the facility or supplier. A facility or supplier that has two distinct products/activities/services providing comparable revenue may report a second primary NAICS code.

(ii) Additional NAICS code(s). Report all additional NAICS codes that describe all product(s)/activity(s)/service(s) at the facility or supplier that are not related to the principal source of revenue.

(11) Legal name(s) and physical address(es) of the highest-level United States parent company(s) of the owners (or operators) of the facility or supplier and the percentage of ownership interest for each listed parent company as of December 31 of the year for which data are being reported according to the following instructions:

(i) If the facility or supplier is entirely owned by a single United States company that is not owned by another company, provide that company's legal name and physical address as the United States parent company and report 100 percent ownership.

(ii) If the facility or supplier is entirely owned by a single United States company that is, itself, owned by another company (e.g., it is a division or subsidiary of a higher-level company), provide the legal name and physical address of the highest-level company in the ownership hierarchy as the United States parent company and report 100 percent ownership.

(iii) If the facility or supplier is owned by more than one United States company (e.g., company A owns 40 percent, company B owns 35 percent, and company C owns 25 percent), provide the legal names and physical addresses of all the highest-level companies with an ownership interest as the United States parent companies, and report the percent ownership of each company.

(iv) If the facility or supplier is owned by a joint venture or a cooperative, the joint venture or cooperative is its own United States parent company. Provide the legal name and physical address of the joint venture or cooperative as the United States parent company, and report 100 percent ownership by the joint venture or cooperative.

(v) If the facility or supplier is entirely owned by a foreign company, provide the legal name and physical address of the foreign company's highest-level company based in the United States as the United States parent company, and report 100 percent ownership.

(vi) If the facility or supplier is partially owned by a foreign company and partially owned by one or more U.S. companies, provide the legal name and physical address of the foreign company's highest-level company based in the United States, along with the legal names and physical addresses of the other U.S. parent companies, and report the percent ownership of each of these companies.

(vii) If the facility or supplier is a federally owned facility, report “U.S. Government” and do not report physical address or percent ownership.

(viii) The facility or supplier must refer to the reporting instructions of the electronic GHG reporting tool regarding standardized conventions for the naming of a parent company.

(12) For the 2010 reporting year only, facilities that have “part 75 units” (i.e. units that are subject to subpart D of this part or units that use the methods in part 75 of this chapter to quantify CO2 mass emissions in accordance with § 98.33(a)(5)) must report annual GHG emissions either in full accordance with paragraphs (c)(4)(i) through (c)(4)(iii) of this section or in full accordance with paragraphs (c)(12)(i) through (c)(12)(iii) of this section. If the latter reporting option is chosen, you must report:

(i) Annual emissions aggregated for all GHG from all applicable source categories, expressed in metric tons of CO2e calculated using Equation A-1 of this subpart. You must include biogenic CO2 emissions from part 75 units in these annual emissions, but exclude biogenic CO2 emissions from any non-part 75 units and other source categories.

(ii) Annual emissions of biogenic CO2, expressed in metric tons (excluding biogenic CO2 emissions from part 75 units), aggregated for all applicable source categories.

(iii) Annual emissions from each applicable source category, expressed in metric tons of each applicable GHG listed in paragraphs (c)(12)(iii)(A) through (c)(12)(iii)(E) of this section.

(A) Biogenic CO2 (excluding biogenic CO2 emissions from part 75 units).

(B) CO2. You must include biogenic CO2 emissions from part 75 units in these totals and exclude biogenic CO2 emissions from other non-part 75 units and other source categories.

(C) CH4.

(D) N2O.

(E) Each fluorinated GHG (including those not listed in Table A-1 of this subpart).

(13) An indication of whether the facility includes one or more plant sites that have been assigned a “plant code” (as defined under § 98.6) by either the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration or by the EPA's Clean Air Markets Division.

(d) Special provisions for reporting year 2010.

