42 U.S. Code § 1395ww. Payments to hospitals for inpatient hospital services

(a) Determination of costs for inpatient hospital services; limitations; exemptions; “operating costs of inpatient hospital services” defined
(1)
(A)
(i)
The Secretary, in determining the amount of the payments that may be made under this subchapter with respect to operating costs of inpatient hospital services(as defined in paragraph (4)) shall not recognize as reasonable (in the efficient delivery of health services) costs for the provision of such services by a hospital for a cost reporting period to the extent such costs exceed the applicable percentage (as determined under clause (ii)) of the average of such costs for all hospitals in the same grouping as such hospital for comparable time periods.
(ii) For purposes of clause (i), the applicable percentage for hospital cost reporting periods beginning—
(I)
on or after October 1, 1982, and before October 1, 1983, is 120 percent;
(II)
on or after October 1, 1983, and before October 1, 1984, is 115 percent; and
(III)
on or after October 1, 1984, is 110 percent.
(B)
(i)
For purposes of subparagraph (A) the Secretary shall establish case mix indexes for all short-term hospitals, and shall set limits for each hospital based upon the general mix of types of medical cases with respect to which such hospital provides services for which payment may be made under this subchapter.
(ii) The Secretary shall set such limits for a cost reporting period of a hospital—
(I)
by updating available data for a previous period to the immediate preceding cost reporting period by the estimated average rate of change of hospital costs industry-wide, and
(II)
by projecting for the cost reporting period by the applicable percentage increase(as defined in subsection (b)(3)(B)).
(C)
The limitation established under subparagraph (A) for any hospital shall in no event be lower than the allowable operating costs of inpatient hospital services(as defined in paragraph (4)) recognized under this subchapter for such hospital for such hospital’s last cost reporting period prior to the hospital’s first cost reporting period for which this section is in effect.
(D)
Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 1983.
(2) The Secretary shall provide for such exemptions from, and exceptions and adjustments to, the limitation established under paragraph (1)(A) as he deems appropriate, including those which he deems necessary to take into account—
(A)
the special needs of sole community hospitals, of new hospitals, of risk based health maintenance organizations, and of hospitals which provide atypical services or essential community services, and to take into account extraordinary circumstances beyond the hospital’s control, medical and paramedical education costs, significantly fluctuating population in the service area of the hospital, and unusual labor costs,
(B)
the special needs of psychiatric hospitals and of public or other hospitals that serve a significantly disproportionate number of patients who have low income or are entitled to benefits under part A of this subchapter, and
(C)
a decrease in the inpatient hospital services that a hospital provides and that are customarily provided directly by similar hospitals which results in a significant distortion in the operating costs of inpatient hospital services.
(3) The limitation established under paragraph (1)(A) shall not apply with respect to any hospital which—
(A)
is located outside of a standard metropolitan statistical area, and
(B)
(i)
has less than 50 beds, and
(ii)
was in operation and had less than 50 beds on September 3, 1982.
(4) For purposes of this section, the term “operating costs of inpatient hospital services” includes all routine operating costs, ancillary service operating costs, and special care unit operating costs with respect to inpatient hospital services as such costs are determined on an average per admission or per discharge basis (as determined by the Secretary), and includes the costs of all services for which payment may be made under this subchapter that are provided by the hospital (or by an entity wholly owned or operated by the hospital) to the patient during the 3 days (or, in the case of a hospital that is not a subsection (d) hospital, during the 1 day) immediately preceding the date of the patient’s admission if such services are diagnostic services (including clinical diagnostic laboratory tests) or are other services related to the admission (as defined by the Secretary). Such term does not include costs of approved educational activities, a return on equity capital, other capital-related costs (as defined by the Secretary for periods before October 1, 1987), or costs with respect to administering blood clotting factors to individuals with hemophilia. In applying the first sentence of this paragraph, the term “other services related to the admission” includes all services that are not diagnostic services (other than ambulance and maintenance renal dialysis services) for which payment may be made under this subchapter that are provided by a hospital (or an entity wholly owned or operated by the hospital) to a patient—
(A)
on the date of the patient’s inpatient admission; or
(B)
during the 3 days (or, in the case of ahospital that is not a subsection (d) hospital, during the 1 day) immediately preceding the date of such admission unless the hospital demonstrates (in a form and manner, and at a time, specified by the Secretary) that such services are not related (as determined by the Secretary) to such admission.
