20 U.S. Code § 1411 - Authorization; allotment; use of funds; authorization of appropriations
The Secretary shall make grants to States, outlying areas, and freely associated States, and provide funds to the Secretary of the Interior, to assist them to provide special education and related services to children with disabilities in accordance with this subchapter.
The provisions of Public Law 95–134, permitting the consolidation of grants by the outlying areas, shall not apply to funds provided to the outlying areas or the freely associated States under this section.
The Secretary may reserve not more than ½ of 1 percent of the amounts appropriated under this subchapter for each fiscal year to provide technical assistance activities authorized under section 1416(i) of this title.
The maximum amount the Secretary may reserve under paragraph (1) for any fiscal year is $25,000,000, cumulatively adjusted by the rate of inflation as measured by the percentage increase, if any, from the preceding fiscal year in the Consumer Price Index For All Urban Consumers, published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the Department of Labor.
After reserving funds for technical assistance, and for payments to the outlying areas, the freely associated States, and the Secretary of the Interior under subsections (b) and (c) for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall allocate the remaining amount among the States in accordance with this subsection.
If a State received any funds under this section for fiscal year 1999 on the basis of children aged 3 through 5, but does not make a free appropriate public education available to all children with disabilities aged 3 through 5 in the State in any subsequent fiscal year, the Secretary shall compute the State’s amount for fiscal year 1999, solely for the purpose of calculating the State’s allocation in that subsequent year under paragraph (3) or (4), by subtracting the amount allocated to the State for fiscal year 1999 on the basis of those children.
No State’s allocation shall be less than its allocation under this section for the preceding fiscal year.
If the amount available for allocations under this paragraph is equal to or less than the amount allocated to the States for fiscal year 1999, each State shall be allocated the amount the State received for fiscal year 1999.
Prior to expenditure of funds under this paragraph, the State shall certify to the Secretary that the arrangements to establish responsibility for services pursuant to section 1412(a)(12)(A) of this title are current.
Except as provided in clause (iii), for the purpose of carrying out State-level activities, each State may reserve for each of the fiscal years 2005 and 2006 not more than 10 percent from the amount of the State’s allocation under subsection (d) for each of the fiscal years 2005 and 2006, respectively. For fiscal year 2007 and each subsequent fiscal year, the State may reserve the maximum amount the State was eligible to reserve under the preceding sentence for fiscal year 2006 (cumulatively adjusted by the rate of inflation as measured by the percentage increase, if any, from the preceding fiscal year in the Consumer Price Index For All Urban Consumers, published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the Department of Labor).
Notwithstanding clause (i) and except as provided in clause (iii), in the case of a State for which the maximum amount reserved for State administration is not greater than $850,000, the State may reserve for the purpose of carrying out State-level activities for each of the fiscal years 2005 and 2006, not more than 10.5 percent from the amount of the State’s allocation under subsection (d) for each of the fiscal years 2005 and 2006, respectively. For fiscal year 2007 and each subsequent fiscal year, such State may reserve the maximum amount the State was eligible to reserve under the preceding sentence for fiscal year 2006 (cumulatively adjusted by the rate of inflation as measured by the percentage increase, if any, from the preceding fiscal year in the Consumer Price Index For All Urban Consumers, published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the Department of Labor).
A State shall not use any of the funds the State reserves pursuant to subparagraph (A)(i), but may use the funds the State reserves under paragraph (1), to establish and support the high cost fund.
The State educational agency shall establish the State’s definition of a high need child with a disability, which definition shall be developed in consultation with local educational agencies.
Each State educational agency shall make all annual disbursements from the high cost fund established under subparagraph (A)(i) in accordance with the State plan published pursuant to subparagraph (C).
Each State educational agency shall make annual disbursements to eligible local educational agencies in accordance with its State plan under subparagraph (C)(ii).
The disbursements under subparagraph (D) shall not support legal fees, court costs, or other costs associated with a cause of action brought on behalf of a child with a disability to ensure a free appropriate public education for such child.
Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraphs (A) through (F), a State may use funds reserved pursuant to this paragraph for implementing a placement neutral cost sharing and reimbursement program of high need, low incidence, catastrophic, or extraordinary aid to local educational agencies that provides services to high need students based on eligibility criteria for such programs that were created not later than January 1, 2004, and are currently in operation, if such program serves children that meet the requirement of the definition of a high need child with a disability as described in subparagraph (C)(ii)(I).
