In order for payment to be available under section 1396b(a) of this title or under part B of subchapter XVIII for covered outpatient drugs of a manufacturer, the manufacturer must have entered into and have in effect a rebate agreement described in subsection (b) with the Secretary, on behalf of States (except that, the Secretary may authorize a State to enter directly into agreements with a manufacturer), and must meet the requirements of paragraph (5) (with respect to drugs purchased by a covered entity on or after the first day of the first month that begins after November 4, 1992) and paragraph (6). Any agreement between a State and a manufacturer prior to April 1, 1991, shall be deemed to have been entered into on January 1, 1991, and payment to such manufacturer shall be retroactively calculated as if the agreement between the manufacturer and the State had been entered into on January 1, 1991. If a manufacturer has not entered into such an agreement before March 1, 1991, such an agreement, subsequently entered into, shall become effective as of the date on which the agreement is entered into or, at State option, on any date thereafter on or before the first day of the calendar quarter that begins more than 60 days after the date the agreement is entered into.
Paragraph (1) shall first apply to drugs dispensed under this subchapter on or after January 1, 1991.
Paragraph (1), and section 1396b(i)(10)(A) of this title, shall not apply to the dispensing of a single source drug or innovator multiple source drug if (A)(i) the State has made a determination that the availability of the drug is essential to the health of beneficiaries under the State plan for medical assistance; (ii) such drug has been given a rating of 1–A by the Food and Drug Administration; and (iii)(I) the physician has obtained approval for use of the drug in advance of its dispensing in accordance with a prior authorization program described in subsection (d), or (II) the Secretary has reviewed and approved the State’s determination under subparagraph (A); or (B) the Secretary determines that in the first calendar quarter of 1991, there were extenuating circumstances.
In the case of a rebate agreement in effect between a State and a manufacturer on November 5, 1990, such agreement, for the initial agreement period specified therein, shall be considered to be a rebate agreement in compliance with this section with respect to that State, if the State agrees to report to the Secretary any rebates paid pursuant to the agreement and such agreement provides for a minimum aggregate rebate of 10 percent of the State’s total expenditures under the State plan for coverage of the manufacturer’s drugs under this subchapter. If, after the initial agreement period, the State establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary that an agreement in effect on November 5, 1990, provides for rebates that are at least as large as the rebates otherwise required under this section, and the State agrees to report any rebates under the agreement to the Secretary, the agreement shall be considered to be a rebate agreement in compliance with the section for the renewal periods of such agreement.
A manufacturer meets the requirements of this paragraph if the manufacturer has entered into an agreement with the Secretary that meets the requirements of section 256b of this title with respect to covered outpatient drugs purchased by a covered entity on or after the first day of the first month that begins after November 4, 1992.
Each covered entity shall inform the single State agency under section 1396a(a)(5) of this title when it is seeking reimbursement from the State plan for medical assistance described in section 1396d(a)(12) of this title with respect to a unit of any covered outpatient drug which is subject to an agreement under section 256b(a) of this title.
Each such single State agency shall provide a means by which a covered entity shall indicate on any drug reimbursement claims form (or format, where electronic claims management is used) that a unit of the drug that is the subject of the form is subject to an agreement under section 256b of this title, and not submit to any manufacturer a claim for a rebate payment under subsection (b) with respect to such a drug.
A manufacturer is deemed to meet the requirements of this paragraph if the manufacturer establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the manufacturer would comply (and has offered to comply) with the provisions of section 256b of this title (as in effect immediately after November 4, 1992) and would have entered into an agreement under such section (as such section was in effect at such time), but for a legislative change in such section after November 4, 1992.
A manufacturer is deemed to meet the requirements of this paragraph if the manufacturer establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the manufacturer would comply (and has offered to comply) with the provisions of section 8126 of title 38, (as in effect immediately after November 4, 1992) and would have entered into an agreement under such section (as such section was in effect at such time), but for a legislative change in such section after November 4, 1992.
In order for payment to be available under section 1396b(a) of this title for a covered outpatient drug that is a single source drug that is physician administered under this subchapter (as determined by the Secretary), and that is administered on or after January 1, 2006, the State shall provide for the collection and submission of such utilization data and coding (such as J-codes and National Drug Code numbers) for each such drug as the Secretary may specify as necessary to identify the manufacturer of the drug in order to secure rebates under this section for drugs administered for which payment is made under this subchapter.