(b) Computation of payment; definitions; exemptions; adjustments
(1) Notwithstanding section 1395f(b) of this title but subject to the provisions of section 1395e of this title, if the operating costs of inpatient hospital services (as defined in subsection (a)(4)) of a hospital (other than a subsection (d) hospital, as defined in subsection (d)(1)(B) and other than a rehabilitation facility described in subsection (j)(1)) for a cost reporting period subject to this paragraph—
(A) are less than or equal to the target amount(as defined in paragraph (3)) for that hospital for that period, the amount of the payment with respect to such operating costs payable under part A on a per discharge or per admission basis (as the case may be) shall be equal to the amount of such operating costs, plus—
(i)
15 percent of the amount by which the target amount exceeds the amount of the operating costs, or
(ii)
2 percent of the target amount,
whichever is less;
(B)
are greater than the target amount but do not exceed 110 percent of the target amount, the amount of the payment with respect to those operating costs payable under part A on a per discharge basis shall equal the target amount; or
(C)
are greater than 110 percent of the target amount, the amount of the payment with respect to such operating costs payable under part A on a per discharge or per admission basis (as the case may be) shall be equal to (i) the target amount, plus (ii) in the case of cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 1991, an additional amount equal to 50 percent of the amount by which the operating costs exceed 110 percent of the target amount (except that such additional amount may not exceed 10 percent of the target amount) after any exceptions or adjustments are made to such target amount for the cost reporting period;
plus the amount, if any, provided under paragraph (2), except that in no case may the amount payable under this subchapter (other than on the basis of a DRG prospective payment rate determined under subsection (d)) with respect to operating costs of inpatient hospital services exceed the maximum amount payable with respect to such costs pursuant to subsection (a).
(2)
(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (E), in addition to the payment computed under paragraph (1), in the case of an eligible hospital (described in subparagraph (B)) for a cost reporting period beginning on or after October 1, 1997, the amount of payment on a per discharge basis under paragraph (1) shall be increased by the lesser of—
(i)
50 percent of the amount by which the operating costs are less than the expected costs(as defined in subparagraph (D)) for the period; or
(ii)
1 percent of the target amount for the period.
(B) For purposes of this paragraph, an “eligible hospital” means with respect to a cost reporting period, a hospital—
(i)
that has received payments under this subsection for at least 3 full cost reporting periods before that cost reporting period, and
(ii)
whose operating costs for the period are less than the least of its target amount, its trended costs (as defined in subparagraph (C)), or its expected costs(as defined in subparagraph (D)) for the period.
(C) For purposes of subparagraph (B)(ii), the term “trended costs” means for a hospital cost reporting period ending in a fiscal year—
(i)
in the case of ahospital for which its cost reporting period ending in fiscal year 1996 was its third or subsequent full cost reporting period for which it receives payments under this subsection, the lesser of the operating costs or target amount for that hospital for its cost reporting period ending in fiscal year 1996, or
(ii)
in the case of any other hospital, the operating costs for that hospital for its third full cost reporting period for which it receives payments under this subsection,
increased (in a compounded manner) for each succeeding fiscal year (through the fiscal year involved) by the market basket percentage increase for the fiscal year.
(D)
For purposes of this paragraph, the term “expected costs”, with respect to the cost reporting period ending in a fiscal year, means the lesser of the operating costs of inpatient hospital services or target amount per discharge for the previous cost reporting period updated by the market basket percentage increase (as defined in paragraph (3)(B)(iii)) for the fiscal year.
(E)
(i) In the case of an eligible hospital that is a hospital or unit that is within a class of hospital described in clause (ii) with a 12-month cost reporting period beginning before November 29, 1999, in determining the amount of the increase under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall substitute for the percentage of the target amount applicable under subparagraph (A)(ii)—
(I)
for a cost reporting period beginning on or after October 1, 2000, and before September 30, 2001, 1.5 percent; and
(II)
for a cost reporting period beginning on or after October 1, 2001, and before September 30, 2002, 2 percent.
(ii) For purposes of clause (i), each of the following shall be treated as a separate class of hospital:
(I)
Hospitals described in clause (i) of subsection (d)(1)(B) and psychiatric units described in the matter following clause (v) of such subsection.
(II)
Hospitals described in clause (iv) of such subsection.
(3)
(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (C) and succeeding subparagraphs, and in paragraph (7)(A)(ii), for purposes of this subsection, the term “target amount” means, with respect to a hospital for a particular 12-month cost reporting period—
(i)
in the case of the first such reporting period for which this subsection is in effect, the allowable operating costs of inpatient hospital services(as defined in subsection (a)(4)) recognized under this subchapter for such hospital for the preceding 12-month cost reporting period, and
(ii)
in the case of a later reporting period, the target amount for the preceding 12-month cost reporting period,
increased by the applicable percentage increase under subparagraph (B) for that particular cost reporting period.