(1) Best available monitoring methods. During January 1, 2010 through March 31, 2010, owners or operators may use best available monitoring methods for any parameter (e.g., fuel use, daily carbon content of feedstock by process line) that cannot reasonably be measured according to the monitoring and QA/QC requirements of a relevant subpart. The owner or operator must use the calculation methodologies and equations in the “Calculating GHG Emissions” sections of each relevant subpart, but may use the best available monitoring method for any parameter for which it is not reasonably feasible to acquire, install, and operate a required piece of monitoring equipment by January 1, 2010. Starting no later than April 1, 2010, the owner or operator must discontinue using best available methods and begin following all applicable monitoring and QA/QC requirements of this part, except as provided in paragraphs (d)(2) and (d)(3) of this section. Best available monitoring methods means any of the following methods specified in this paragraph:

(i) Monitoring methods currently used by the facility that do not meet the specifications of a relevant subpart.

(ii) Supplier data.

(iii) Engineering calculations.

(iv) Other company records.

(2) Requests for extension of the use of best available monitoring methods. The owner or operator may submit a request to the Administrator to use one or more best available monitoring methods beyond March 31, 2010.

(i) Timing of request. The extension request must be submitted to EPA no later than 30 days after the effective date of the GHG reporting rule.

(ii) Content of request. Requests must contain the following information:

(A) A list of specific item of monitoring instrumentation for which the request is being made and the locations where each piece of monitoring instrumentation will be installed.

(B) Identification of the specific rule requirements (by rule subpart, section, and paragraph numbers) for which the instrumentation is needed.

(C) A description of the reasons why the needed equipment could not be obtained and installed before April 1, 2010.

(D) If the reason for the extension is that the equipment cannot be purchased and delivered by April 1, 2010, include supporting documentation such as the date the monitoring equipment was ordered, investigation of alternative suppliers and the dates by which alternative vendors promised delivery, backorder notices or unexpected delays, descriptions of actions taken to expedite delivery, and the current expected date of delivery.

(E) If the reason for the extension is that the equipment cannot be installed without a process unit shutdown, include supporting documentation demonstrating that it is not practicable to isolate the equipment and install the monitoring instrument without a full process unit shutdown. Include the date of the most recent process unit shutdown, the frequency of shutdowns for this process unit, and the date of the next planned shutdown during which the monitoring equipment can be installed. If there has been a shutdown or if there is a planned process unit shutdown between promulgation of this part and April 1, 2010, include a justification of why the equipment could not be obtained and installed during that shutdown.

(F) A description of the specific actions the facility will take to obtain and install the equipment as soon as reasonably feasible and the expected date by which the equipment will be installed and operating.

(iii) Approval criteria. To obtain approval, the owner or operator must demonstrate to the Administrator's satisfaction that it is not reasonably feasible to acquire, install, and operate a required piece of monitoring equipment by April 1, 2010. The use of best available methods will not be approved beyond December 31, 2010.

(3) Abbreviated emissions report for facilities containing only general stationary fuel combustion sources. In lieu of the report required by paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or operator of an existing facility that is in operation on January 1, 2010 and that meets the conditions of § 98.2(a)(3) may submit an abbreviated GHG report for the facility for GHGs emitted in 2010. The abbreviated report must be submitted by September 30, 2011. An owner or operator that submits an abbreviated report must submit a full GHG report according to the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section beginning in calendar year 2012. The abbreviated facility report must include the following information:

(i) Facility name and physical street address including the city, state and zip code.

(ii) The year and months covered by the report.

(iii) Date of submittal.

(iv) Total facility GHG emissions aggregated for all stationary fuel combustion units calculated according to any method specified in § 98.33(a) and expressed in metric tons of CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO2e.

(v) For each stationary fuel combustion source that meets the criteria specified in § 98.36(f), report any facility operating data or process information used for the GHG emission calculations. A stationary fuel combustion source that does not meet the criteria specified in § 98.36(f) must either report the data specified in this paragraph (d)(3)(v) in the annual report or use verification software according to § 98.5(b) in lieu of reporting the data specified in this paragraph.