Not later than January 1, 2007, the Secretary shall publish a list of the 20 physician administered multiple source drugs that the Secretary determines have the highest dollar volume of physician administered drugs dispensed under this subchapter. The Secretary may modify such list from year to year to reflect changes in such volume.
In order for payment to be available under section 1396b(a) of this title for a covered outpatient drug that is a multiple source drug that is physician administered (as determined by the Secretary), that is on the list published under clause (i), and that is administered on or after January 1, 2008, the State shall provide for the submission of such utilization data and coding (such as J-codes and National Drug Code numbers) for each such drug as the Secretary may specify as necessary to identify the manufacturer of the drug in order to secure rebates under this section.
A rebate agreement under this subsection shall require the manufacturer to provide, to each State plan approved under this subchapter, a rebate for a rebate period in an amount specified in subsection (c) for covered outpatient drugs of the manufacturer dispensed after December 31, 1990, for which payment was made under the State plan for such period, including such drugs dispensed to individuals enrolled with a medicaid managed care organization if the organization is responsible for coverage of such drugs. Such rebate shall be paid by the manufacturer not later than 30 days after the date of receipt of the information described in paragraph (2) for the period involved.
Amounts received by a State under this section (or under an agreement authorized by the Secretary under subsection (a)(1) or an agreement described in subsection (a)(4)) in any quarter shall be considered to be a reduction in the amount expended under the State plan in the quarter for medical assistance for purposes of section 1396b(a)(1) of this title.
The amount of the payment reduction under clause (i) for a State for a quarter shall be deemed an overpayment to the State under this subchapter to be disallowed against the State’s regular quarterly draw for all Medicaid spending under section 1396b(d)(2) of this title. Such a disallowance is not subject to a reconsideration under section 1316(d) of this title.
Each State agency under this subchapter shall report to each manufacturer not later than 60 days after the end of each rebate period and in a form consistent with a standard reporting format established by the Secretary, information on the total number of units of each dosage form and strength and package size of each covered outpatient drug dispensed after December 31, 1990, for which payment was made under the plan during the period, including such information reported by each medicaid managed care organization, and shall promptly transmit a copy of such report to the Secretary.
A manufacturer may audit the information provided (or required to be provided) under subparagraph (A). Adjustments to rebates shall be made to the extent that information indicates that utilization was greater or less than the amount previously specified.
The Secretary may survey wholesalers and manufacturers that directly distribute their covered outpatient drugs, when necessary, to verify manufacturer prices and manufacturer’s average sales prices (including wholesale acquisition cost) if required to make payment reported under subparagraph (A). The Secretary may impose a civil monetary penalty in an amount not to exceed $100,000 on a wholesaler, manufacturer, or direct seller, if the wholesaler, manufacturer, or direct seller of a covered outpatient drug refuses a request for information about charges or prices by the Secretary in connection with a survey under this subparagraph or knowingly provides false information. The provisions of section 1320a–7a of this title (other than subsections (a) (with respect to amounts of penalties or additional assessments) and (b)) shall apply to a civil money penalty under this subparagraph in the same manner as such provisions apply to a penalty or proceeding under section 1320a–7a(a) of this title.
In the case of a manufacturer with an agreement under this section that fails to provide information required under subparagraph (A) on a timely basis, the amount of the penalty shall be increased by $10,000 for each day in which such information has not been provided and such amount shall be paid to the Treasury, and, if such information is not reported within 90 days of the deadline imposed, the agreement shall be suspended for services furnished after the end of such 90-day period and until the date such information is reported (but in no case shall such suspension be for a period of less than 30 days).
Any manufacturer with an agreement under this section that knowingly provides false information is subject to a civil money penalty in an amount not to exceed $100,000 for each item of false information. Such civil money penalties are in addition to other penalties as may be prescribed by law. The provisions of section 1320a–7a of this title (other than subsections (a) and (b)) shall apply to a civil money penalty under this subparagraph in the same manner as such provisions apply to a penalty or proceeding under section 1320a–7a(a) of this title.
The Secretary may provide for termination of a rebate agreement for violation of the requirements of the agreement or other good cause shown. Such termination shall not be effective earlier than 60 days after the date of notice of such termination. The Secretary shall provide, upon request, a manufacturer with a hearing concerning such a termination, but such hearing shall not delay the effective date of the termination.