(B)
(i) For purposes of subsection (d) and subsection (j) for discharges occurring during a fiscal year, the “applicable percentage increase” shall be—
(I)
for fiscal year 1986, ½ percent,
(II)
for fiscal year 1987, 1.15 percent,
(III)
for fiscal year 1988, 3.0 percent for hospitals located in a rural area, 1.5 percent for hospitals located in a large urban area(as defined in subsection (d)(2)(D)), and 1.0 percent for hospitals located in other urban areas,
(IV)
for fiscal year 1989, the market basket percentage increase minus 1.5 percentage points for hospitals located in a rural area, the market basket percentage increase minus 2.0 percentage points for hospitals located in a large urban area, and the market basket percentage increase minus 2.5 percentage points for hospitals located in other urban areas,
(V)
for fiscal year 1990, the market basket percentage increase plus 4.22 percentage points for hospitals located in a rural area, the market basket percentage increase plus 0.12 percentage points for hospitals located in a large urban area, and the market basket percentage increase minus 0.53 percentage points for hospitals located in other urban areas,
(VI)
for fiscal year 1991, the market basket percentage increase minus 2.0 percentage points for hospitals in a large urban or other urban area, and the market basket percentage increase minus 0.7 percentage point for hospitals located in a rural area,
(VII)
for fiscal year 1992, the market basket percentage increase minus 1.6 percentage points for hospitals in a large urban or other urban area, and the market basket percentage increase minus 0.6 percentage point for hospitals located in a rural area,
(VIII)
for fiscal year 1993, the market basket percentage increase minus 1.55 percentage point for hospitals in a large urban or other urban area, and the market basket percentage increase minus 0.55 [1] for hospitals located in a rural area,
(IX)
for fiscal year 1994, the market basket percentage increase minus 2.5 percentage points for hospitals located in a large urban or other urban area, and the market basket percentage increase minus 1.0 percentage point for hospitals located in a rural area,
(X)
for fiscal year 1995, the market basket percentage increase minus 2.5 percentage points for hospitals located in a large urban or other urban area, and such percentage increase for hospitals located in a rural area as will provide for the average standardized amount determined under subsection (d)(3)(A) for hospitals located in a rural area being equal to such average standardized amount for hospitals located in an urban area (other than a large urban area),
(XI)
for fiscal year 1996, the market basket percentage increase minus 2.0 percentage points for hospitals in all areas,
(XII)
for fiscal year 1997, the market basket percentage increase minus 0.5 percentage point for hospitals in all areas,
(XIII)
for fiscal year 1998, 0 percent,
(XIV)
for fiscal year 1999, the market basket percentage increase minus 1.9 percentage points for hospitals in all areas,
(XV)
for fiscal year 2000, the market basket percentage increase minus 1.8 percentage points for hospitals in all areas,
(XVI)
for fiscal year 2001, the market basket percentage increase for hospitals in all areas,
(XVII)
for fiscal year 2002, the market basket percentage increase minus 0.55 percentage points for hospitals in all areas,
(XVIII)
for fiscal year 2003, the market basket percentage increase minus 0.55 percentage points for hospitals in all areas,
(XIX)
for each of fiscal years 2004 through 2006, subject to clause (vii), the market basket percentage increase for hospitals in all areas; [2] and
(XX)
for each subsequent fiscal year, subject to clauses (viii), (ix), (xi), and (xii), the market basket percentage increase for hospitals in all areas.
(ii) For purposes of subparagraphs (A) and (E), the “applicable percentage increase” for 12-month cost reporting periods beginning during—
(I)
fiscal year 1986, is 0.5 percent,
(II)
fiscal year 1987, is 1.15 percent,
(III)
fiscal year 1988, is the market basket percentage increase minus 2.0 percentage points,
(IV)
a subsequent fiscal year ending on or before September 30, 1993, is the market basket percentage increase,
(V)
fiscal years 1994 through 1997, is the market basket percentage increase minus the applicable reduction (as defined in clause (v)(II)), or in the case of a hospital for a fiscal year for which the hospital’s update adjustment percentage (as defined in clause (v)(I)) is at least 10 percent, the market basket percentage increase,
(VI)
for fiscal year 1998, is 0 percent,
(VII)
for fiscal years 1999 through 2002, is the applicable update factor specified under clause (vi) for the fiscal year, and
(VIII)
subsequent fiscal years is the market basket percentage increase.
(iii)
For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “market basket percentage increase” means, with respect to cost reporting periods and discharges occurring in a fiscal year, the percentage, estimated by the Secretary before the beginning of the period or fiscal year, by which the cost of the mix of goods and services (including personnel costs but excluding nonoperating costs) comprising routine, ancillary, and special care unit inpatient hospital services, based on an index of appropriately weighted indicators of changes in wages and prices which are representative of the mix of goods and services included in such inpatient hospital services, for the period or fiscal year will exceed the cost of such mix of goods and services for the preceding 12-month cost reporting period or fiscal year.