(vi) A signed and dated certification statement provided by the designated representative of the owner or operator, according to the requirements of paragraph (e)(1) of this section.

(e) Emission calculations. In preparing the GHG report, you must use the calculation methodologies specified in the relevant subparts, except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section. For each source category, you must use the same calculation methodology throughout a reporting period unless you provide a written explanation of why a change in methodology was required.

(f) Verification. To verify the completeness and accuracy of reported GHG emissions, the Administrator may review the certification statements described in paragraphs (c)(9) and (d)(3)(vi) of this section and any other credible evidence, in conjunction with a comprehensive review of the GHG reports and periodic audits of selected reporting facilities. Nothing in this section prohibits the Administrator from using additional information to verify the completeness and accuracy of the reports.

(g) Recordkeeping. An owner or operator that is required to report GHGs under this part must keep records as specified in this paragraph (g). Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, retain all required records for at least 3 years from the date of submission of the annual GHG report for the reporting year in which the record was generated. The records shall be kept in an electronic or hard-copy format (as appropriate) and recorded in a form that is suitable for expeditious inspection and review. If the owner or operator of a facility is required under § 98.5(b) to use verification software specified by the Administrator, then all records required for the facility under this part must be retained for at least 5 years from the date of submission of the annual GHG report for the reporting year in which the record was generated, starting with records for reporting year 2010. Upon request by the Administrator, the records required under this section must be made available to EPA. Records may be retained off site if the records are readily available for expeditious inspection and review. For records that are electronically generated or maintained, the equipment or software necessary to read the records shall be made available, or, if requested by EPA, electronic records shall be converted to paper documents. You must retain the following records, in addition to those records prescribed in each applicable subpart of this part:

(1) A list of all units, operations, processes, and activities for which GHG emission were calculated.

(2) The data used to calculate the GHG emissions for each unit, operation, process, and activity, categorized by fuel or material type. These data include but are not limited to the following information in this paragraph (g)(2):

(i) The GHG emissions calculations and methods used. For data required by § 98.5(b) to be entered into verification software specified in § 98.5(b), maintain the entered data in the format generated by the verification software according to § 98.5(b).

(ii) Analytical results for the development of site-specific emissions factors.

(iii) The results of all required analyses for high heat value, carbon content, and other required fuel or feedstock parameters.

(iv) Any facility operating data or process information used for the GHG emission calculations.

(3) The annual GHG reports.

(4) Missing data computations. For each missing data event, also retain a record of the cause of the event and the corrective actions taken to restore malfunctioning monitoring equipment.

(5) A written GHG Monitoring Plan.

(i) At a minimum, the GHG Monitoring Plan shall include the elements listed in this paragraph (g)(5)(i).

(A) Identification of positions of responsibility (i.e., job titles) for collection of the emissions data.

(B) Explanation of the processes and methods used to collect the necessary data for the GHG calculations.

(C) Description of the procedures and methods that are used for quality assurance, maintenance, and repair of all continuous monitoring systems, flow meters, and other instrumentation used to provide data for the GHGs reported under this part.

(ii) The GHG Monitoring Plan may rely on references to existing corporate documents (e.g., standard operating procedures, quality assurance programs under appendix F to 40 CFR part 60 or appendix B to 40 CFR part 75, and other documents) provided that the elements required by paragraph (g)(5)(i) of this section are easily recognizable.

(iii) The owner or operator shall revise the GHG Monitoring Plan as needed to reflect changes in production processes, monitoring instrumentation, and quality assurance procedures; or to improve procedures for the maintenance and repair of monitoring systems to reduce the frequency of monitoring equipment downtime.

(iv) Upon request by the Administrator, the owner or operator shall make all information that is collected in conformance with the GHG Monitoring Plan available for review during an audit. Electronic storage of the information in the plan is permissible, provided that the information can be made available in hard copy upon request during an audit.

