40 CFR § 98.6 - Definitions.
All terms used in this part shall have the same meaning given in the Clean Air Act and in this section.
Accuracy of a measurement at a specified level (e.g., one percent of full scale or one percent of the value measured) means that the mean of repeat measurements made by a device or technique are within 95 percent of the range bounded by the true value plus or minus the specified level.
Acid Rain Program means the program established under title IV of the Clean Air Act, and implemented under parts 72 through 78 of this chapter for the reduction of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions.
AGA means the American Gas Association
Agricultural by-products means those parts of arable crops that are not used for the primary purpose of producing food. Agricultural by-products include, but are not limited to, oat, corn and wheat straws, bagasse, peanut shells, rice and coconut husks, soybean hulls, palm kernel cake, cottonseed and sunflower seed cake, and pomace.
Alkali bypass means a duct between the feed end of the kiln and the preheater tower through which a portion of the kiln exit gas stream is withdrawn and quickly cooled by air or water to avoid excessive buildup of alkali, chloride and/or sulfur on the raw feed. This may also be referred to as the “kiln exhaust gas bypass.”
Anaerobic digester means the system where wastes are collected and anaerobically digested in large containment vessels or covered lagoons. Anaerobic digesters stabilize waste by the microbial reduction of complex organic compounds to CO2 and CH4, which is captured and may be flared or used as fuel. Anaerobic digestion systems, include but are not limited to covered lagoon, complete mix, plug flow, and fixed film digesters.
Anaerobic lagoon, with respect to subpart JJ of this part, means a type of liquid storage system component that is designed and operated to stabilize wastes using anaerobic microbial processes. Anaerobic lagoons may be designed for combined stabilization and storage with varying lengths of retention time (up to a year or greater), depending on the climate region, volatile solids loading rate, and other operational factors.
Anode effect is a process upset condition of an aluminum electrolysis cell caused by too little alumina dissolved in the electrolyte. The anode effect begins when the voltage rises rapidly and exceeds a threshold voltage, typically 8 volts.
Anode Effect Minutes per Cell Day (24 hours) are the total minutes during which an electrolysis cell voltage is above the threshold voltage, typically 8 volts.
ANSI means the American National Standards Institute.
API means the American Petroleum Institute.
ASABE means the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.
ASME means the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASTM means the American Society of Testing and Materials.
Asphalt means a dark brown-to-black cement-like material obtained by petroleum processing and containing bitumens as the predominant component. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts.
Aviation Gasoline means a complex mixture of volatile hydrocarbons, with or without additives, suitably blended to be used in aviation reciprocating engines. Specifications can be found in ASTM Specification D910-07a, Standard Specification for Aviation Gasolines (incorporated by reference, see § 98.7).
B0 means the maximum CH4 producing capacity of a waste stream, kg CH4/kg COD.
Basic oxygen furnace means any refractory-lined vessel in which high-purity oxygen is blown under pressure through a bath of molten iron, scrap metal, and fluxes to produce steel.
bbl means barrel.
Biogenic CO2 means carbon dioxide emissions generated as the result of biomass combustion from combustion units for which emission calculations are required by an applicable part 98 subpart.
Biomass means non-fossilized and biodegradable organic material originating from plants, animals or micro-organisms, including products, by-products, residues and waste from agriculture, forestry and related industries as well as the non-fossilized and biodegradable organic fractions of industrial and municipal wastes, including gases and liquids recovered from the decomposition of non-fossilized and biodegradable organic material.
Blendstocks are petroleum products used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. These include RBOB (reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending) and CBOB (conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending), but exclude oxygenates, butane, and pentanes plus.
Blendstocks - Others are products used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline that are not defined elsewhere. Excludes Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB), Diesel Treated as Blendstock (DTAB), conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB), oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus.
British Thermal Unit or Btu means the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit at about 39.2 degrees Fahrenheit.
Bulk natural gas liquid or NGL refers to mixtures of hydrocarbons that have been separated from natural gas as liquids through the process of absorption, condensation, adsorption, or other methods. Generally, such liquids consist of ethane, propane, butanes, and pentanes plus. Bulk NGL is sold to fractionators or to refineries and petrochemical plants where the fractionation takes place.
Butane, or n-Butane, is a paraffinic straight-chain hydrocarbon with molecular formula C4H10.
Butylene, or n-Butylene, is an olefinic straight-chain hydrocarbon with molecular formula C4H8.
By-product coke oven battery means a group of ovens connected by common walls, where coal undergoes destructive distillation under positive pressure to produce coke and coke oven gas from which by-products are recovered.
Calculation methodology means a methodology prescribed under the section “Calculating GHG Emissions” in any subpart of part 98.
Calibrated bag means a flexible, non-elastic, anti-static bag of a calibrated volume that can be affixed to an emitting source such that the emissions inflate the bag to its calibrated volume.
Carbon dioxide equivalent or CO2e means the number of metric tons of CO2 emissions with the same global warming potential as one metric ton of another greenhouse gas, and is calculated using Equation A-1 of this subpart.
Carbon dioxide production well means any hole drilled in the earth for the primary purpose of extracting carbon dioxide from a geologic formation or group of formations which contain deposits of carbon dioxide.
Carbon dioxide production well facility means one or more carbon dioxide production wells that are located on one or more contiguous or adjacent properties, which are under the control of the same entity. Carbon dioxide production wells located on different oil and gas leases, mineral fee tracts, lease tracts, subsurface or surface unit areas, surface fee tracts, surface lease tracts, or separate surface sites, whether or not connected by a road, waterway, power line, or pipeline, shall be considered part of the same CO2 production well facility if they otherwise meet the definition.
Carbon dioxide stream means carbon dioxide that has been captured from an emission source (e.g. a power plant or other industrial facility) or extracted from a carbon dioxide production well plus incidental associated substances either derived from the source materials and the capture process or extracted with the carbon dioxide.
Carbon share means the percent of total mass that carbon represents in any product.
Carbonate means compounds containing the radical CO3−2. Upon calcination, the carbonate radical decomposes to evolve carbon dioxide (CO2). Common carbonates consumed in the mineral industry include calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or calcite; magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) or magnesite; and calcium-magnesium carbonate (CaMg(CO3)2) or dolomite.
Carbonate-based mineral means any of the following minerals used in the manufacture of glass: Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), calcium magnesium carbonate (CaMg(CO3)2), sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), barium carbonate (BaCO3), potassium carbonate (K2CO3), lithium carbonate (Li2CO3), and strontium carbonate (SrCO3).
Carbonate-based mineral mass fraction means the following: For limestone, the mass fraction of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the limestone; for dolomite, the mass fraction of calcium magnesium carbonate (CaMg(CO3)2) in the dolomite; for soda ash, the mass fraction of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) in the soda ash; for barium carbonate, the mass fraction of barium carbonate (BaCO3) in the barium carbonate; for potassium carbonate, the mass fraction of potassium carbonate (K2CO3) in the potassium carbonate; for lithium carbonate, the mass fraction of lithium carbonate (Li2CO3); and for strontium carbonate, the mass fraction of strontium carbonate (SrCO3).
Carbonate-based raw material means any of the following materials used in the manufacture of glass: Limestone, dolomite, soda ash, barium carbonate, potassium carbonate, lithium carbonate, and strontium carbonate.
Carbonofluoridates means fluorinated GHGs that are composed of a -OCF(O) group (carbonyl group with a single-bonded oxygen atom and a fluorine atom) that is linked on the single-bonded oxygen to another hydrocarbon group in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms may be replaced by fluorine atoms.
Catalytic cracking unit means a refinery process unit in which petroleum derivatives are continuously charged and hydrocarbon molecules in the presence of a catalyst are fractured into smaller molecules, or react with a contact material suspended in a fluidized bed to improve feedstock quality for additional processing and the catalyst or contact material is continuously regenerated by burning off coke and other deposits. Catalytic cracking units include both fluidized bed systems, which are referred to as fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU), and moving bed systems, which are also referred to as thermal catalytic cracking units. The unit includes the riser, reactor, regenerator, air blowers, spent catalyst or contact material stripper, catalyst or contact material recovery equipment, and regenerator equipment for controlling air pollutant emissions and for heat recovery.