(iv) For purposes of subparagraphs (C) and (D), the “applicable percentage increase” is—
(I)
for 12-month cost reporting periods beginning during fiscal years 1986 through 1993, the applicable percentage increase specified in clause (ii),
(II)
for fiscal year 1994, the market basket percentage increase minus 2.3 percentage points (adjusted to exclude any portion of a cost reporting period beginning during fiscal year 1993 for which the applicable percentage increase is determined under subparagraph (I)),
(III)
for fiscal year 1995, the market basket percentage increase minus 2.2 percentage points, and
(IV)
for fiscal year 1996 and each subsequent fiscal year, the applicable percentage increase under clause (i).
(v) For purposes of clause (ii)(V)—
(I)
ahospital’s update adjustment percentage” for a fiscal year is the percentage by which the hospital’s allowable operating costs of inpatient hospital services recognized under this subchapter for the cost reporting period beginning in fiscal year 1990 exceeds the hospital’s target amount (as determined under subparagraph (A)) for such cost reporting period, increased for each fiscal year (beginning with fiscal year 1994) by the sum of any of the hospital’s applicable reductions under subclause (V) for previous fiscal years; and
(II)
the “applicable reduction” with respect to a hospital for a fiscal year is the lesser of 1 percentage point or the percentage point difference between 10 percent and the hospital’s update adjustment percentage for the fiscal year.
(vi) For purposes of clause (ii)(VII) for a fiscal year, if a hospital’s allowable operating costs of inpatient hospital services recognized under this subchapter for the most recent cost reporting period for which information is available—
(I)
is equal to, or exceeds, 110 percent of the hospital’s target amount(as determined under subparagraph (A)) for such cost reporting period, the applicable update factor specified under this clause is the market basket percentage;
(II)
exceeds 100 percent, but is less than 110 percent, of such target amount for the hospital, the applicable update factor specified under this clause is 0 percent or, if greater, the market basket percentage minus 0.25 percentage points for each percentage point by which such allowable operating costs (expressed as a percentage of such target amount) is less than 110 percent of such target amount;
(III)
is equal to, or less than 100 percent, but exceeds ⅔ of such target amount for the hospital, the applicable update factor specified under this clause is 0 percent or, if greater, the market basket percentage minus 2.5 percentage points; or
(IV)
does not exceed ⅔ of such target amount for the hospital, the applicable update factor specified under this clause is 0 percent.
(vii)
(I)
For purposes of clause (i)(XIX) for fiscal years 2005 and 2006, in a case of a subsection (d) hospital that does not submit data to the Secretary in accordance with subclause (II) with respect to such a fiscal year, the applicable percentage increase under such clause for such fiscal year shall be reduced by 0.4 percentage points. Such reduction shall apply only with respect to the fiscal year involved, and the Secretary shall not take into account such reduction in computing the applicable percentage increase under clause (i)(XIX) for a subsequent fiscal year.
(II)
For fiscal years 2005 and 2006, each subsection (d) hospital shall submit to the Secretary quality data (for a set of 10 indicators established by the Secretary as of November 1, 2003) that relate to the quality of care furnished by the hospital in inpatient settings in a form and manner, and at a time, specified by the Secretary for purposes of this clause, but with respect to fiscal year 2005, the Secretary shall provide for a 30-day grace period for the submission of data by a hospital.
(viii)
(I)
For purposes of clause (i) for fiscal year 2007 and each subsequent fiscal year, in the case of a subsection (d) hospital that does not submit, to the Secretary in accordance with this clause, data required to be submitted on measures selected under this clause with respect to such a fiscal year, the applicable percentage increase under clause (i) for such fiscal year shall be reduced by 2.0 percentage points (or, beginning with fiscal year 2015, by one-quarter of such applicable percentage increase (determined without regard to clause (ix), (xi), or (xii))). Such reduction shall apply only with respect to the fiscal year involved and the Secretary shall not take into account such reduction in computing the applicable percentage increase under clause (i) for a subsequent fiscal year, and the Secretary and the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission shall carry out the requirements under section 5001(b) of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005.
(II)
Each subsection (d) hospital shall submit data on measures selected under this clause to the Secretary in a form and manner, and at a time, specified by the Secretary for purposes of this clause. The Secretary may require hospitals to submit data on measures that are not used for the determination of value-based incentive payments under subsection (o).
(III)
The Secretary shall expand, beyond the measures specified under clause (vii)(II) and consistent with the succeeding subclauses, the set of measures that the Secretary determines to be appropriate for the measurement of the quality of care (including medication errors) furnished by hospitals in inpatient settings.