(6) The results of all required certification and quality assurance tests of continuous monitoring systems, fuel flow meters, and other instrumentation used to provide data for the GHGs reported under this part.

(7) Maintenance records for all continuous monitoring systems, flow meters, and other instrumentation used to provide data for the GHGs reported under this part.

(h) Annual GHG report revisions. This paragraph applies to the reporting years for which the owner or operator is required to maintain records for a facility or supplier according to the time periods specified in paragraph (g) of this section.

(1) The owner or operator shall submit a revised annual GHG report within 45 days of discovering that an annual GHG report that the owner or operator previously submitted contains one or more substantive errors. The revised report must correct all substantive errors.

(2) The Administrator may notify the owner or operator in writing that an annual GHG report previously submitted by the owner or operator contains one or more substantive errors. Such notification will identify each such substantive error. The owner or operator shall, within 45 days of receipt of the notification, either resubmit the report that, for each identified substantive error, corrects the identified substantive error (in accordance with the applicable requirements of this part) or provide information demonstrating that the previously submitted report does not contain the identified substantive error or that the identified error is not a substantive error.

(3) A substantive error is an error that impacts the quantity of GHG emissions reported or otherwise prevents the reported data from being validated or verified.

(5) The owner or operator shall retain documentation for 3 years to support any revision made to an annual GHG report.

(i) Calibration accuracy requirements. The owner or operator of a facility or supplier that is subject to the requirements of this part must meet the applicable flow meter calibration and accuracy requirements of this paragraph (i). The accuracy specifications in this paragraph (i) do not apply where either the use of company records (as defined in § 98.6) or the use of “best available information” is specified in an applicable subpart of this part to quantify fuel usage and/or other parameters. Further, the provisions of this paragraph (i) do not apply to stationary fuel combustion units that use the methodologies in part 75 of this chapter to calculate CO2 mass emissions.

(1) Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (i)(4) through (i)(6) of this section, flow meters that measure liquid and gaseous fuel feed rates, process stream flow rates, or feedstock flow rates and provide data for the GHG emissions calculations shall be calibrated prior to April 1, 2010 using the procedures specified in this paragraph (i) when such calibration is specified in a relevant subpart of this part. Each of these flow meters shall meet the applicable accuracy specification in paragraph (i)(2) or (i)(3) of this section. All other measurement devices (e.g., weighing devices) that are required by a relevant subpart of this part, and that are used to provide data for the GHG emissions calculations, shall also be calibrated prior to April 1, 2010; however, the accuracy specifications in paragraphs (i)(2) and (i)(3) of this section do not apply to these devices. Rather, each of these measurement devices shall be calibrated to meet the accuracy requirement specified for the device in the applicable subpart of this part, or, in the absence of such accuracy requirement, the device must be calibrated to an accuracy within the appropriate error range for the specific measurement technology, based on an applicable operating standard, including but not limited to manufacturer's specifications and industry standards. The procedures and methods used to quality-assure the data from each measurement device shall be documented in the written monitoring plan, pursuant to paragraph (g)(5)(i)(C) of this section.

(i) All flow meters and other measurement devices that are subject to the provisions of this paragraph (i) must be calibrated according to one of the following: You may use the manufacturer's recommended procedures; an appropriate industry consensus standard method; or a method specified in a relevant subpart of this part. The calibration method(s) used shall be documented in the monitoring plan required under paragraph (g) of this section.

(ii) For facilities and suppliers that become subject to this part after April 1, 2010, all flow meters and other measurement devices (if any) that are required by the relevant subpart(s) of this part to provide data for the GHG emissions calculations shall be installed no later than the date on which data collection is required to begin using the measurement device, and the initial calibration(s) required by this paragraph (i) (if any) shall be performed no later than that date.

(iii) Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (i)(4) through (i)(6) of this section, subsequent recalibrations of the flow meters and other measurement devices subject to the requirements of this paragraph (i) shall be performed at one of the following frequencies:

(A) You may use the frequency specified in each applicable subpart of this part.