Any termination under this subparagraph shall not affect rebates due under the agreement before the effective date of its termination.
In the case of any rebate agreement with a manufacturer under this section which is terminated, another such agreement with the manufacturer (or a successor manufacturer) may not be entered into until a period of 1 calendar quarter has elapsed since the date of the termination, unless the Secretary finds good cause for an earlier reinstatement of such an agreement.
In the case of a covered outpatient drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration after October 1, 1990, clause (ii)(II) of subparagraph (A) shall be applied by substituting “the first full calendar quarter after the day on which the drug was first marketed” for “the calendar quarter beginning July 1, 1990” and “the month prior to the first month of the first full calendar quarter after the day on which the drug was first marketed” for “September 1990”.
In the case of a drug that is a line extension of a single source drug or an innovator multiple source drug that is an oral solid dosage form, the rebate obligation for a rebate period with respect to such drug under this subsection shall be the greater of the amount described in clause (ii) for such drug or the amount described in clause (iii) for such drug.
For purposes of clause (i), the amount described in this clause with respect to a drug described in clause (i) and rebate period is the amount computed under paragraph (1) for such drug, increased by the amount computed under subparagraph (A) and, as applicable, subparagraph (B) for such drug and rebate period.
In no case shall the sum of the amounts applied under paragraph (1)(A)(ii) and this paragraph with respect to each dosage form and strength of a single source drug or an innovator multiple source drug for a rebate period beginning after December 31, 2009, exceed 100 percent of the average manufacturer price of the drug.
The amount of the rebate specified in this paragraph for a rebate period, with respect to each dosage form and strength of a covered outpatient drug other than a single source drug or an innovator multiple source drug of a manufacturer, shall be increased in the manner that the rebate for a dosage form and strength of a single source drug or an innovator multiple source drug is increased under subparagraphs (A) and (D) of paragraph (2), except as provided in clause (ii).
The Secretary shall, by regulation, periodically update the list of drugs or classes of drugs described in paragraph (2) or their medical uses, which the Secretary has determined, based on data collected by surveillance and utilization review programs of State medical assistance programs, to be subject to clinical abuse or inappropriate use.
A State may impose limitations, with respect to all such drugs in a therapeutic class, on the minimum or maximum quantities per prescription or on the number of refills, if such limitations are necessary to discourage waste, and may address instances of fraud or abuse by individuals in any manner authorized under this chapter.
This section shall not supersede or affect provisions in effect prior to January 1, 1991, or after December 31, 1994, relating to any maximum allowable cost limitation established by a State for payment by the State for covered outpatient drugs, and rebates shall be made under this section without regard to whether or not payment by the State for such drugs is subject to such a limitation or the amount of such a limitation.
Subject to paragraph (5), the Secretary shall establish a Federal upper reimbursement limit for each multiple source drug for which the FDA has rated three or more products therapeutically and pharmaceutically equivalent, regardless of whether all such additional formulations are rated as such and shall use only such formulations when determining any such upper limit.
The Secretary shall calculate the Federal upper reimbursement limit established under paragraph (4) as no less than 175 percent of the weighted average (determined on the basis of utilization) of the most recently reported monthly average manufacturer prices for pharmaceutically and therapeutically equivalent multiple source drug products that are available for purchase by retail community pharmacies on a nationwide basis. The Secretary shall implement a smoothing process for average manufacturer prices. Such process shall be similar to the smoothing process used in determining the average sales price of a drug or biological under section 1395w–3a of this title.
If contractor notifies the Secretary under subparagraph (A)(ii) that a drug product described in such subparagraph has become generally available, the Secretary shall make a determination, within 7 days after receiving such notification, as to whether the product is now described in subsection (e)(4).3
Information on retail survey prices obtained under this paragraph, including applicable information on single source drugs, shall be provided to States on at least a monthly basis. The Secretary shall devise and implement a means for providing access to each State agency designated under section 1396a(a)(5) of this title with responsibility for the administration or supervision of the administration of the State plan under this subchapter of the retail survey price determined under this paragraph.