(IV)
Effective for payments beginning with fiscal year 2007, in expanding the number of measures under subclause (III), the Secretary shall begin to adopt the baseline set of performance measures as set forth in the November 2005 report by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences under section 238(b) of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003.
(V)
Effective for payments for fiscal years 2008 through 2012, the Secretary shall add other measures that reflect consensus among affected parties and, to the extent feasible and practicable, shall include measures set forth by one or more national consensus building entities.
(VI)
For purposes of this clause and clause (vii), the Secretary may replace any measures or indicators in appropriate cases, such as where all hospitals are effectively in compliance or the measures or indicators have been subsequently shown not to represent the best clinical practice.
(VII)
The Secretary shall establish procedures for making information regarding measures submitted under this clause available to the public. Such procedures shall ensure that a hospital has the opportunity to review the data that are to be made public with respect to the hospital prior to such data being made public. The Secretary shall report quality measures of process, structure, outcome, patients’ perspectives on care, efficiency, and costs of care that relate to services furnished in inpatient settings in hospitals on the Internet website of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services.
(VIII)
Effective for payments beginning with fiscal year 2013, with respect to quality measures for outcomes of care, the Secretary shall provide for such risk adjustment as the Secretary determines to be appropriate to maintain incentives for hospitals to treat patients with severe illnesses or conditions.
(IX)
(aa)
Subject to item (bb), effective for payments beginning with fiscal year 2013, each measure specified by the Secretary under this clause shall be endorsed by the entity with a contract under section 1395aaa(a) of this title.
(bb)
In the case of a specified area or medical topic determined appropriate by the Secretary for which a feasible and practical measure has not been endorsed by the entity with a contract under section 1395aaa(a) of this title, the Secretary may specify a measure that is not so endorsed as long as due consideration is given to measures that have been endorsed or adopted by a consensus organization identified by the Secretary.
(X) To the extent practicable, the Secretary shall, with input from consensus organizations and other stakeholders, take steps to ensure that the measures specified by the Secretary under this clause are coordinated and aligned with quality measures applicable to—
(bb)
other providers of services and suppliers under this subchapter.
(XI)
The Secretary shall establish a process to validate measures specified under this clause as appropriate. Such process shall include the auditing of a number of randomly selected hospitals sufficient to ensure validity of the reporting program under this clause as a whole and shall provide a hospital with an opportunity to appeal the validation of measures reported by such hospital.
(XII)
(aa)
With respect to aHospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey (or a successor survey) conducted on or after January 1, 2020, such survey may not include questions about communication by hospital staff with an individual about such individual’s pain unless such questions take into account, as applicable, whether an individual experiencing pain was informed about risks associated with the use of opioids and about non-opioid alternatives for the treatment of pain.
(bb)
The Secretary shall not include on the Hospital Compare internet website any measures based on the questions appearing on the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey in 2018 or 2019 about communication by hospital staff with an individual about such individual’s pain.
(ix)
(I)
For purposes of clause (i) for fiscal year 2015 and each subsequent fiscal year, in the case of an eligible hospital(as defined in subsection (n)(6)) that is not a meaningful EHR user (as defined in subsection (n)(3)) for an EHR reporting period for such fiscal year, three-quarters of the applicable percentage increase otherwise applicable under clause (i) (determined without regard to clause (viii), (xi), or (xii)) for such fiscal year shall be reduced by 33⅓ percent for fiscal year 2015, 66⅔ percent for fiscal year 2016, and 100 percent for fiscal year 2017 and each subsequent fiscal year. Such reduction shall apply only with respect to the fiscal year involved and the Secretary shall not take into account such reduction in computing the applicable percentage increase under clause (i) for a subsequent fiscal year.
(II)
The Secretary may, on a case-by-case basis (and, with respect to the application of subclause (I) for fiscal year 2017, for categories of subsection (d) hospitals, as established by the Secretary and posted on the Internet website of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services prior to December 15, 2015, an application for which must be submitted to the Secretary by not later than April 1, 2016), exempt an eligible hospital from the application of subclause (I) with respect to a fiscal year if the Secretary determines, subject to annual renewal, that requiring such hospital to be a meaningful EHR user during such fiscal year would result in a significant hardship, such as in the case of a hospital in a rural area without sufficient Internet access. The Secretary shall exempt an eligible hospital from the application of the payment adjustment under subclause (I) with respect to a fiscal year, subject to annual renewal, if the Secretary determines that compliance with the requirement for being a meaningful EHR user is not possible because the certified EHR technology used by such hospital is decertified under a program kept or recognized pursuant to section 300jj–11(c)(5) of this title. In no case may a hospital be granted an exemption under this subclause for more than 5 years.