(B) You may use the frequency recommended by the manufacturer or by an industry consensus standard practice, if no recalibration frequency is specified in an applicable subpart.

(2) Perform all flow meter calibration at measurement points that are representative of the normal operating range of the meter. Except for the orifice, nozzle, and venturi flow meters described in paragraph (i)(3) of this section, calculate the calibration error at each measurement point using Equation A-2 of this section. The terms “R” and “A” in Equation A-2 must be expressed in consistent units of measure (e.g., gallons/minute, ft 3/min). The calibration error at each measurement point shall not exceed 5.0 percent of the reference value.

$\mathrm{CE}=\frac{\mid R-A\mid }{R}×100\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{(Eq. A-2)}$

where:
CE = Calibration error (%).
R = Reference value.
A = Flow meter response to the reference value.

(3) For orifice, nozzle, and venturi flow meters, the initial quality assurance consists of in-situ calibration of the differential pressure (delta-P), total pressure, and temperature transmitters.

(i) Calibrate each transmitter at a zero point and at least one upscale point. Fixed reference points, such as the freezing point of water, may be used for temperature transmitter calibrations. Calculate the calibration error of each transmitter at each measurement point, using Equation A-3 of this subpart. The terms “R,” “A,” and “FS” in Equation A-3 of this subpart must be in consistent units of measure (e.g., milliamperes, inches of water, psi, degrees). For each transmitter, the CE value at each measurement point shall not exceed 2.0 percent of full-scale. Alternatively, the results are acceptable if the sum of the calculated CE values for the three transmitters at each calibration level (i.e., at the zero level and at each upscale level) does not exceed 6.0 percent.

$\mathrm{CE}=\frac{\mid R-A\mid }{\mathrm{FS}}×100\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}\text{(Eq. A-3)}$

where:
CE = Calibration error (%).
R = Reference value.
A = Transmitter response to the reference value.
FS = Full-scale value of the transmitter.

(ii) In cases where there are only two transmitters (i.e., differential pressure and either temperature or total pressure) in the immediate vicinity of the flow meter's primary element (e.g., the orifice plate), or when there is only a differential pressure transmitter in close proximity to the primary element, calibration of these existing transmitters to a CE of 2.0 percent or less at each measurement point is still required, in accordance with paragraph (i)(3)(i) of this section; alternatively, when two transmitters are calibrated, the results are acceptable if the sum of the CE values for the two transmitters at each calibration level does not exceed 4.0 percent. However, note that installation and calibration of an additional transmitter (or transmitters) at the flow monitor location to measure temperature or total pressure or both is not required in these cases. Instead, you may use assumed values for temperature and/or total pressure, based on measurements of these parameters at a remote location (or locations), provided that the following conditions are met:

(A) You must demonstrate that measurements at the remote location(s) can, when appropriate correction factors are applied, reliably and accurately represent the actual temperature or total pressure at the flow meter under all expected ambient conditions.

(B) You must make all temperature and/or total pressure measurements in the demonstration described in paragraph (i)(3)(ii)(A) of this section with calibrated gauges, sensors, transmitters, or other appropriate measurement devices. At a minimum, calibrate each of these devices to an accuracy within the appropriate error range for the specific measurement technology, according to one of the following. You may calibrate using a manufacturer's specification or an industry consensus standard.

(C) You must document the methods used for the demonstration described in paragraph (i)(3)(ii)(A) of this section in the written GHG Monitoring Plan under paragraph (g)(5)(i)(C) of this section. You must also include the data from the demonstration, the mathematical correlation(s) between the remote readings and actual flow meter conditions derived from the data, and any supporting engineering calculations in the GHG Monitoring Plan. You must maintain all of this information in a format suitable for auditing and inspection.

