22 U.S. Code § 5801 - Definition of independent states
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For purposes of this Act, the terms “independent states of the former Soviet Union” and “independent states” mean the following: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.
Source(Pub. L. 102–511, § 3,Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3321.)
References in Text
This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 102–511, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3320, as amended, known as the Freedom for Russia and Emerging Eurasian Democracies and Open Markets Support Act of 1992 and also as the FREEDOM Support Act. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note below and Tables.
Short Title of 2012 Amendment
Pub. L. 112–82, § 1,Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1863, provided that: “This Act [amending provisions set out as a note under section 5811 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Belarus Democracy and Human Rights Act of 2011’.”
Short Title of 2007 Amendment
Pub. L. 109–480, § 1,Jan. 12, 2007, 120 Stat. 3666, provided that: “This Act [enacting and amending provisions set out as notes under section 5811 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Belarus Democracy Reauthorization Act of 2006’.”
Short Title of 1993 Amendment
Pub. L. 103–199, § 1,Dec. 17, 1993, 107 Stat. 2317, provided that: “This Act [amending sections 295, 2301, 2364, 2370, 2460, 2461, 2578, 2591, 2592, 2595, 2799c, 2799d, 4501 to 4504, 4702, and 4901 of this title, section 4101 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, sections 1151 and 1152 of Title 16, Conservation, section 951 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, section 783 of Title 50, War and National Defense, and sections 2401 and 2402 of Title 50, Appendix, repealing sections 254c–2, 2592a, and 2592b of this title, sections 781, 782, 784, 785, 788 to 795, and 798 of Title 50, and section 2403–1 of Title 50, Appendix, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, sections 113 and 2431 of Title 10, Armed Forces, and section 2402 of Title 50, Appendix, amending provisions set out as notes under section 4501 of this title, section 113 ofTitle 10, section 2901 of Title 15, and section 1003 of former Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, and repealing provisions set out as notes under sections 287, 2151, 2293, 2458, and 4301 of this title, section 1307 of Title 19, Customs Duties, and section 781 of Title 50] may be cited as the ‘Act For Reform In Emerging New Democracies and Support and Help for Improved Partnership with Russia, Ukraine, and Other New Independent States’ or as the ‘FRIENDSHIP Act’.”
Pub. L. 102–511, § 1,Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3320, provided that: “This Act [enacting this chapter and sections 282m, 282n, 286e–1l, 286e–5b, 286e–13, 286ll, 286mm, 288j, 2295 to 2295c, and 5402 of this title, amending sections 262d, 2370, 2507, and 4903 of this title and sections 1736o, 3293, 5602, 5621, 5622, and 5651 of Title 7, Agriculture, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 2295a, 2452, 2753, 4903, and 5812 of this title, section 5621 of Title 7, and section 955 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, amending provisions set out as notes under section 2452 of this title, section 5622 of Title 7, and sections 1157 and 1255 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 2452 of this title] may be cited as the ‘Freedom for Russia and Emerging Eurasian Democracies and Open Markets Support Act of 1992’ or the ‘FREEDOM Support Act’.”
Policy of Friendship and Cooperation
“SEC. 101. STATEMENT OF PURPOSE.
“The purpose of this Act [see Short Title of 1993 Amendment note above] is to amend or repeal numerous statutory provisions that restrict or otherwise impede normal relations between the United States and the Russian Federation, Ukraine, and the other independent states of the former Soviet Union. All of the statutory provisions amended or repealed by this Act were relevant and appropriate at the time of enactment, but with the end of the Cold War, they have become obsolete. It is not the purpose of this Act to rewrite or erase history, or to forget those who suffered in the past from the injustices or repression of communist regimes in the Soviet Union, but rather to update United States law to reflect changed international circumstances and to demonstrate for reformers and democrats in the independent states of the former Soviet Union the resolve of the people of the United States to support the process of democratic and economic reform and to conduct business with those states in a new spirit of friendship and cooperation.“SEC. 102. FINDINGS.
“The Congress finds and declares as follows:
“(1) The Vancouver Declaration issued by President Clinton and President Yeltsin in April 1993 marked a new milestone in the development of the spirit of cooperation and partnership between the United States and Russia. The Congress affirms its support for the principles contained in the Vancouver Declaration.