(III)
For fiscal year 2015 and each subsequent fiscal year, a State in which hospitals are paid for services under section 1395f(b)(3) of this title shall adjust the payments to each subsection (d) hospital in the State that is not a meaningful EHR user (as defined in subsection (n)(3)) in a manner that is designed to result in an aggregate reduction in payments to hospitals in the State that is equivalent to the aggregate reduction that would have occurred if payments had been reduced to each subsection (d) hospital in the State in a manner comparable to the reduction under the previous provisions of this clause. The State shall report to the Secretary the methodology it will use to make the payment adjustment under the previous sentence.
(IV)
For purposes of this clause, the term “EHR reporting period” means, with respect to a fiscal year, any period (or periods) as specified by the Secretary.
(x)
(I)
The Secretary shall develop standard Internet website reports tailored to meet the needs of various stakeholders such as hospitals, patients, researchers, and policymakers. The Secretary shall seek input from such stakeholders in determining the type of information that is useful and the formats that best facilitate the use of the information.
(II)
The Secretary shall modify the Hospital Compare Internet website to make the use and navigation of that website readily available to individuals accessing it.
(xi)
(I)
For 2012 and each subsequent fiscal year, after determining the applicable percentage increase described in clause (i) and after application of clauses (viii) and (ix), such percentage increase shall be reduced by the productivity adjustment described in subclause (II).
(II)
The productivity adjustment described in this subclause, with respect to a percentage, factor, or update for a fiscal year, year, cost reporting period, or other annual period, is a productivity adjustment equal to the 10-year moving average of changes in annual economy-wide private nonfarm business multi-factor productivity (as projected by the Secretary for the 10-year period ending with the applicable fiscal year, year, cost reporting period, or other annual period).
(III)
The application of subclause (I) may result in the applicable percentage increase described in clause (i) being less than 0.0 for a fiscal year, and may result in payment rates under this section for a fiscal year being less than such payment rates for the preceding fiscal year.
(xii) After determining the applicable percentage increase described in clause (i), and after application of clauses (viii), (ix), and (xi), the Secretary shall reduce such applicable percentage increase
(I)
for each of fiscal years 2010 and 2011, by 0.25 percentage point;
(II)
for each of fiscal years 2012 and 2013, by 0.1 percentage point;
(III)
for fiscal year 2014, by 0.3 percentage point;
(IV)
for each of fiscal years 2015 and 2016, by 0.2 percentage point; and
(V)
for each of fiscal years 2017, 2018, and 2019, by 0.75 percentage point.
The application of this clause may result in the applicable percentage increase described in clause (i) being less than 0.0 for a fiscal year, and may result in payment rates under this section for a fiscal year being less than such payment rates for the preceding fiscal year.
(C) In the case of ahospital that is a sole community hospital(as defined in subsection (d)(5)(D)(iii)), subject to subparagraphs (I) and (L), the term “target amount” means—
(i) with respect to the first 12-month cost reporting period in which this subparagraph is applied to the hospital—
(I)
the allowable operating costs of inpatient hospital services(as defined in subsection (a)(4)) recognized under this subchapter for the hospital for the 12-month cost reporting period (in this subparagraph referred to as the “base cost reporting period”) preceding the first cost reporting period for which this subsection was in effect with respect to such hospital, increased (in a compounded manner) by—
(II)
the applicable percentage increases applied to such hospital under this paragraph for cost reporting periods after the base cost reporting period and up to and including such first 12-month cost reporting period,
(ii)
with respect to a later cost reporting period beginning before fiscal year 1994, the target amount for the preceding 12-month cost reporting period, increased by the applicable percentage increase under subparagraph (B)(iv) for discharges occurring in the fiscal year in which that later cost reporting period begins,
(iii)
with respect to discharges occurring in fiscal year 1994, the target amount for the cost reporting period beginning in fiscal year 1993 increased by the applicable percentage increase under subparagraph (B)(iv), or
(iv)
with respect to discharges occurring in fiscal year 1995 and each subsequent fiscal year, the target amount for the preceding year increased by the applicable percentage increase under subparagraph (B)(iv).
There shall be substituted for the base cost reporting period described in clause (i) a hospital’s cost reporting period (if any) beginning during fiscal year 1987 if such substitution results in an increase in the target amount for the hospital.