Disbursements provided under this paragraph shall not be used to pay costs that otherwise would be reimbursed as medical assistance for a child with a disability under the State medicaid program under title XIX of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.].
Funds reserved under subparagraph (A) in any fiscal year but not expended in that fiscal year pursuant to subparagraph (D) shall be allocated to local educational agencies for the succeeding fiscal year in the same manner as funds are allocated to local educational agencies under subsection (f) for the succeeding fiscal year.
A State may use funds the State reserves under paragraph (1)(A) as a result of inflationary increases under paragraph (1)(B) to carry out activities authorized under clause (i), (iii), (vii), or (viii) of paragraph (2)(C).
Any State eligible to receive a grant under section 1419 of this title may use funds made available under paragraph (1)(A), subsection (f)(3), or section 1419(f)(5) of this title to develop and implement a State policy jointly with the lead agency under subchapter III and the State educational agency to provide early intervention services (which shall include an educational component that promotes school readiness and incorporates preliteracy, language, and numeracy skills) in accordance with subchapter III to children with disabilities who are eligible for services under section 1419 of this title and who previously received services under subchapter III until such children enter, or are eligible under State law to enter, kindergarten, or elementary school as appropriate.
Each State that receives a grant under this section for any fiscal year shall distribute any funds the State does not reserve under subsection (e) to local educational agencies (including public charter schools that operate as local educational agencies) in the State that have established their eligibility under section 1413 of this title for use in accordance with this subchapter.
The State shall first award each local educational agency described in paragraph (1) the amount the local educational agency would have received under this section for fiscal year 1999, if the State had distributed 75 percent of its grant for that year under section 1411(d) of this title as section 1411(d) was then in effect.
If a State educational agency determines that a local educational agency is adequately providing a free appropriate public education to all children with disabilities residing in the area served by that local educational agency with State and local funds, the State educational agency may reallocate any portion of the funds under this subchapter that are not needed by that local educational agency to provide a free appropriate public education to other local educational agencies in the State that are not adequately providing special education and related services to all children with disabilities residing in the areas served by those other local educational agencies.
In the case of Indian students aged 3 to 5, inclusive, who are enrolled in programs affiliated with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (referred to in this subsection as the “BIA”) schools and that are required by the States in which such schools are located to attain or maintain State accreditation, and which schools have such accreditation prior to October 7, 1991, the school shall be allowed to count those children for the purpose of distribution of the funds provided under this paragraph to the Secretary of the Interior. The Secretary of the Interior shall be responsible for meeting all of the requirements of this subchapter for those children, in accordance with paragraph (2).
The Secretary shall withhold payments under this subsection with respect to the information described in paragraph (2) in the same manner as the Secretary withholds payments under section 1416(e)(6) of this title.
With funds appropriated under subsection (i), the Secretary of Education shall make payments to the Secretary of the Interior to be distributed to tribes or tribal organizations (as defined under section 450b of title 25) or consortia of tribes or tribal organizations to provide for the coordination of assistance for special education and related services for children with disabilities aged 3 through 5 on reservations served by elementary schools and secondary schools for Indian children operated or funded by the Department of the Interior. The amount of such payments under subparagraph (B) for any fiscal year shall be equal to 20 percent of the amount allotted under subsection (b)(2).
The Secretary of the Interior shall distribute the total amount of the payment under subparagraph (A) by allocating to each tribe, tribal organization, or consortium an amount based on the number of children with disabilities aged 3 through 5 residing on reservations as reported annually, divided by the total of those children served by all tribes or tribal organizations.
To receive a payment under this paragraph, the tribe or tribal organization shall submit such figures to the Secretary of the Interior as required to determine the amounts to be allocated under subparagraph (B). This information shall be compiled and submitted to the Secretary of Education.
The funds received by a tribe or tribal organization shall be used to assist in child find, screening, and other procedures for the early identification of children aged 3 through 5, parent training, and the provision of direct services. These activities may be carried out directly or through contracts or cooperative agreements with the BIA, local educational agencies, and other public or private nonprofit organizations. The tribe or tribal organization is encouraged to involve Indian parents in the development and implementation of these activities. The tribe or tribal organization shall, as appropriate, make referrals to local, State, or Federal entities for the provision of services or further diagnosis.