CBOB-Summer (conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending) means a petroleum product which, when blended with a specified type and percentage of oxygenate, meets the definition of Conventional-Summer.
CBOB-Winter (conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending) means a petroleum product which, when blended with a specified type and percentage of oxygenate, meets the definition of Conventional-Winter.
Cement kiln dust means non-calcined to fully calcined dust produced in the kiln or pyroprocessing line. Cement kiln dust is a fine-grained, solid, highly alkaline material removed from the cement kiln exhaust gas by scrubbers (filtration baghouses and/or electrostatic precipitators).
Centrifugal compressor dry seal emissions mean natural gas or CO2 released from a dry seal vent pipe and/or the seal face around the rotating shaft where it exits one or both ends of the compressor case.
Centrifugal compressor dry seals mean a series of rings around the compressor shaft where it exits the compressor case that operates mechanically under the opposing forces to prevent natural gas or CO2 from escaping to the atmosphere.
Centrifugal compressor wet seal degassing vent emissions means emissions that occur when the high-pressure oil barriers for centrifugal compressors are depressurized to release absorbed natural gas or CO2. High-pressure oil is used as a barrier against escaping gas in centrifugal compressor shafts. Very little gas escapes through the oil barrier, but under high pressure, considerably more gas is absorbed by the oil. The seal oil is purged of the absorbed gas (using heaters, flash tanks, and degassing techniques) and recirculated. The separated gas is commonly vented to the atmosphere.
CH4 means methane.
Chemical recovery combustion unit means a combustion device, such as a recovery furnace or fluidized-bed reactor where spent pulping liquor from sulfite or semi-chemical pulping processes is burned to recover pulping chemicals.
Chemical recovery furnace means an enclosed combustion device where concentrated spent liquor produced by the kraft or soda pulping process is burned to recover pulping chemicals and produce steam. Includes any recovery furnace that burns spent pulping liquor produced from both the kraft and soda pulping processes.
City gate means a location at which natural gas ownership or control passes from one party to another, neither of which is the ultimate consumer. In this rule, in keeping with common practice, the term refers to a point or measuring station at which a local gas distribution utility receives gas from a natural gas pipeline company or transmission system. Meters at the city gate station measure the flow of natural gas into the local distribution company system and typically are used to measure local distribution company system sendout to customers.
CO2 means carbon dioxide.
Coal means all solid fuels classified as anthracite, bituminous, sub-bituminous, or lignite by the American Society for Testing and Materials Designation ASTM D388-05 Standard Classification of Coals by Rank (incorporated by reference, see § 98.7).
COD means the chemical oxygen demand as determined using methods specified pursuant to 40 CFR part 136.
Cogeneration unit means a unit that produces electrical energy and useful thermal energy for industrial, commercial, or heating or cooling purposes, through the sequential or simultaneous use of the original fuel energy.
Commercial applications means executing a commercial transaction subject to a contract. A commercial application includes transferring custody of a product from one facility to another if it otherwise meets the definition.
Company records means, in reference to the amount of fuel consumed by a stationary combustion unit (or by a group of such units), a complete record of the methods used, the measurements made, and the calculations performed to quantify fuel usage. Company records may include, but are not limited to, direct measurements of fuel consumption by gravimetric or volumetric means, tank drop measurements, and calculated values of fuel usage obtained by measuring auxiliary parameters such as steam generation or unit operating hours. Fuel billing records obtained from the fuel supplier qualify as company records.
Connector means to flanged, screwed, or other joined fittings used to connect pipe line segments, tubing, pipe components (such as elbows, reducers, “T's” or valves) or a pipe line and a piece of equipment or an instrument to a pipe, tube or piece of equipment. A common connector is a flange. Joined fittings welded completely around the circumference of the interface are not considered connectors for the purpose of this part.
Container glass means glass made of soda-lime recipe, clear or colored, which is pressed and/or blown into bottles, jars, ampoules, and other products listed in North American Industry Classification System 327213 (NAICS 327213).
Continuous bleed means a continuous flow of pneumatic supply natural gas to the process control device (e.g. level control, temperature control, pressure control) where the supply gas pressure is modulated by the process condition, and then flows to the valve controller where the signal is compared with the process set-point to adjust gas pressure in the valve actuator.
Continuous emission monitoring system or CEMS means the total equipment required to sample, analyze, measure, and provide, by means of readings recorded at least once every 15 minutes, a permanent record of gas concentrations, pollutant emission rates, or gas volumetric flow rates from stationary sources.
Continuous glass melting furnace means a glass melting furnace that operates continuously except during periods of maintenance, malfunction, control device installation, reconstruction, or rebuilding.
Conventional-Summer refers to finished gasoline formulated for use in motor vehicles, the composition and properties of which do not meet the requirements of the reformulated gasoline regulations promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under 40 CFR 80.40, but which meet summer RVP standards required under 40 CFR 80.27 or as specified by the state. Note: This category excludes conventional gasoline for oxygenate blending (CBOB) as well as other blendstock.
Conventional-Winter refers to finished gasoline formulated for use in motor vehicles, the composition and properties of which do not meet the requirements of the reformulated gasoline regulations promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under 40 CFR 80.40 or the summer RVP standards required under 40 CFR 80.27 or as specified by the state. Note: This category excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB) as well as other blendstock.
Crude oil means a mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. (1) Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also include any of the following:
(i) Small amounts of hydrocarbons that exist in gaseous phase in natural underground reservoirs but are liquid at atmospheric conditions (temperature and pressure) after being recovered from oil well (casing-head) gas in lease separators and are subsequently commingled with the crude stream without being separately measured. Lease condensate recovered as a liquid from natural gas wells in lease or field separation facilities and later mixed into the crude stream is also included.
(ii) Small amounts of non-hydrocarbons, such as sulfur and various metals.
(2) Liquids produced at natural gas processing plants are excluded. Crude oil is refined to produce a wide array of petroleum products, including heating oils; gasoline, diesel and jet fuels; lubricants; asphalt; ethane, propane, and butane; and many other products used for their energy or chemical content.
Day means any consistently designated 24 hour period during which an emission unit is operated.
Decarburization vessel means any vessel used to further refine molten steel with the primary intent of reducing the carbon content of the steel, including but not limited to vessels used for argon-oxygen decarburization and vacuum oxygen decarburization.
Deep bedding systems for cattle swine means a manure management system in which, as manure accumulates, bedding is continually added to absorb moisture over a production cycle and possibly for as long as 6 to 12 months. This manure management system also is known as a bedded pack manure management system and may be combined with a dry lot or pasture.
Degasification system means the entirety of the equipment that is used to drain gas from underground coal mines. This includes all degasification wells and gob gas vent holes at the underground coal mine. Degasification systems include gob and premine surface drainage wells, gob and premine in-mine drainage wells, and in-mine gob and premine cross-measure borehole wells.
Degradable organic carbon (DOC) means the fraction of the total mass of a waste material that can be biologically degraded.
Dehydrator vent emissions means natural gas and CO2 released from a natural gas dehydrator system absorbent (typically glycol) reboiler or regenerator to the atmosphere or a flare, including stripping natural gas and motive natural gas used in absorbent circulation pumps.
Delayed coking unit means one or more refinery process units in which high molecular weight petroleum derivatives are thermally cracked and petroleum coke is produced in a series of closed, batch system reactors. A delayed coking unit consists of the coke drums and ancillary equipment associated with a single fractionator.
Density means the mass contained in a given unit volume (mass/volume).
Desiccant means a material used in solid-bed dehydrators to remove water from raw natural gas by adsorption or absorption. Desiccants include activated alumina, pelletized calcium chloride, lithium chloride and granular silica gel material. Wet natural gas is passed through a bed of the granular or pelletized solid adsorbent or absorbent in these dehydrators. As the wet gas contacts the surface of the particles of desiccant material, water is adsorbed on the surface or absorbed and dissolves the surface of these desiccant particles. Passing through the entire desiccant bed, almost all of the water is adsorbed onto or absorbed into the desiccant material, leaving the dry gas to exit the contactor.