(D) For cost reporting periods ending on or before September 30, 1994, and for discharges occurring on or after October 1, 1997, and before October 1, 2022, in the case of a hospital that is a medicare-dependent, small rural hospital (as defined in subsection (d)(5)(G)), subject to subparagraph (K), the term “target amount” means—
(i) with respect to the first 12-month cost reporting period in which this subparagraph is applied to the hospital—
(I)
the allowable operating costs of inpatient hospital services(as defined in subsection (a)(4)) recognized under this subchapter for the hospital for the 12-month cost reporting period (in this subparagraph referred to as the “base cost reporting period”) preceding the first cost reporting period for which this subsection was in effect with respect to such hospital, increased (in a compounded manner) by—
(II)
the applicable percentage increases applied to such hospital under this paragraph for cost reporting periods after the base cost reporting period and up to and including such first 12-month cost reporting period, or
(ii)
with respect to a later cost reporting period beginning before fiscal year 1994, the target amount for the preceding 12-month cost reporting period, increased by the applicable percentage increase under subparagraph (B)(iv) for discharges occurring in the fiscal year in which that later cost reporting period begins,
(iii)
with respect to discharges occurring in fiscal year 1994, the target amount for the cost reporting period beginning in fiscal year 1993 increased by the applicable percentage increase under subparagraph (B)(iv), and
(iv)
with respect to discharges occurring during fiscal year 1998 through fiscal year 2022, the target amount for the preceding year increased by the applicable percentage increase under subparagraph (B)(iv).
There shall be substituted for the base cost reporting period described in clause (i) a hospital’s cost reporting period (if any) beginning during fiscal year 1987 if such substitution results in an increase in the target amount for the hospital.
(E) In the case of ahospital described in clause (v) of subsection (d)(1)(B), the term “target amount” means—
(i) with respect to the first 12-month cost reporting period in which this subparagraph is applied to the hospital—
(I)
the allowable operating costs of inpatient hospital services(as defined in subsection (a)(4)) recognized under this subchapter for the hospital for the 12-month cost reporting period (in this subparagraph referred to as the “base cost reporting period”) preceding the first cost reporting period for which this subsection was in effect with respect to such hospital, increased (in a compounded manner) by—
(II)
the sum of the applicable percentage increases applied to such hospital under this paragraph for cost reporting periods after the base cost reporting period and up to and including such first 12-month cost reporting period, or
(ii)
with respect to a later cost reporting period, the target amount for the preceding 12-month cost reporting period, increased by the applicable percentage increase under subparagraph (B)(ii) for that later cost reporting period.
There shall be substituted for the base cost reporting period described in clause (i) a hospital’s cost reporting period (if any) beginning during fiscal year 1987 if such substitution results in an increase in the target amount for the hospital.
(F)
(i)
In the case of ahospital (or unit described in the matter following clause (v) of subsection (d)(1)(B)) that received payment under this subsection for inpatient hospital services furnished during cost reporting periods beginning before October 1, 1990, that is within a class of hospital described in clause (iii), and that elects (in a form and manner determined by the Secretary) this subparagraph to apply to the hospital, the target amount for the hospital’s 12-month cost reporting period beginning during fiscal year 1998 is equal to the average described in clause (ii).
(ii) The average described in this clause for ahospital or unit shall be determined by the Secretary as follows:
(I)
The Secretary shall determine the allowable operating costs for inpatient hospital services for the hospital or unit for each of the 5 cost reporting periods for which the Secretary has the most recent settled cost reports as of August 5, 1997.
(II)
The Secretary shall increase the amount determined under subclause (I) for each cost reporting period by the applicable percentage increase under subparagraph (B)(ii) for each subsequent cost reporting period up to the cost reporting period described in clause (i).
(III)
The Secretary shall identify among such 5 cost reporting periods the cost reporting periods for which the amount determined under subclause (II) is the highest, and the lowest.
(IV)
The Secretary shall compute the averages of the amounts determined under subclause (II) for the 3 cost reporting periods not identified under subclause (III).
(iii) For purposes of this subparagraph, each of the following shall be treated as a separate class of hospital:
(I)
Hospitals described in clause (i) of subsection (d)(1)(B) and psychiatric units described in the matter following clause (v) of such subsection.
(II)
Hospitals described in clause (ii) of such subsection and rehabilitation units described in the matter following clause (v) of such subsection.
(III)
Hospitals described in clause (iii) of such subsection.
(IV)
Hospitals described in clause (iv) of such subsection.
(V)
Hospitals described in clause (v) of such subsection.
(G)
(i)
In the case of aqualified long-term care hospital(as defined in clause (ii)) that elects (in a form and manner determined by the Secretary) this subparagraph to apply to the hospital, the target amount for the hospital’s 12-month cost reporting period beginning during fiscal year 1998 is equal to the allowable operating costs of inpatient hospital services(as defined in subsection (a)(4)) recognized under this subchapter for the hospital for the 12-month cost reporting period beginning during fiscal year 1996, increased by the applicable percentage increase for the cost reporting period beginning during fiscal year 1997.