(D) You must use the mathematical correlation(s) derived from the demonstration described in paragraph (i)(3)(ii)(A) of this section to convert the remote temperature or the total pressure readings, or both, to the actual temperature or total pressure at the flow meter, or both, on a daily basis. You shall then use the actual temperature and total pressure values to correct the measured flow rates to standard conditions.

(E) You shall periodically check the correlation(s) between the remote and actual readings (at least once a year), and make any necessary adjustments to the mathematical relationship(s).

(4) Fuel billing meters are exempted from the calibration requirements of this section and from the GHG Monitoring Plan and recordkeeping provisions of paragraphs (g)(5)(i)(C), (g)(6), and (g)(7) of this section, provided that the fuel supplier and any unit combusting the fuel do not have any common owners and are not owned by subsidiaries or affiliates of the same company. Meters used exclusively to measure the flow rates of fuels that are used for unit startup are also exempted from the calibration requirements of this section.

(5) For a flow meter that has been previously calibrated in accordance with paragraph (i)(1) of this section, an additional calibration is not required by the date specified in paragraph (i)(1) of this section if, as of that date, the previous calibration is still active (i.e., the device is not yet due for recalibration because the time interval between successive calibrations has not elapsed). In this case, the deadline for the successive calibrations of the flow meter shall be set according to one of the following. You may use either the manufacturer's recommended calibration schedule or you may use the industry consensus calibration schedule.

(6) For units and processes that operate continuously with infrequent outages, it may not be possible to meet the April 1, 2010 deadline for the initial calibration of a flow meter or other measurement device without disrupting normal process operation. In such cases, the owner or operator may postpone the initial calibration until the next scheduled maintenance outage. The best available information from company records may be used in the interim. The subsequent required recalibrations of the flow meters may be similarly postponed. Such postponements shall be documented in the monitoring plan that is required under paragraph (g)(5) of this section.

(7) If the results of an initial calibration or a recalibration fail to meet the required accuracy specification, data from the flow meter shall be considered invalid, beginning with the hour of the failed calibration and continuing until a successful calibration is completed. You shall follow the missing data provisions provided in the relevant missing data sections during the period of data invalidation.

(j) Measurement device installation -

(1) General. If an owner or operator required to report under subpart P, subpart X or subpart Y of this part has process equipment or units that operate continuously and it is not possible to install a required flow meter or other measurement device by April 1, 2010, (or by any later date in 2010 approved by the Administrator as part of an extension of best available monitoring methods per paragraph (d) of this section) without process equipment or unit shutdown, or through a hot tap, the owner or operator may request an extension from the Administrator to delay installing the measurement device until the next scheduled process equipment or unit shutdown. If approval for such an extension is granted by the Administrator, the owner or operator must use best available monitoring methods during the extension period.

(2) Requests for extension of the use of best available monitoring methods for measurement device installation. The owner or operator must first provide the Administrator an initial notification of the intent to submit an extension request for use of best available monitoring methods beyond December 31, 2010 (or an earlier date approved by EPA) in cases where measurement device installation would require a process equipment or unit shutdown, or could only be done through a hot tap. The owner or operator must follow-up this initial notification with the complete extension request containing the information specified in paragraph (j)(4) of this section.

(3) Timing of request.

(i) The initial notice of intent must be submitted no later than January 1, 2011, or by the end of the approved use of best available monitoring methods extension in 2010, whichever is earlier. The completed extension request must be submitted to the Administrator no later than February 15, 2011.

(ii) Any subsequent extensions to the original request must be submitted to the Administrator within 4 weeks of the owner or operator identifying the need to extend the request, but in any event no later than 4 weeks before the date for the planned process equipment or unit shutdown that was provided in the original or most recently approved request.

(4) Content of the request. Requests must contain the following information:

(i) Specific measurement device for which the request is being made and the location where each measurement device will be installed.

(ii) Identification of the specific rule requirements (by rule subpart, section, and paragraph numbers) requiring the measurement device.

(iii) A description of the reasons why the needed equipment could not be installed before April 1, 2010, or by the expiration date for the use of best available monitoring methods, in cases where an extension has been granted under § 98.3(d).