To be eligible to receive a grant pursuant to subparagraph (A), the tribe or tribal organization shall provide to the Secretary of the Interior a biennial report of activities undertaken under this paragraph, including the number of contracts and cooperative agreements entered into, the number of children contacted and receiving services for each year, and the estimated number of children needing services during the 2 years following the year in which the report is made. The Secretary of the Interior shall include a summary of this information on a biennial basis in the report to the Secretary of Education required under this subsection. The Secretary of Education may require any additional information from the Secretary of the Interior.
The Secretary of the Interior shall develop and implement a plan for the coordination of services for all Indian children with disabilities residing on reservations covered under this chapter. Such plan shall provide for the coordination of services benefiting those children from whatever source, including tribes, the Indian Health Service, other BIA divisions, and other Federal agencies. In developing the plan, the Secretary of the Interior shall consult with all interested and involved parties. The plan shall be based on the needs of the children and the system best suited for meeting those needs, and may involve the establishment of cooperative agreements between the BIA, other Federal agencies, and other entities. The plan shall also be distributed upon request to States, State educational agencies and local educational agencies, and other agencies providing services to infants, toddlers, and children with disabilities, to tribes, and to other interested parties.
The advisory board established under paragraph (6) shall prepare and submit to the Secretary of the Interior and to Congress an annual report containing a description of the activities of the advisory board for the preceding year.
Public Law 95–134, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(B), is Pub. L. 95–134, Oct. 15, 1977, 91 Stat. 1159, as amended. Provisions relating to consolidation of grants are contained in section 501 of Pub. L. 95–134 which is classified to section 1469a of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.
The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(3)(H), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Title XIX of the Act is classified generally to subchapter XIX (§ 1396 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.
A prior section 1411, Pub. L. 91–230, title VI, § 611, as added Pub. L. 105–17, title I, § 101, June 4, 1997, 111 Stat. 49, related to authorization, allotment, use of funds, and authorization of appropriations, prior to the general amendment of subchapters I to IV of this chapter by Pub. L. 108–446.
Another prior section 1411, Pub. L. 91–230, title VI, § 611, Apr. 13, 1970, 84 Stat. 178; Pub. L. 93–380, title VI, § 614(a), (e)(1), (2), Aug. 21, 1974, 88 Stat. 580, 582; Pub. L. 94–142, §§ 2(a)(1)–(3), 5(a), (c), Nov. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 773, 776, 794; Pub. L. 95–561, title XIII, § 1341(a), Nov. 1, 1978, 92 Stat. 2364; Pub. L. 96–270, § 13, June 14, 1980, 94 Stat. 498; Pub. L. 98–199, §§ 3(b), 15, Dec. 2, 1983, 97 Stat. 1358, 1374; Pub. L. 99–159, title VI, § 601, Nov. 22, 1985, 99 Stat. 904; Pub. L. 99–362, § 2, July 9, 1986, 100 Stat. 769; Pub. L. 99–457, title II, § 201(b), title IV, §§ 403, 404, Oct. 8, 1986, 100 Stat. 1158, 1173; Pub. L. 100–630, title I, § 102(a), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3290; Pub. L. 101–476, title II, § 201, title IX, § 901(b)(25)–(32), Oct. 30, 1990, 104 Stat. 1111, 1143; Pub. L. 102–73, title VIII, § 802(d)(2), (3), July 25, 1991, 105 Stat. 361; Pub. L. 102–119, §§ 4, 25(a)(4), (19), (b), Oct. 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 587, 606, 607; Pub. L. 103–382, title III, § 311, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3931, related to entitlements and allocations, prior to the general amendment of subchapters I to IV of this chapter by Pub. L. 105–17.
2015—Subsec. (e)(2)(C)(x). Pub. L. 114–95, § 9215(ss)(2)(A)(i), substituted “6361 of this title” for “7301 of this title”.
Subsec. (e)(2)(C)(xi). Pub. L. 114–95, § 9215(ss)(2)(A)(ii), substituted “including direct student services described in section 6303b(c)(3) of this title to children with disabilities, to schools or local educational agencies implementing comprehensive support and improvement activities or targeted support and improvement activities under section 6311(d) of this title on the basis of consistent underperformance of the disaggregated subgroup of children with disabilities” for “including supplemental educational services as defined in 6316(e) of this title to children with disabilities, in schools or local educational agencies identified for improvement under section 6316 of this title on the sole basis of the assessment results of the disaggregated subgroup of children with disabilities” and “based on the challenging academic standards described in section 6311(b)(1) of this title” for “to meet or exceed the objectives established by the State under section 6311(b)(2)(G) of this title”.
Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of this title.
Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:
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