The program shall provide, through its mechanized drug claims processing and information retrieval systems (approved by the Secretary under section 1396b(r) of this title) or otherwise, for the ongoing periodic examination of claims data and other records in order to identify patterns of fraud, abuse, gross overuse, or inappropriate or medically unnecessary care, among physicians, pharmacists and individuals receiving benefits under this subchapter, or associated with specific drugs or groups of drugs.
The program shall, on an ongoing basis, assess data on drug use against explicit predetermined standards (using the compendia and literature referred to in subsection  (1)(B) as the source of standards for such assessment) including but not limited to monitoring for therapeutic appropriateness, overutilization and underutilization, appropriate use of generic products, therapeutic duplication, drug-disease contraindications, drug-drug interactions, incorrect drug dosage or duration of drug treatment, and clinical abuse/misuse and, as necessary, introduce remedial strategies, in order to improve the quality of care and to conserve program funds or personal expenditures.
The program shall, through its State drug use review board established under paragraph (3), either directly or through contracts with accredited health care educational institutions, State medical societies or State pharmacists associations/societies or other organizations as specified by the State, and using data provided by the State drug use review board on common drug therapy problems, provide for active and ongoing educational outreach programs (including the activities described in paragraph (3)(C)(iii) of this subsection) to educate practitioners on common drug therapy problems with the aim of improving prescribing or dispensing practices.
Each State shall require the DUR Board to prepare a report on an annual basis. The State shall submit a report on an annual basis to the Secretary which shall include a description of the activities of the Board,including the nature and scope of the prospective and retrospective drug use review programs, a summary of the interventions used, an assessment of the impact of these educational interventions on quality of care, and an estimate of the cost savings generated as a result of such program. The Secretary shall utilize such report in evaluating the effectiveness of each State’s drug use review program.
In accordance with chapter 35 of title 44 (relating to coordination of Federal information policy), the Secretary shall encourage each State agency to establish, as its principal means of processing claims for covered outpatient drugs under this subchapter, a point-of-sale electronic claims management system, for the purpose of performing on-line, real time eligibility verifications, claims data capture, adjudication of claims, and assisting pharmacists (and other authorized persons) in applying for and receiving payment.
In the case of a manufacturer that approves, allows, or otherwise permits any drug of the manufacturer to be sold under a new drug application approved under section 505(c) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 355(c)], such term shall be inclusive of the average price paid for such drug by wholesalers for drugs distributed to retail community pharmacies.
If a State plan for medical assistance under this subchapter includes coverage of prescribed drugs as described in section 1396d(a)(12) of this title and permits coverage of drugs which may be sold without a prescription (commonly referred to as “over-the-counter” drugs), if they are prescribed by a physician (or other person authorized to prescribe under State law), such a drug shall be regarded as a covered outpatient drug.
The term “medically accepted indication” means any use for a covered outpatient drug which is approved under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] or the use of which is supported by one or more citations included or approved for inclusion in any of the compendia described in subsection (g)(1)(B)(i).
The term “single source drug” means a covered outpatient drug which is produced or distributed under an original new drug application approved by the Food and Drug Administration, including a drug product marketed by any cross-licensed producers or distributors operating under the new drug application.
Subparagraph (A)(i)(II) shall not apply if the Food and Drug Administration changes by regulation the requirement that, for purposes of the publication described in subparagraph (A)(i)(I), in order for drug products to be rated as therapeutically equivalent, they must be pharmaceutically equivalent and bioequivalent, as defined in subparagraph (C).
The term “retail community pharmacy” means an independent pharmacy, a chain pharmacy, a supermarket pharmacy, or a mass merchandiser pharmacy that is licensed as a pharmacy by the State and that dispenses medications to the general public at retail prices. Such term does not include a pharmacy that dispenses prescription medications to patients primarily through the mail, nursing home pharmacies, long-term care facility pharmacies, hospital pharmacies, clinics, charitable or not-for-profit pharmacies, government pharmacies, or pharmacy benefit managers.
The term “wholesaler” means a drug wholesaler that is engaged in wholesale distribution of prescription drugs to retail community pharmacies, including (but not limited to) manufacturers, repackers, distributors, own-label distributors, private-label distributors, jobbers, brokers, warehouses (including manufacturer’s and distributor’s warehouses, chain drug warehouses, and wholesale drug warehouses) independent wholesale drug traders, and retail community pharmacies that conduct wholesale distributions.