(1) With respect to landfills and manure management, the combustion of methane in any on-site or off-site combustion technology. Destroyed methane includes, but is not limited to, methane combusted by flaring, methane destroyed by thermal oxidation, methane combusted for use in on-site energy or heat production technologies, methane that is conveyed through pipelines (including natural gas pipelines) for off-site combustion, and methane that is collected for any other on-site or off-site use as a fuel.
Destruction device, for the purposes of subparts II and TT of this part, means a flare, thermal oxidizer, boiler, turbine, internal combustion engine, or any other combustion unit used to destroy or oxidize methane contained in landfill gas or wastewater biogas.
Destruction efficiency means the efficiency with which a destruction device reduces the mass of a greenhouse gas fed into the device. Destruction efficiency, or flaring destruction efficiency, refers to the fraction of the gas that leaves the flare partially or fully oxidized. The destruction efficiency is expressed in Equation A-2 of this section:
Diesel - Other is any distillate fuel oil not defined elsewhere, including Diesel Treated as Blendstock (DTAB).
DIPE (diisopropyl ether, (CH3)2CHOCH(CH3)2) is an ether as described in “Oxygenates.”
Distillate fuel oil means a classification for one of the petroleum fractions produced in conventional distillation operations and from crackers and hydrotreating process units. The generic term distillate fuel oil includes kerosene, kerosene-type jet fuel, diesel fuels (Diesel Fuels No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4), and fuel oils (Fuel Oils No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4).
Distillate Fuel No. 1 has a maximum distillation temperature of 550 °F at the 90 percent recovery point and a minimum flash point of 100 °F and includes fuels commonly known as Diesel Fuel No. 1 and Fuel Oil No. 1, but excludes kerosene. This fuel is further subdivided into categories of sulfur content: High Sulfur (greater than 500 ppm), Low Sulfur (less than or equal to 500 ppm and greater than 15 ppm), and Ultra Low Sulfur (less than or equal to 15 ppm).
Distillate Fuel No. 2 has a minimum and maximum distillation temperature of 540 °F and 640 °F at the 90 percent recovery point, respectively, and includes fuels commonly known as Diesel Fuel No. 2 and Fuel Oil No. 2. This fuel is further subdivided into categories of sulfur content: High Sulfur (greater than 500 ppm), Low Sulfur (less than or equal to 500 ppm and greater than 15 ppm), and Ultra Low Sulfur (less than or equal to 15 ppm).
Dry lot means a manure management system component consisting of a paved or unpaved open confinement area without any significant vegetative cover where accumulating manure may be removed periodically.
Electric arc furnace (EAF) means a furnace that produces molten alloy metal and heats the charge materials with electric arcs from carbon electrodes.
Electrothermic furnace means a furnace that heats the charged materials with electric arcs from carbon electrodes.
Emergency generator means a stationary combustion device, such as a reciprocating internal combustion engine or turbine that serves solely as a secondary source of mechanical or electrical power whenever the primary energy supply is disrupted or discontinued during power outages or natural disasters that are beyond the control of the owner or operator of a facility. An emergency generator operates only during emergency situations, for training of personnel under simulated emergency conditions, as part of emergency demand response procedures, or for standard performance testing procedures as required by law or by the generator manufacturer. A generator that serves as a back-up power source under conditions of load shedding, peak shaving, power interruptions pursuant to an interruptible power service agreement, or scheduled facility maintenance shall not be considered an emergency generator.
Emergency equipment means any auxiliary fossil fuel-powered equipment, such as a fire pump, that is used only in emergency situations.
ETBE (ethyl tertiary butyl ether, (CH3)3COC2H) is an ether as described in “Oxygenates.”
Ethane is a paraffinic hydrocarbon with molecular formula C2H6.
Ethanol is an anhydrous alcohol with molecular formula C2H5OH.
Ethylene is an olefinic hydrocarbon with molecular formula C2H4.
Ex refinery gate means the point at which a petroleum product leaves the refinery.
Experimental furnace means a glass melting furnace with the sole purpose of operating to evaluate glass melting processes, technologies, or glass products. An experimental furnace does not produce glass that is sold (except for further research and development purposes) or that is used as a raw material for non-experimental furnaces.
Export means to transport a product from inside the United States to persons outside the United States, excluding any such transport on behalf of the United States military including foreign military sales under the Arms Export Control Act.
Exporter means any person, company or organization of record that transfers for sale or for other benefit, domestic products from the United States to another country or to an affiliate in another country, excluding any such transfers on behalf of the United States military or military purposes including foreign military sales under the Arms Export Control Act. An exporter is not the entity merely transporting the domestic products, rather an exporter is the entity deriving the principal benefit from the transaction.
Facility means any physical property, plant, building, structure, source, or stationary equipment located on one or more contiguous or adjacent properties in actual physical contact or separated solely by a public roadway or other public right-of-way and under common ownership or common control, that emits or may emit any greenhouse gas. Operators of military installations may classify such installations as more than a single facility based on distinct and independent functional groupings within contiguous military properties.
Feed means the prepared and mixed materials, which include but are not limited to materials such as limestone, clay, shale, sand, iron ore, mill scale, cement kiln dust and flyash, that are fed to the kiln. Feed does not include the fuels used in the kiln to produce heat to form the clinker product.
Feedstock means raw material inputs to a process that are transformed by reaction, oxidation, or other chemical or physical methods into products and by- products. Supplemental fuel burned to provide heat or thermal energy is not a feedstock.
Fischer-Tropsch process means a catalyzed chemical reaction in which synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, is converted into liquid hydrocarbons of various forms.
Flare means a combustion device, whether at ground level or elevated, that uses an open flame to burn combustible gases with combustion air provided by uncontrolled ambient air around the flame.
Flat glass means glass made of soda-lime recipe and produced into continuous flat sheets and other products listed in NAICS 327211.
Flowmeter means a device that measures the mass or volumetric rate of flow of a gas, liquid, or solid moving through an open or closed conduit (e.g. flowmeters include, but are not limited to, rotameters, turbine meters, coriolis meters, orifice meters, ultra-sonic flowmeters, and vortex flowmeters).
Fluid coking unit means one or more refinery process units in which high molecular weight petroleum derivatives are thermally cracked and petroleum coke is continuously produced in a fluidized bed system. The fluid coking unit includes equipment for controlling air pollutant emissions and for heat recovery on the fluid coking burner exhaust vent. There are two basic types of fluid coking units: A traditional fluid coking unit in which only a small portion of the coke produced in the unit is burned to fuel the unit and the fluid coking burner exhaust vent is directed to the atmosphere (after processing in a CO boiler or other air pollutant control equipment) and a flexicoking unit in which an auxiliary burner is used to partially combust a significant portion of the produced petroleum coke to generate a low value fuel gas that is used as fuel in other combustion sources at the refinery.
Fluorinated acetates means fluorinated GHGs that are composed of an acetate group with one or more valence locations on the methyl group of the acetate occupied by fluorine atoms (e.g., CFH2C(O)O-, CF2HC(O)O-) and, linked to the single-bonded oxygen of the acetate group, another hydrocarbon group in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms may be replaced by fluorine atoms.
Fluorinated alcohols other than fluorotelomer alcohols means fluorinated GHGs that include an alcohol functional group (-OH) and that do not meet the definition of fluorotelomer alcohols.
Fluorinated formates means fluorinated GHGs that are composed of a formate group -OCH(O) (carbonyl group with a single-bonded oxygen, and with a hydrogen atom) that is linked on the single-bonded oxygen atom to a hydrocarbon group in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms in the hydrocarbon group is replaced by fluorine atoms; the typical formula for fluorinated formates is FnROCH(O).
Fluorinated greenhouse gas means sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), nitrogen trifluoride (NF3), and any fluorocarbon except for controlled substances as defined at 40 CFR part 82, subpart A and substances with vapor pressures of less than 1 mm of Hg absolute at 25 degrees C. With these exceptions, “fluorinated GHG” includes but is not limited to any hydrofluorocarbon, any perfluorocarbon, any fully fluorinated linear, branched or cyclic alkane, ether, tertiary amine or aminoether, any perfluoropolyether, and any hydrofluoropolyether.