(iv) Supporting documentation showing that it is not practicable to isolate the process equipment or unit and install the measurement device without a full shutdown or a hot tap, and that there was no opportunity during 2010 to install the device. Include the date of the three most recent shutdowns for each relevant process equipment or unit, the frequency of shutdowns for each relevant process equipment or unit, and the date of the next planned process equipment or unit shutdown.

(v) Include a description of the proposed best available monitoring method for estimating GHG emissions during the time prior to installation of the meter.

(5) Approval criteria. The owner or operator must demonstrate to the Administrator's satisfaction that it is not reasonably feasible to install the measurement device before April 1, 2010 (or by the expiration date for the use of best available monitoring methods, in cases where an extension has been granted under paragraph (d) of this section) without a process equipment or unit shutdown, or through a hot tap, and that the proposed method for estimating GHG emissions during the time before which the measurement device will be installed is appropriate. The Administrator will not initially approve the use of the proposed best available monitoring method past December 31, 2013.

(6) Measurement device installation deadline. Any owner or operator that submits both a timely initial notice of intent and a timely completed extension request under paragraph (j)(3) of this section to extend use of best available monitoring methods for measurement device installation must install all such devices by July 1, 2011 unless the extension request under this paragraph (j) is approved by the Administrator before July 1, 2011.

(7) One time extension past December 31, 2013. If an owner or operator determines that a scheduled process equipment or unit shutdown will not occur by December 31, 2013, the owner or operator may re-apply to use best available monitoring methods for one additional time period, not to extend beyond December 31, 2015. To extend use of best available monitoring methods past December 31, 2013, the owner or operator must submit a new extension request by June 1, 2013 that contains the information required in paragraph (j)(4) of this section. The owner or operator must demonstrate to the Administrator's satisfaction that it continues to not be reasonably feasible to install the measurement device before December 31, 2013 without a process equipment or unit shutdown, or that installation of the measurement device could only be done through a hot tap, and that the proposed method for estimating GHG emissions during the time before which the measurement device will be installed is appropriate. An owner or operator that submits a request under this paragraph to extend use of best available monitoring methods for measurement device installation must install all such devices by December 31, 2013, unless the extension request under this paragraph is approved by the Administrator.

(k) Revised global warming potentials and special provisions for reporting year 2013 and subsequent reporting years. This paragraph (k) applies to owners or operators of facilities or suppliers that first become subject to any subpart of part 98 solely due to an amendment to Table A-1 of this subpart.

(1) A facility or supplier that first becomes subject to part 98 due to a change in the GWP for one or more compounds in Table A-1 of this subpart, Global Warming Potentials, is not required to submit an annual GHG report for the reporting year during which the change in GWPs is published.

(2) A facility or supplier that was already subject to one or more subparts of part 98 but becomes subject to one or more additional subparts due to a change in the GWP for one or more compounds in Table A-1 of this subpart, is not required to include those subparts to which the facility is subject only due to the change in the GWP in the annual GHG report submitted for the reporting year during which the change in GWPs is published.

(3) Starting on January 1 of the year after the year during which the change in GWPs is published, facilities or suppliers identified in paragraphs (k)(1) or (2) of this section must start monitoring and collecting GHG data in compliance with the applicable subparts of part 98 to which the facility is subject due to the change in the GWP for the annual greenhouse gas report for that reporting year, which is due by March 31 of the following calendar year.

(4) A change in the GWP for one or more compounds includes the addition to Table A-1 of this subpart of either a chemical-specific or a default GWP that applies to a compound to which no chemical-specific GWP in Table A-1 of this subpart previously applied.

(l) Special provision for best available monitoring methods in 2014 and subsequent years. This paragraph (l) applies to owners or operators of facilities or suppliers that first become subject to any subpart of part 98 due to an amendment to Table A-1 of this subpart, Global Warming Potentials.