“(2) The Vancouver Declaration underscored that—
“(A) a dynamic and effective partnership between the United States and Russia is vital to the success of Russia’s historic transformation;
“(B) the rapid integration of Russia into the community of democratic nations and the world economy is important to the national interest of the United States; and
“(C) cooperation between the United States and Russia is essential to the peaceful resolution of international conflicts and the promotion of democratic values, the protection of human rights, and the solution of global problems such as environmental pollution, terrorism, and narcotics trafficking.
“(3) The Congress enacted the FREEDOM Support Act (Public Law 102–511) [see Short Title note above], as well as other legislation such as the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991 (title II of Public Law 102–228) [22 U.S.C. 2551 note] and the Former Soviet Union Demilitarization Act of 1992 (title XIV of Public Law 102–484) [22 U.S.C. 5901 et seq.], to help meet the historic opportunities and challenges presented by the transformation that has taken place, and is continuing to take place, in what once was the Soviet Union.
“(4) The process of reform in Russia, Ukraine, and the other independent states of the former Soviet Union is ongoing. The holding of a referendum in Russia on April 25, 1993, that was free and fair, and that reflected the support of the Russian people for the process of continued and strengthened democratic and economic reform, represents an important and encouraging hallmark in this ongoing process.
“(5) There remain in force many United States laws that are relics of the Cold War, and repeals or revisions of these provisions can play an important role in efforts to foster and strengthen the bonds of trust and friendship, as well as mutually beneficial trade and economic relations, between the United States and Russia, the United States and Ukraine, and the United States and the other independent states of the former Soviet Union.“SEC. 103. STATUTORY PROVISIONS THAT HAVE BEEN APPLICABLE TO THE SOVIET UNION.
“(a) In General.—There are numerous statutory provisions that were enacted in the context of United States relations with a country, the Soviet Union, that are fundamentally different from the relations that now exist between the United States and Russia, between the United States and Ukraine, and between the United States and the other independent states of the former Soviet Union.
“(b) Extent of Such Provisions.—Many of the provisions referred to in subsection (a) imposed limitations specifically with respect to the Soviet Union, and its constituent republics, or utilized language that reflected the tension that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union at the time of their enactment. Other such provisions did not refer specifically to the Soviet Union, but nonetheless were directed (or may be construed as having been directed) against the Soviet Union on the basis of the relations that formerly existed between the United States and the Soviet Union, particularly in its role as the leading communist country.
“(c) Findings and Affirmation.—The Congress finds and affirms that provisions such as those described in this section, including—
“(2) sections 136 [22 U.S.C. 3943 note] and 804 [99 Stat. 449] of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1986 and 1987 (Public Law 99–93),
“(3) section 1222 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989 (Public Law 100–204; 101 Stat. 1411 ),
“(4) the Multilateral Export Control Enhancement Amendments Act [see Short Title of 1988 Amendment note set out under section 2410 of Title 50, App., War and National Defense] (50 [App.] U.S.C. 2410 note, et seq.),
“(5) the joint resolution providing for the designation of ‘Captive Nations Week’ (Public Law 86–90) [73 Stat. 212],
“(6) the Communist Control Act of 1954 (Public Law 83–637) [see Short Title note set out under section 781 of Title 50],
“(7) provisions in the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.), including sections 101 (a)(40), 101 (e)(3), and 313(a)(3) [8 U.S.C. 1101 (a)(40), (e)(3), 1424 (a)(3)],
“(8) section 2 of the joint resolution entitled ‘A joint resolution to promote peace and stability in the Middle East’, approved March 9, 1957 (Public Law 85–7) [22 U.S.C. 1961 et seq.], andshould not be construed as being directed against Russia, Ukraine, or the other independent states of the former Soviet Union, connoting an adversarial relationship between the United States and the independent states, or signifying or implying in any manner unfriendliness toward the independent states.”
Definitions for Pub. L. 103–199
Pub. L. 103–199, § 3,Dec. 17, 1993, 107 Stat. 2318, provided that: “As used in this Act [see Short Title of 1993 Amendment note above] (including the amendments made by this Act), the terms ‘independent states of the former Soviet Union’ and ‘independent states’ have the meaning given those terms by section 3 of the Freedom for Russia and Emerging Eurasian Democracies and Open Markets Support Act of 1992 (22 U.S.C. 5801).”
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