Fluorinated greenhouse gas (GHG) group means one of the following sets of fluorinated GHGs: Fully fluorinated GHGs; saturated hydrofluorocarbons with 2 or fewer carbon-hydrogen bonds; saturated hydrofluorocarbons with 3 or more carbon-hydrogen bonds; saturated hydrofluoroethers and hydrochlorofluoroethers with 1 carbon-hydrogen bond; saturated hydrofluoroethers and hydrochlorofluoroethers with 2 carbon-hydrogen bonds; saturated hydrofluoroethers and hydrochlorofluoroethers with 3 or more carbon-hydrogen bonds; fluorinated formates; fluorinated acetates, carbonofluoridates, and fluorinated alcohols other than fluorotelomer alcohols; unsaturated PFCs, unsaturated HFCs, unsaturated HCFCs, unsaturated halogenated ethers, unsaturated halogenated esters, fluorinated aldehydes, and fluorinated ketones; fluorotelomer alcohols; fluorinated GHGs with carbon-iodine bonds; or other fluorinated GHGs.
Fluorotelomer alcohols means fluorinated GHGs with the chemical formula CnF2n + 1CH2CH2OH.
Fractionators means plants that produce fractionated natural gas liquids (NGLs) extracted from produced natural gas and separate the NGLs individual component products: ethane, propane, butanes and pentane-plus (C5 + ). Plants that only process natural gas but do not fractionate NGLs further into component products are not considered fractionators. Some fractionators do not process production gas, but instead fractionate bulk NGLs received from natural gas processors. Some fractionators both process natural gas and fractionate bulk NGLs received from other plants.
Fuel means solid, liquid or gaseous combustible material.
Fuel gas system means a system of compressors, piping, knock-out pots, mix drums, and, if necessary, units used to remove sulfur contaminants from the fuel gas (e.g., amine scrubbers) that collects fuel gas from one or more sources for treatment, as necessary, and transport to a stationary combustion unit. A fuel gas system may have an overpressure vent to a flare but the primary purpose for a fuel gas system is to provide fuel to the various combustion units at the refinery or petrochemical plant.
Fully fluorinated GHGs means fluorinated GHGs that contain only single bonds and in which all available valence locations are filled by fluorine atoms. This includes but is not limited to: Saturated perfluorocarbons; SF6; NF3; SF5CF3; fully fluorinated linear, branched, and cyclic alkanes; fully fluorinated ethers; fully fluorinated tertiary amines; fully fluorinated aminoethers; and perfluoropolyethers.
Furnace slag means a by-product formed in metal melting furnaces when slagging agents, reducing agents, and/or fluxes (e.g., coke ash, limestone, silicates) are added to remove impurities from the molten metal.
Gas collection system or landfill gas collection system means a system of pipes used to collect landfill gas from different locations in the landfill by means of a fan or similar mechanical draft equipment (forced convection) to a single location for treatment (thermal destruction) or use. Landfill gas collection systems may also include knock-out or separator drums and/or a compressor. A single landfill may have multiple gas collection systems. Landfill gas collection systems do not include “passive” systems, whereby landfill gas flows naturally (without forced convection) to the surface of the landfill where an opening or pipe (vent) is installed to allow for the flow of landfill gas to the atmosphere or to a remote flare installed to combust landfill gas that is passively emitted from the vent. Landfill gas collection systems also do not include “active venting” systems, whereby landfill gas is conveyed to the surface of the landfill using forced convection, but the landfill gas is never recovered or thermally destroyed prior to release to the atmosphere.
Gas conditions mean the actual temperature, volume, and pressure of a gas sample.
Gas-fired unit means a stationary combustion unit that derives more than 50 percent of its annual heat input from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and the remainder of its annual heat input from the combustion of fuel oil or other liquid fuels.
Gas monitor means an instrument that continuously measures the concentration of a particular gaseous species in the effluent of a stationary source.
Gasification means the conversion of a solid or liquid raw material into a gas.
Gasoline - Other is any gasoline that is not defined elsewhere, including GTAB (gasoline treated as blendstock).
Glass melting furnace means a unit comprising a refractory-lined vessel in which raw materials are charged and melted at high temperature to produce molten glass.
Glass produced means the weight of glass exiting a glass melting furnace.
Global warming potential or GWP means the ratio of the time-integrated radiative forcing from the instantaneous release of one kilogram of a trace substance relative to that of one kilogram of a reference gas (i.e., CO2). GWPs for each greenhouse gas are provided in Table A-1 of this subpart. For purposes of the calculations in this part, if the GHG has a chemical-specific GWP listed in Table A-1, use that GWP. Otherwise, use the default GWP provided in Table A-1 for the fluorinated GHG group of which the GHG is a member.
GPA means the Gas Processors Association.
Greenhouse gas or GHG means carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and other fluorinated greenhouse gases as defined in this section.
GTBA (gasoline-grade tertiary butyl alcohol, (CH3)3COH), or t-butanol, is an alcohol as described in “Oxygenates.”
Heavy Gas Oils are petroleum distillates with an approximate boiling range from 651 °F to 1,000 °F.
High-bleed pneumatic devices are automated, continuous bleed flow control devices powered by pressurized natural gas and used for maintaining a process condition such as liquid level, pressure, delta-pressure and temperature. Part of the gas power stream that is regulated by the process condition flows to a valve actuator controller where it vents continuously (bleeds) to the atmosphere at a rate in excess of 6 standard cubic feet per hour.
Hydrofluorocarbons or HFCs means a class of GHGs consisting of hydrogen, fluorine, and carbon.
Import means, to land on, bring into, or introduce into, any place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States whether or not such landing, bringing, or introduction constitutes an importation within the meaning of the customs laws of the United States, with the following exemptions:
(1) Off-loading used or excess fluorinated GHGs or nitrous oxide of U.S. origin from a ship during servicing.
(2) Bringing fluorinated GHGs or nitrous oxide into the U.S. from Mexico where the fluorinated GHGs or nitrous oxide had been admitted into Mexico in bond and were of U.S. origin.
(3) Bringing fluorinated GHGs or nitrous oxide into the U.S. when transported in a consignment of personal or household effects or in a similar non-commercial situation normally exempted from U.S. Customs attention.
(4) Bringing fluorinated GHGs or nitrous into U.S. jurisdiction exclusively for U. S. military purposes.
Importer means any person, company, or organization of record that for any reason brings a product into the United States from a foreign country, excluding introduction into U.S. jurisdiction exclusively for United States military purposes. An importer is the person, company, or organization primarily liable for the payment of any duties on the merchandise or an authorized agent acting on their behalf. The term includes, as appropriate:
(1) The consignee.
(2) The importer of record.
(3) The actual owner.
(4) The transferee, if the right to draw merchandise in a bonded warehouse has been transferred.
Indurating furnace means a furnace where unfired taconite pellets, called green balls, are hardened at high temperatures to produce fired pellets for use in a blast furnace. Types of indurating furnaces include straight gate and grate kiln furnaces.
Industrial greenhouse gases means nitrous oxide or any fluorinated greenhouse gas.
In-line kiln/raw mill means a system in a portland cement production process where a dry kiln system is integrated with the raw mill so that all or a portion of the kiln exhaust gases are used to perform the drying operation of the raw mill, with no auxiliary heat source used. In this system the kiln is capable of operating without the raw mill operating, but the raw mill cannot operate without the kiln gases, and consequently, the raw mill does not generate a separate exhaust gas stream.
Intermittent bleed pneumatic devices mean automated flow control devices powered by pressurized natural gas and used for automatically maintaining a process condition such as liquid level, pressure, delta-pressure and temperature. These are snap-acting or throttling devices that discharge all or a portion of the full volume of the actuator intermittently when control action is necessary, but does not bleed continuously.
Isobutane is a paraffinic branch chain hydrocarbon with molecular formula C4H10.
Isobutylene is an olefinic branch chain hydrocarbon with molecular formula C4H8.
Kerosene is a light petroleum distillate with a maximum distillation temperature of 400 °F at the 10-percent recovery point, a final maximum boiling point of 572 °F, a minimum flash point of 100 °F, and a maximum freezing point of −22 °F. Included are No. 1-K and No. 2-K, distinguished by maximum sulfur content (0.04 and 0.30 percent of total mass, respectively), as well as all other grades of kerosene called range or stove oil. Excluded is kerosene-type jet fuel (see definition herein).