(1) Best available monitoring methods. From January 1 to March 31 of the year after the year during which the change in GWPs is published, owners or operators subject to this paragraph (l) may use best available monitoring methods for any parameter (e.g., fuel use, feedstock rates) that cannot reasonably be measured according to the monitoring and QA/QC requirements of a relevant subpart. The owner or operator must use the calculation methodologies and equations in the “Calculating GHG Emissions” sections of each relevant subpart, but may use the best available monitoring method for any parameter for which it is not reasonably feasible to acquire, install, and operate a required piece of monitoring equipment by January 1 of the year after the year during which the change in GWPs is published. Starting no later than April 1 of the year after the year during which the change in GWPs is published, the owner or operator must discontinue using best available methods and begin following all applicable monitoring and QA/QC requirements of this part, except as provided in paragraph (l)(2) of this section. Best available monitoring methods means any of the following methods:

(i) Monitoring methods currently used by the facility that do not meet the specifications of a relevant subpart.

(ii) Supplier data.

(iii) Engineering calculations.

(iv) Other company records.

(2) Requests for extension of the use of best available monitoring methods. The owner or operator may submit a request to the Administrator to use one or more best available monitoring methods beyond March 31 of the year after the year during which the change in GWPs is published.

(i) Timing of request. The extension request must be submitted to EPA no later than January 31 of the year after the year during which the change in GWPs is published.

(ii) Content of request. Requests must contain the following information:

(A) A list of specific items of monitoring instrumentation for which the request is being made and the locations where each piece of monitoring instrumentation will be installed.

(B) Identification of the specific rule requirements (by rule subpart, section, and paragraph numbers) for which the instrumentation is needed.

(C) A description of the reasons that the needed equipment could not be obtained and installed before April 1 of the year after the year during which the change in GWPs is published.

(D) If the reason for the extension is that the equipment cannot be purchased and delivered by April 1 of the year after the year during which the change in GWPs is published, include supporting documentation such as the date the monitoring equipment was ordered, investigation of alternative suppliers and the dates by which alternative vendors promised delivery, backorder notices or unexpected delays, descriptions of actions taken to expedite delivery, and the current expected date of delivery.

(E) If the reason for the extension is that the equipment cannot be installed without a process unit shutdown, include supporting documentation demonstrating that it is not practicable to isolate the equipment and install the monitoring instrument without a full process unit shutdown. Include the date of the most recent process unit shutdown, the frequency of shutdowns for this process unit, and the date of the next planned shutdown during which the monitoring equipment can be installed. If there has been a shutdown or if there is a planned process unit shutdown between November 29 of the year during which the change in GWPs is published and April 1 of the year after the year during which the change in GWPs is published, include a justification of why the equipment could not be obtained and installed during that shutdown.

(F) A description of the specific actions the facility will take to obtain and install the equipment as soon as reasonably feasible and the expected date by which the equipment will be installed and operating.

(iii) Approval criteria. To obtain approval, the owner or operator must demonstrate to the Administrator's satisfaction that it is not reasonably feasible to acquire, install, and operate a required piece of monitoring equipment by April 1 of the year after the year during which the change in GWPs is published. The use of best available methods under this paragraph (l) will not be approved beyond December 31 of the year after the year during which the change in GWPs is published.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 39758, July 12, 2010; 75 FR 57685, Sept. 22, 2010; 75 FR 74816, Dec. 1, 2010; 75 FR 79134, Dec. 17, 2010; 75 FR 81344, Dec. 27, 2010; 76 FR 14818, Mar. 18, 2011; 76 FR 53065, Aug. 25, 2011; 76 FR 73899, Nov. 29, 2011; 77 FR 51488, Aug. 24, 2012; 78 FR 71946, Nov. 29, 2013; 79 FR 63779, Oct. 24, 2014; 79 FR 73777, Dec. 11, 2014; 79 FR 77391, Dec. 24, 2014; 81 FR 89249, Dec. 9, 2016]