18 U.S. Code § 2333 - Civil remedies

§ 2333.
Civil remedies
(a)Action and Jurisdiction.—
Any national of the United States injured in his or her person, property, or business by reason of an act of international terrorism, or his or her estate, survivors, or heirs, may sue therefor in any appropriate district court of the United States and shall recover threefold the damages he or she sustains and the cost of the suit, including attorney’s fees.
(b)Estoppel Under United States Law.—
A final judgment or decree rendered in favor of the United States in any criminal proceeding under section 1116, 1201, 1203, or 2332 of this title or section 46314, 46502, 46505, or 46506 of title 49shall estop the defendant from denying the essential allegations of the criminal offense in any subsequent civil proceeding under this section.
(c)Estoppel Under Foreign Law.—
A final judgment or decree rendered in favor of any foreign state in any criminal proceeding shall, to the extent that such judgment or decree may be accorded full faith and credit under the law of the United States, estop the defendant from denying the essential allegations of the criminal offense in any subsequent civil proceeding under this section.
(d) Liability.—
(1)Definition.—
In this subsection, the term “person” has the meaning given the term in section 1 of title 1.
(2)Liability.—
In an action under subsection (a) for an injury arising from an act of international terrorism committed, planned, or authorized by an organization that had been designated as a foreign terrorist organization under section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1189), as of the date on which such act of international terrorism was committed, planned, or authorized, liability may be asserted as to any person who aids and abets, by knowingly providing substantial assistance, or who conspires with the person who committed such an act of international terrorism.
(Added Pub. L. 102–572, title X, § 1003(a)(4), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4522; amended Pub. L. 103–429, § 2(1), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4377; Pub. L. 114–222, § 4(a), Sept. 28, 2016, 130 Stat. 854.)
Amendments

2016—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 114–222 added subsec. (d).

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–429 substituted “section 46314, 46502, 46505, or 46506 of title 49” for “section 902(i), (k), (l), (n), or (r) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (49 U.S.C. App. 1472(i), (k), (l), (n), or (r))”.

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–222, § 7, Sept. 28, 2016, 130 Stat. 855, provided that:

“The amendments made by this Act [enacting section 1605B of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and amending this section and section 1605 of Title 28] shall apply to any civil action—
“(1)
pending on, or commenced on or after, the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 28, 2016]; and
“(2)
arising out of an injury to a person, property, or business on or after September 11, 2001.”

Effective Date

Section applicable to any pending case or any cause of action arising on or after 4 years before Oct. 29, 1992, see section 1003(c) of Pub. L. 102–572, set out as a note under section 2331 of this title.

Severability

Pub. L. 114–222, § 6, Sept. 28, 2016, 130 Stat. 855, provided that:

“If any provision of this Act [enacting section 1605B of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, amending this section and section 1605 of Title 28, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, section 1 of this title, and section 1605B of Title 28] or any amendment made by this Act, or the application of a provision or amendment to any person or circumstance, is held to be invalid, the remainder of this Act and the amendments made by this Act, and the application of the provisions and amendments to any other person not similarly situated or to other circumstances, shall not be affected by the holding.”

Findings and Purpose

Pub. L. 114–222, § 2, Sept. 28, 2016, 130 Stat. 852, provided that:

“(a)Findings.—Congress finds the following:
“(1)
International terrorism is a serious and deadly problem that threatens the vital interests of the United States.
“(2)
International terrorism affects the interstate and foreign commerce of the United States by harming international trade and market stability, and limiting international travel by United States citizens as well as foreign visitors to the United States.
“(3)
Some foreign terrorist organizations, acting through affiliated groups or individuals, raise significant funds outside of the United States for conduct directed and targeted at the United States.
“(4)
It is necessary to recognize the substantive causes of action for aiding and abetting and conspiracy liability under chapter 113B of title 18, United States Code.
“(5)
The decision of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia in Halberstam v. Welch, 705 F.2d 472 (D.C. Cir. 1983), which has been widely recognized as the leading case regarding Federal civil aiding and abetting and conspiracy liability, including by the Supreme Court of the United States, provides the proper legal framework for how such liability should function in the context of chapter 113B of title 18, United States Code.
“(6)
Persons, entities, or countries that knowingly or recklessly contribute material support or resources, directly or indirectly, to persons or organizations that pose a significant risk of committing acts of terrorism that threaten the security of nationals of the United States or the national security, foreign policy, or economy of the United States, necessarily direct their conduct at the United States, and should reasonably anticipate being brought to court in the United States to answer for such activities.
“(7)
The United States has a vital interest in providing persons and entities injured as a result of terrorist attacks committed within the United States with full access to the court system in order to pursue civil claims against persons, entities, or countries that have knowingly or recklessly provided material support or resources, directly or indirectly, to the persons or organizations responsible for their injuries.
“(b)Purpose.—
The purpose of this Act [enacting section 1605B of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, amending this section and section 1605 of Title 28, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, section 1 of this title, and section 1605B of Title 28] is to provide civil litigants with the broadest possible basis, consistent with the Constitution of the United States, to seek relief against persons, entities, and foreign countries, wherever acting and wherever they may be found, that have provided material support, directly or indirectly, to foreign organizations or persons that engage in terrorist activities against the United States.”

Effect on Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act

Pub. L. 114–222, § 4(b), Sept. 28, 2016, 130 Stat. 854, provided that:

“Nothing in the amendment made by this section [amending this section] affects immunity of a foreign state, as that term is defined in section 1603 of title 28, United States Code, from jurisdiction under other law.”

Special Rule Relating to Certain Acts of International Terrorism

Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title XII, § 1251(c), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2017, provided that:

“Notwithstanding section 2335 of title 18, United States Code, as amended by subsection (a), a civil action under section 2333 of such title resulting from an act of international terrorism that occurred on or after September 11, 2001, and before the date that is 4 years before the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 2, 2013], may be maintained if the civil action is commenced during the 6-year period beginning on such date of enactment.”

 

LII has no control over and does not endorse any external Internet site that contains links to or references LII.