Kerosene-type jet fuel means a kerosene-based product used in commercial and military turbojet and turboprop aircraft. The product has a maximum distillation temperature of 400 °F at the 10 percent recovery point and a final maximum boiling point of 572 °F. Included are Jet A, Jet A-1, JP-5, and JP-8.
Landfill means an area of land or an excavation in which wastes are placed for permanent disposal and that is not a land application unit, surface impoundment, injection well, or waste pile as those terms are defined under 40 CFR 257.2.
Landfill gas means gas produced as a result of anaerobic decomposition of waste materials in the landfill. Landfill gas generally contains 40 to 60 percent methane on a dry basis, typically less than 1 percent non-methane organic chemicals, and the remainder being carbon dioxide.
Liberated means released from coal and surrounding rock strata during the mining process. This includes both methane emitted from the ventilation system and methane drained from degasification systems.
Lime is the generic term for a variety of chemical compounds that are produced by the calcination of limestone or dolomite. These products include but are not limited to calcium oxide, high-calcium quicklime, calcium hydroxide, hydrated lime, dolomitic quicklime, and dolomitic hydrate.
Liquid/Slurry means a manure management component in which manure is stored as excreted or with some minimal addition of water to facilitate handling and is stored in either tanks or earthen ponds, usually for periods less than one year.
Low-bleed pneumatic devices mean automated flow control devices powered by pressurized natural gas and used for maintaining a process condition such as liquid level, pressure, delta-pressure and temperature. Part of the gas power stream that is regulated by the process condition flows to a valve actuator controller where it vents continuously (bleeds) to the atmosphere at a rate equal to or less than six standard cubic feet per hour.
Manure composting means the biological oxidation of a solid waste including manure usually with bedding or another organic carbon source typically at thermophilic temperatures produced by microbial heat production. There are four types of composting employed for manure management: Static, in vessel, intensive windrow and passive windrow. Static composting typically occurs in an enclosed channel, with forced aeration and continuous mixing. In vessel composting occurs in piles with forced aeration but no mixing. Intensive windrow composting occurs in windrows with regular turning for mixing and aeration. Passive windrow composting occurs in windrows with infrequent turning for mixing and aeration.
Maximum rated heat input capacity means the hourly heat input to a unit (in mmBtu/hr), when it combusts the maximum amount of fuel per hour that it is capable of combusting on a steady state basis, as of the initial installation of the unit, as specified by the manufacturer.
Maximum rated input capacity means the maximum charging rate of a municipal waste combustor unit expressed in tons per day of municipal solid waste combusted, calculated according to the procedures under 40 CFR 60.58b(j).
Mcf means thousand cubic feet.
Methane conversion factor means the extent to which the CH4 producing capacity (Bo) is realized in each type of treatment and discharge pathway and system. Thus, it is an indication of the degree to which the system is anaerobic.
Methane correction factor means an adjustment factor applied to the methane generation rate to account for portions of the landfill that remain aerobic. The methane correction factor can be considered the fraction of the total landfill waste volume that is ultimately disposed of in an anaerobic state. Managed landfills that have soil or other cover materials have a methane correction factor of 1.
Methanol (CH3OH) is an alcohol as described in “Oxygenates.”
Midgrade gasoline has an octane rating greater than or equal to 88 and less than or equal to 90. This definition applies to the midgrade categories of Conventional-Summer, Conventional-Winter, Reformulated-Summer, and Reformulated-Winter. For midgrade categories of RBOB-Summer, RBOB-Winter, CBOB-Summer, and CBOB-Winter, this definition refers to the expected octane rating of the finished gasoline after oxygenate has been added to the RBOB or CBOB.
Miscellaneous products include all refined petroleum products not defined elsewhere. It includes, but is not limited to, naphtha-type jet fuel (Jet B and JP-4), petrolatum lube refining by-products (aromatic extracts and tars), absorption oils, ram-jet fuel, petroleum rocket fuels, synthetic natural gas feedstocks, waste feedstocks, and specialty oils. It excludes organic waste sludges, tank bottoms, spent catalysts, and sulfuric acid.
MMBtu means million British thermal units.
Motor gasoline (finished) means a complex mixture of volatile hydrocarbons, with or without additives, suitably blended to be used in spark ignition engines. Motor gasoline includes conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, and all types of oxygenated gasoline. Gasoline also has seasonal variations in an effort to control ozone levels. This is achieved by lowering the Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) of gasoline during the summer driving season. Depending on the region of the country the RVP is lowered to below 9.0 psi or 7.8 psi. The RVP may be further lowered by state regulations.
Mscf means thousand standard cubic feet.
MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether, (CH3)3COCH3) is an ether as described in “Oxygenates.”
Municipal solid waste landfill or MSW landfill means an entire disposal facility in a contiguous geographical space where household waste is placed in or on land. An MSW landfill may also receive other types of RCRA Subtitle D wastes (40 CFR 257.2) such as commercial solid waste, nonhazardous sludge, conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste, and industrial solid waste. Portions of an MSW landfill may be separated by access roads, public roadways, or other public right-of-ways. An MSW landfill may be publicly or privately owned.
Municipal solid waste or MSW means solid phase household, commercial/retail, and/or institutional waste. Household waste includes material discarded by single and multiple residential dwellings, hotels, motels, and other similar permanent or temporary housing establishments or facilities. Commercial/retail waste includes material discarded by stores, offices, restaurants, warehouses, non-manufacturing activities at industrial facilities, and other similar establishments or facilities. Institutional waste includes material discarded by schools, nonmedical waste discarded by hospitals, material discarded by non-manufacturing activities at prisons and government facilities, and material discarded by other similar establishments or facilities. Household, commercial/retail, and institutional wastes include yard waste, refuse-derived fuel, and motor vehicle maintenance materials. Insofar as there is separate collection, processing and disposal of industrial source waste streams consisting of used oil, wood pallets, construction, renovation, and demolition wastes (which includes, but is not limited to, railroad ties and telephone poles), paper, clean wood, plastics, industrial process or manufacturing wastes, medical waste, motor vehicle parts or vehicle fluff, or used tires that do not contain hazardous waste identified or listed under 42 U.S.C. § 6921, such wastes are not municipal solid waste. However, such wastes qualify as municipal solid waste where they are collected with other municipal solid waste or are otherwise combined with other municipal solid waste for processing and/or disposal.
Municipal wastewater treatment plant means a series of treatment processes used to remove contaminants and pollutants from domestic, business, and industrial wastewater collected in city sewers and transported to a centralized wastewater treatment system such as a publicly owned treatment works (POTW).
N2O means nitrous oxide.
Naphthas (<401 °F) is a generic term applied to a petroleum fraction with an approximate boiling range between 122 °F and 400 °F. The naphtha fraction of crude oil is the raw material for gasoline and is composed largely of paraffinic hydrocarbons.
Natural gas means a naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gases found in geologic formations beneath the earth's surface, of which the principal constituent is methane. Natural gas may be field quality or pipeline quality.
Natural gas driven pneumatic pump means a pump that uses pressurized natural gas to move a piston or diaphragm, which pumps liquids on the opposite side of the piston or diaphragm.
Natural gas liquids (NGLs) means those hydrocarbons in natural gas that are separated from the gas as liquids through the process of absorption, condensation, adsorption, or other methods. Generally, such liquids consist of ethane, propane, butanes, and pentanes plus. Bulk NGLs refers to mixtures of NGLs that are sold or delivered as undifferentiated product from natural gas processing plants.
Natural gasoline means a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons (mostly pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons) extracted from natural gas. It includes isopentane.
NIST means the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Nitric acid production line means a series of reactors and absorbers used to produce nitric acid.
Nitrogen excreted is the nitrogen that is excreted by livestock in manure and urine.
Non-recovery coke oven battery means a group of ovens connected by common walls and operated as a unit, where coal undergoes destructive distillation under negative pressure to produce coke, and which is designed for the combustion of the coke oven gas from which by-products are not recovered.
North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code(s) means the six-digit code(s) that represents the product(s)/activity(s)/service(s) at a facility or supplier as listed in the Federal Register and defined in “North American Industrial Classification System Manual 2007,” available from the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service, Alexandria, VA 22312, phone (703) 605-6000 or (800) 553-6847. http://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/.
Oil-fired unit means a stationary combustion unit that derives more than 50 percent of its annual heat input from the combustion of fuel oil, and the remainder of its annual heat input from the combustion of natural gas or other gaseous fuels.
Open-ended valve or lines (OELs) means any valve, except pressure relief valves, having one side of the valve seat in contact with process fluid and one side open to atmosphere, either directly or through open piping.
Other fluorinated GHGs means fluorinated GHGs that are none of the following: Fully fluorinated GHGs; saturated hydrofluorocarbons with 2 or fewer carbon-hydrogen bonds; saturated hydrofluorocarbons with 3 or more carbon-hydrogen bonds; saturated hydrofluoroethers and hydrochlorofluoroethers with 1 carbon-hydrogen bond; saturated hydrofluoroethers and hydrochlorofluoroethers with 2 carbon-hydrogen bonds; saturated hydrofluoroethers and hydrochlorofluoroethers with 3 or more carbon-hydrogen bonds; fluorinated formates; fluorinated acetates, carbonofluoridates, and fluorinated alcohols other than fluorotelomer alcohols; unsaturated PFCs, unsaturated HFCs, unsaturated HCFCs, unsaturated halogenated ethers, unsaturated halogenated esters, fluorinated aldehydes, and fluorinated ketones; fluorotelomer alcohols; or fluorinated GHGs with carbon-iodine bonds.
Outer Continental Shelf means all submerged lands lying seaward and outside of the area of lands beneath navigable waters as defined in 43 U.S.C. 1331, and of which the subsoil and seabed appertain to the United States and are subject to its jurisdiction and control.
Owner means any person who has legal or equitable title to, has a leasehold interest in, or control of a facility or supplier, except a person whose legal or equitable title to or leasehold interest in the facility or supplier arises solely because the person is a limited partner in a partnership that has legal or equitable title to, has a leasehold interest in, or control of the facility or supplier shall not be considered an “owner” of the facility or supplier.
Oxygenates means substances which, when added to gasoline, increase the oxygen content of the gasoline. Common oxygenates are ethanol, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), diisopropyl ether (DIPE), and methanol.
Pasture/Range/Paddock means the manure from pasture and range grazing animals is allowed to lie as deposited, and is not managed.
Pentanes plus, or C5 + , is a mixture of hydrocarbons that is a liquid at ambient temperature and pressure, and consists mostly of pentanes (five carbon chain) and higher carbon number hydrocarbons. Pentanes plus includes, but is not limited to, normal pentane, isopentane, hexanes-plus (natural gasoline), and plant condensate.
Perfluorocarbons or PFCs means a class of greenhouse gases consisting on the molecular level of carbon and fluorine.
Petrochemical feedstocks means feedstocks derived from petroleum for the manufacture of chemicals, synthetic rubber, and a variety of plastics. This category is usually divided into naphthas less than 401 °F and other oils greater than 401 °F.
Petroleum coke means a black solid residue, obtained mainly by cracking and carbonizing of petroleum derived feedstocks, vacuum bottoms, tar and pitches in processes such as delayed coking or fluid coking. It consists mainly of carbon (90 to 95 percent), has low ash content, and may be used as a feedstock in coke ovens. This product is also known as marketable coke or catalyst coke.
Petroleum product means all refined and semi-refined products that are produced at a refinery by processing crude oil and other petroleum-based feedstocks, including petroleum products derived from co-processing biomass and petroleum feedstock together, but not including plastics or plastic products. Petroleum products may be combusted for energy use, or they may be used either for non-energy processes or as non-energy products. The definition of petroleum product for importers and exporters excludes waxes.
Pit storage below animal confinement (deep pits) means the collection and storage of manure typically below a slatted floor in an enclosed animal confinement facility. This usually occurs with little or no added water for periods less than one year.
Plant code means either of the following:
(1) The Plant ID code assigned by the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration. The Energy Information Administration Plant ID code is also referred to as the “ORIS code”, “ORISPL code”, “Facility ID”, or “Facility code”, among other names.
(2) If a Plant ID code has not been assigned by the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration, then plant code means a code beginning with “88” assigned by the EPA's Clean Air Markets Division for electronic reporting.
Portable means designed and capable of being carried or moved from one location to another. Indications of portability include but are not limited to wheels, skids, carrying handles, dolly, trailer, or platform. Equipment is not portable if any one of the following conditions exists:
(1) The equipment is attached to a foundation.
(2) The equipment or a replacement resides at the same location for more than 12 consecutive months.
(3) The equipment is located at a seasonal facility and operates during the full annual operating period of the seasonal facility, remains at the facility for at least two years, and operates at that facility for at least three months each year.
(4) The equipment is moved from one location to another in an attempt to circumvent the portable residence time requirements of this definition.
Poultry manure with litter means a manure management system component that is similar to cattle and swine deep bedding except usually not combined with a dry lot or pasture. The system is typically used for poultry breeder flocks and for the production of meat type chickens (broiler) and other fowl.
Poultry manure without litter means a manure management system component that may manage manure in a liquid form, similar to open pits in enclosed animal confinement facilities. These systems may alternatively be designed and operated to dry manure as it accumulates. The latter is known as a high-rise manure management system and is a form of passive windrow manure composting when designed and operated properly.
Precision of a measurement at a specified level (e.g., one percent of full scale or one percent of the value measured) means that 95 percent of repeat measurements made by a device or technique are within the range bounded by the mean of the measurements plus or minus the specified level.
Premium grade gasoline is gasoline having an antiknock index, i.e., octane rating, greater than 90. This definition applies to the premium grade categories of Conventional-Summer, Conventional-Winter, Reformulated-Summer, and Reformulated-Winter. For premium grade categories of RBOB-Summer, RBOB-Winter, CBOB-Summer, and CBOB-Winter, this definition refers to the expected octane rating of the finished gasoline after oxygenate has been added to the RBOB or CBOB.
Pressure relief device or pressure relief valve or pressure safety valve means a safety device used to prevent operating pressures from exceeding the maximum allowable working pressure of the process equipment. A common pressure relief device is but not limited to a spring-loaded pressure relief valve. Devices that are actuated either by a pressure of less than or equal to 2.5 psig or by a vacuum are not pressure relief devices.
Process emissions means the emissions from industrial processes (e.g., cement production, ammonia production) involving chemical or physical transformations other than fuel combustion. For example, the calcination of carbonates in a kiln during cement production or the oxidation of methane in an ammonia process results in the release of process CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Emissions from fuel combustion to provide process heat are not part of process emissions, whether the combustion is internal or external to the process equipment.
Process unit means the equipment assembled and connected by pipes and ducts to process raw materials and to manufacture either a final product or an intermediate used in the onsite production of other products. The process unit also includes the purification of recovered byproducts.
Process vent means means a gas stream that: Is discharged through a conveyance to the atmosphere either directly or after passing through a control device; originates from a unit operation, including but not limited to reactors (including reformers, crackers, and furnaces, and separation equipment for products and recovered by products); and contains or has the potential to contain GHG that is generated in the process. Process vent does not include safety device discharges, equipment leaks, gas streams routed to a fuel gas system or to a flare, discharges from storage tanks.
Propane is a paraffinic hydrocarbon with molecular formula C3H8.
Propylene is an olefinic hydrocarbon with molecular formula C3H6.
Pulp mill lime kiln means the combustion units (e.g., rotary lime kiln or fluidized bed calciner) used at a kraft or soda pulp mill to calcine lime mud, which consists primarily of calcium carbonate, into quicklime, which is calcium oxide.
Pushing means the process of removing the coke from the coke oven at the end of the coking cycle. Pushing begins when coke first begins to fall from the oven into the quench car and ends when the quench car enters the quench tower.
Raw mill means a ball and tube mill, vertical roller mill or other size reduction equipment, that is not part of an in-line kiln/raw mill, used to grind feed to the appropriate size. Moisture may be added or removed from the feed during the grinding operation. If the raw mill is used to remove moisture from feed materials, it is also, by definition, a raw material dryer. The raw mill also includes the air separator associated with the raw mill.
RBOB-Summer (reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending) means a petroleum product which, when blended with a specified type and percentage of oxygenate, meets the definition of Reformulated-Summer.
RBOB-Winter (reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending) means a petroleum product which, when blended with a specified type and percentage of oxygenate, meets the definition of Reformulated-Winter.
Reciprocating compressor means a piece of equipment that increases the pressure of a process natural gas or CO2 by positive displacement, employing linear movement of a shaft driving a piston in a cylinder.
Reciprocating compressor rod packing means a series of flexible rings in machined metal cups that fit around the reciprocating compressor piston rod to create a seal limiting the amount of compressed natural gas or CO2 that escapes to the atmosphere.
Re-condenser means heat exchangers that cool compressed boil-off gas to a temperature that will condense natural gas to a liquid.
Reformulated-Summer refers to finished gasoline formulated for use in motor vehicles, the composition and properties of which meet the requirements of the reformulated gasoline regulations promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under 40 CFR 80.40 and 40 CFR 80.41, and summer RVP standards required under 40 CFR 80.27 or as specified by the state. Reformulated gasoline excludes Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock.
Reformulated-Winter refers to finished gasoline formulated for use in motor vehicles, the composition and properties of which meet the requirements of the reformulated gasoline regulations promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under 40 CFR 80.40 and 40 CFR 80.41, but which do not meet summer RVP standards required under 40 CFR 80.27 or as specified by the state. Note: This category includes Oxygenated Fuels Program Reformulated Gasoline (OPRG). Reformulated gasoline excludes Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock.
Regular grade gasoline is gasoline having an antiknock index, i.e., octane rating, greater than or equal to 85 and less than 88. This definition applies to the regular grade categories of Conventional-Summer, Conventional-Winter, Reformulated-Summer, and Reformulated-Winter. For regular grade categories of RBOB-Summer, RBOB-Winter, CBOB-Summer, and CBOB-Winter, this definition refers to the expected octane rating of the finished gasoline after oxygenate has been added to the RBOB or CBOB.
Reporting year means the calendar year during which the GHG data are required to be collected for purposes of the annual GHG report. For example, reporting year 2014 is January 1, 2014 through December 31, 2014, and the annual report for reporting year 2014 is submitted to EPA on March 31, 2015.
Research and development means those activities conducted in process units or at laboratory bench-scale settings whose purpose is to conduct research and development for new processes, technologies, or products and whose purpose is not for the manufacture of products for commercial sale, except in a de minimis manner.
Residual Fuel Oil No. 5 (Navy Special) is a classification for the heavier fuel oil generally used in steam powered vessels in government service and inshore power plants. It has a minimum flash point of 131 °F.
Residual Fuel Oil No. 6 (a.k.a. Bunker C) is a classification for the heavier fuel oil generally used for the production of electric power, space heating, vessel bunkering and various industrial purposes. It has a minimum flash point of 140 °F.
Residuum is residue from crude oil after distilling off all but the heaviest components, with a boiling range greater than 1,000 °F.
Road oil is any heavy petroleum oil, including residual asphaltic oil used as a dust palliative and surface treatment on roads and highways. It is generally produced in six grades, from 0, the most liquid, to 5, the most viscous.
Safety device means a closure device such as a pressure relief valve, frangible disc, fusible plug, or any other type of device which functions exclusively to prevent physical damage or permanent deformation to a unit or its air emission control equipment by venting gases or vapors directly to the atmosphere during unsafe conditions resulting from an unplanned, accidental, or emergency event. A safety device is not used for routine venting of gases or vapors from the vapor headspace underneath a cover such as during filling of the unit or to adjust the pressure in response to normal daily diurnal ambient temperature fluctuations. A safety device is designed to remain in a closed position during normal operations and open only when the internal pressure, or another relevant parameter, exceeds the device threshold setting applicable to the air emission control equipment as determined by the owner or operator based on manufacturer recommendations, applicable regulations, fire protection and prevention codes and practices, or other requirements for the safe handling of flammable, combustible, explosive, reactive, or hazardous materials.
Saturated hydrochlorofluoroethers (HCFEs) means fluorinated GHGs in which two hydrocarbon groups are linked by an oxygen atom; in which two or more, but not all, of the hydrogen atoms in the hydrocarbon groups have been replaced by fluorine atoms and chlorine atoms; and which contain only single bonds.
Saturated hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) means fluorinated GHGs that are hydrofluorocarbons and that contain only single bonds.
Saturated hydrofluoroethers (HFEs) means fluorinated GHGs in which two hydrocarbon groups are linked by an oxygen atom; in which one or more, but not all, of the hydrogen atoms in the hydrocarbon groups have been replaced by fluorine atoms; and which contain only single bonds.
Semi-refined petroleum product means all oils requiring further processing. Included in this category are unfinished oils which are produced by the partial refining of crude oil and include the following: Naphthas and lighter oils; kerosene and light gas oils; heavy gas oils; and residuum, and all products that require further processing or the addition of blendstocks.
Sendout means, in the context of a local distribution company, the total deliveries of natural gas to customers over a specified time interval (typically hour, day, month, or year). Sendout is the sum of gas received through the city gate, gas withdrawn from on-system storage or peak shaving plants, and gas produced and delivered into the distribution system; and is net of any natural gas injected into on-system storage. It comprises gas sales, exchange, deliveries, gas used by company, and unaccounted for gas. Sendout is measured at the city gate station, and other on-system receipt points from storage, peak shaving, and production.
Sensor means a device that measures a physical quantity/quality or the change in a physical quantity/quality, such as temperature, pressure, flow rate, pH, or liquid level.
SF6 means sulfur hexafluoride.
Shutdown means the cessation of operation of an emission source for any purpose.
Silicon carbide means an artificial abrasive produced from silica sand or quartz and petroleum coke.
Sinter process means a process that produces a fused aggregate of fine iron-bearing materials suited for use in a blast furnace. The sinter machine is composed of a continuous traveling grate that conveys a bed of ore fines and other finely divided iron-bearing material and fuel (typically coke breeze), a burner at the feed end of the grate for ignition, and a series of downdraft windboxes along the length of the strand to support downdraft combustion and heat sufficient to produce a fused sinter product.
Site means any combination of one or more graded pad sites, gravel pad sites, foundations, platforms, or the immediate physical location upon which equipment is physically located.
Solid storage is the storage of manure, typically for a period of several months, in unconfined piles or stacks. Manure is able to be stacked due to the presence of a sufficient amount of bedding material or loss of moisture by evaporation.
Sour natural gas means natural gas that contains significant concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S)and/or carbon dioxide (CO2) that exceed the concentrations specified for commercially saleable natural gas delivered from transmission and distribution pipelines.
Special naphthas means all finished products with the naphtha boiling range (290 ° to 470 °F) that are generally used as paint thinners, cleaners or solvents. These products are refined to a specified flash point. Special naphthas include all commercial hexane and cleaning solvents conforming to ASTM Specification D1836-07, Standard Specification for Commercial Hexanes, and D235-02 (Reapproved 2007), Standard Specification for Mineral Spirits (Petroleum Spirits) (Hydrocarbon Dry Cleaning Solvent), respectively. Naphthas to be blended or marketed as motor gasoline or aviation gasoline, or that are to be used as petrochemical and synthetic natural gas (SNG) feedstocks are excluded.
Spent pulping liquor means the residual liquid collected from on-site pulping operations at chemical pulp facilities that is subsequently fired in chemical recovery furnaces at kraft and soda pulp facilities or chemical recovery combustion units at sulfite or semi-chemical pulp facilities.
Standard conditions or standard temperature and pressure (STP), for the purposes of this part, means either 60 or 68 degrees Fahrenheit and 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute.
Steam reforming means a catalytic process that involves a reaction between natural gas or other light hydrocarbons and steam. The result is a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water.
Still gas means any form or mixture of gases produced in refineries by distillation, cracking, reforming, and other processes. The principal constituents are methane, ethane, ethylene, normal butane, butylene, propane, and propylene.
Storage tank means a vessel (excluding sumps) that is designed to contain an accumulation of crude oil, condensate, intermediate hydrocarbon liquids, or produced water and that is constructed entirely of non-earthen materials (e.g., wood, concrete, steel, plastic) that provide structural support.
Sulfur recovery plant means all process units which recover sulfur or produce sulfuric acid from hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and/or sulfur dioxide (SO2) from a common source of sour gas at a petroleum refinery. The sulfur recovery plant also includes sulfur pits used to store the recovered sulfur product, but it does not include secondary sulfur storage vessels or loading facilities downstream of the sulfur pits. For example, a Claus sulfur recovery plant includes: Reactor furnace and waste heat boiler, catalytic reactors, sulfur pits, and, if present, oxidation or reduction control systems, or incinerator, thermal oxidizer, or similar combustion device. Multiple sulfur recovery units are a single sulfur recovery plant only when the units share the same source of sour gas. Sulfur recovery units that receive source gas from completely segregated sour gas treatment systems are separate sulfur recovery plants.
Sweet gas is natural gas with low concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and/or carbon dioxide (CO2) that does not require (or has already had) acid gas treatment to meet pipeline corrosion-prevention specifications for transmission and distribution.
Taconite iron ore processing means an industrial process that separates and concentrates iron ore from taconite, a low grade iron ore, and heats the taconite in an indurating furnace to produce taconite pellets that are used as the primary feed material for the production of iron in blast furnaces at integrated iron and steel plants.
TAME means tertiary amyl methyl ether, (CH3)2(C2H5)COCH3).
Trace concentrations means concentrations of less than 0.1 percent by mass of the process stream.
Transform means to use and entirely consume (except for trace concentrations) nitrous oxide or fluorinated GHGs in the manufacturing of other chemicals for commercial purposes. Transformation does not include burning of nitrous oxide.
Transshipment means the continuous shipment of nitrous oxide or a fluorinated GHG from a foreign state of origin through the United States or its territories to a second foreign state of final destination, as long as the shipment does not enter into United States jurisdiction. A transshipment, as it moves through the United States or its territories, cannot be re-packaged, sorted or otherwise changed in condition.
Ultimate analysis means the determination of the percentages of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine and (by difference) oxygen in the gaseous products and ash after the complete combustion of a sample of an organic material.
Unfinished oils are all oils requiring further processing, except those requiring only mechanical blending.
United States means the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and any other Commonwealth, territory or possession of the United States, as well as the territorial sea as defined by Presidential Proclamation No. 5928.
United States parent company(s) means the highest-level United States company(s) with an ownership interest in the facility or supplier as of December 31 of the year for which data are being reported.
Unsaturated halogenated ethers means fluorinated GHGs in which two hydrocarbon groups are linked by an oxygen atom; in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms in the hydrocarbon groups have been replaced by fluorine atoms; and which contain one or more bonds that are not single bonds. Unsaturated ethers include unsaturated HFEs.
Unsaturated hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) means fluorinated GHGs that contain only carbon, chlorine, fluorine, and hydrogen and that contain one or more bonds that are not single bonds.
Unsaturated hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) means fluorinated GHGs that are hydrofluorocarbons and that contain one or more bonds that are not single bonds.
Unsaturated perfluorocarbons (PFCs) means fluorinated GHGs that are perfluorocarbons and that contain one or more bonds that are not single bonds.
Unstabilized crude oil means, for the purposes of this part, crude oil that is pumped from the well to a pipeline or pressurized storage vessel for transport to the refinery without intermediate storage in a storage tank at atmospheric pressures. Unstabilized crude oil is characterized by having a true vapor pressure of 5 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) or greater.
Used oil means a petroleum-derived or synthetically-derived oil whose physical properties have changed as a result of handling or use, such that the oil cannot be used for its original purpose. Used oil consists primarily of automotive oils (e.g., used motor oil, transmission oil, hydraulic fluids, brake fluid, etc.) and industrial oils (e.g., industrial engine oils, metalworking oils, process oils, industrial grease, etc).
Valve means any device for halting or regulating the flow of a liquid or gas through a passage, pipeline, inlet, outlet, or orifice; including, but not limited to, gate, globe, plug, ball, butterfly and needle valves.
Vapor recovery system means any equipment located at the source of potential gas emissions to the atmosphere or to a flare, that is composed of piping, connections, and, if necessary, flow-inducing devices, and that is used for routing the gas back into the process as a product and/or fuel.
Ventilation hole or shaft means a vent hole, shaft, mine portal, adit or other mine entrance or exits employed at an underground coal mine to serve as the outlet or conduit to move air from the ventilation system out of the mine.
Ventilation system means a system that is used to control the concentration of methane and other gases within mine working areas through mine ventilation, rather than a mine degasification system. A ventilation system consists of fans that move air through the mine workings to dilute methane concentrations.
Volatile solids are the organic material in livestock manure and consist of both biodegradable and non-biodegradable fractions.
Waxes means a solid or semi-solid material at 77 °F consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbons obtained or derived from petroleum fractions, or through a Fischer-Tropsch type process, in which the straight chained paraffin series predominates. This includes all marketable wax, whether crude or refined, with a congealing point between 80 (or 85) and 240 °F and a maximum oil content of 50 weight percent.
Well completions means the process that allows for the flow of petroleum or natural gas from newly drilled wells to expel drilling and reservoir fluids and test the reservoir flow characteristics, steps which may vent produced gas to the atmosphere via an open pit or tank. Well completion also involves connecting the well bore to the reservoir, which may include treating the formation or installing tubing, packer(s), or lifting equipment, steps that do not significantly vent natural gas to the atmosphere. This process may also include high-rate flowback of injected gas, water, oil, and proppant used to fracture and prop open new fractures in existing lower permeability gas reservoirs, steps that may vent large quantities of produced gas to the atmosphere.
Well workover means the process(es) of performing one or more of a variety of remedial operations on producing petroleum and natural gas wells to try to increase production. This process also includes high-rate flowback of injected gas, water, oil, and proppant used to re-fracture and prop-open new fractures in existing low permeability gas reservoirs, steps that may vent large quantities of produced gas to the atmosphere.
Wellhead means the piping, casing, tubing and connected valves protruding above the earth's surface for an oil and/or natural gas well. The wellhead ends where the flow line connects to a wellhead valve. Wellhead equipment includes all equipment, permanent and portable, located on the improved land area (i.e. well pad) surrounding one or multiple wellheads.
Wet natural gas means natural gas in which water vapor exceeds the concentration specified for commercially saleable natural gas delivered from transmission and distribution pipelines. This input stream to a natural gas dehydrator is referred to as “wet gas.”
Wood residuals means materials recovered from three principal sources: Municipal solid waste (MSW); construction and demolition debris; and primary timber processing. Wood residuals recovered from MSW include wooden furniture, cabinets, pallets and containers, scrap lumber (from sources other than construction and demolition activities), and urban tree and landscape residues. Wood residuals from construction and demolition debris originate from the construction, repair, remodeling and demolition of houses and non-residential structures. Wood residuals from primary timber processing include bark, sawmill slabs and edgings, sawdust, and peeler log cores. Other sources of wood residuals include, but are not limited to, railroad ties, telephone and utility poles, pier and dock timbers, wastewater process sludge from paper mills, trim, sander dust, and sawdust from wood products manufacturing (including resinated wood product residuals), and logging residues.
Wool fiberglass means fibrous glass of random texture, including fiberglass insulation, and other products listed in NAICS 327993.
Working capacity, for the purposes of subpart TT of this part, means the maximum volume or mass of waste that is actually placed in the landfill from an individual or representative type of container (such as a tank, truck, or roll-off bin) used to convey wastes to the landfill, taking into account that the container may not be able to be 100 percent filled and/or 100 percent emptied for each load.
Zinc smelters means a facility engaged in the production of zinc metal, zinc oxide, or zinc alloy products from zinc sulfide ore concentrates, zinc calcine, or zinc-bearing scrap and recycled materials through the use of pyrometallurgical techniques involving the reduction and volatization of zinc-bearing feed materials charged to a furnace.