(ii) In clause (i), aqualified long-term care hospital” means, with respect to a cost reporting period, a hospital described in clause (iv) of subsection (d)(1)(B) during each of the 2 cost reporting periods for which the Secretary has the most recent settled cost reports as of August 5, 1997, for each of which—
(I)
the hospital’s allowable operating costs of inpatient hospital services recognized under this subchapter exceeded 115 percent of the hospital’s target amount, and
(II)
the hospital would have a disproportionate patient percentage of at least 70 percent (as determined by the Secretary under subsection (d)(5)(F)(vi)) if the hospital were a subsection (d) hospital.
(H)
(i)
In the case of ahospital or unit that is within a class of hospital described in clause (iv), for a cost reporting period beginning during fiscal years 1998 through 2002, the target amount for such a hospital or unit may not exceed the amount as updated up to or for such cost reporting period under clause (ii).
(ii)
(I)
In the case of ahospital or unit that is within a class of hospital described in clause (iv), the Secretary shall estimate the 75th percentile of the target amounts for such hospitals within such class for cost reporting periods ending during fiscal year 1996, as adjusted under clause (iii).
(II)
The Secretary shall update the amount determined under subclause (I), for each cost reporting period after the cost reporting period described in such subclause and up to the first cost reporting period beginning on or after October 1, 1997, by a factor equal to the market basket percentage increase.
(III)
For cost reporting periods beginning during each of fiscal years 1999 through 2002, subject to subparagraph (J), the Secretary shall update such amount by a factor equal to the market basket percentage increase.
(iii)
In applying clause (ii)(I) in the case of ahospital or unit, the Secretary shall provide for an appropriate adjustment to the labor-related portion of the amount determined under such subparagraph to take into account differences between average wage-related costs in the area of the hospital and the national average of such costs within the same class of hospital.
(iv) For purposes of this subparagraph, each of the following shall be treated as a separate class of hospital:
(I)
Hospitals described in clause (i) of subsection (d)(1)(B) and psychiatric units described in the matter following clause (v) of such subsection.
(II)
Hospitals described in clause (ii) of such subsection and rehabilitation units described in the matter following clause (v) of such subsection.
(III)
Hospitals described in clause (iv) of such subsection.
(I)
(i) Subject to subparagraph (L), for cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 2000, in the case of a sole community hospital there shall be substituted for the amount otherwise determined under subsection (d)(5)(D)(i), if such substitution results in a greater amount of payment under this section for the hospital—
(I)
with respect to discharges occurring in fiscal year 2001, 75 percent of the amount otherwise applicable to the hospital under subsection (d)(5)(D)(i) (referred to in this clause as the “subsection (d)(5)(D)(i) amount”) and 25 percent of the rebased target amount(as defined in clause (ii));
(II)
with respect to discharges occurring in fiscal year 2002, 50 percent of the subsection (d)(5)(D)(i) amount and 50 percent of the rebased target amount;
(III)
with respect to discharges occurring in fiscal year 2003, 25 percent of the subsection (d)(5)(D)(i) amount and 75 percent of the rebased target amount; and
(IV)
with respect to discharges occurring after fiscal year 2003, 100 percent of the rebased target amount.
(ii) For purposes of this subparagraph, the “rebased target amount” has the meaning given the term “target amount” in subparagraph (C) except that—
(I)
there shall be substituted for the base cost reporting period the 12-month cost reporting period beginning during fiscal year 1996;
(II)
any reference in subparagraph (C)(i) to the “first cost reporting period” described in such subparagraph is deemed a reference to the first cost reporting period beginning on or after October 1, 2000; and
(III)
applicable increase percentage shall only be applied under subparagraph (C)(iv) for discharges occurring in fiscal years beginning with fiscal year 2002.
(iii)
In no case shall ahospital be denied treatment as a sole community hospital or payment (on the basis of a target rate as such as a hospital) because data are unavailable for any cost reporting period due to changes in ownership, changes in fiscal intermediaries, or other extraordinary circumstances, so long as data for at least one applicable base cost reporting period is available.
(J) For cost reporting periods beginning during fiscal year 2001, for a hospital described in subsection (d)(1)(B)(iv)—
(i)
the limiting or cap amount otherwise determined under subparagraph (H) shall be increased by 2 percent; and
(ii)
the target amount otherwise determined under subparagraph (A) shall be increased by 25 percent (subject to the limiting or cap amount determined under subparagraph (H), as increased by clause (i)).
(K)
(i) With respect to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2006, in the case of a medicare-dependent, small rural hospital, for purposes of applying subparagraph (D)—
(I)
there shall be substituted for the base cost reporting period described in subparagraph (D)(i) the 12-month cost reporting period beginning during fiscal year 2002; and
(II)
any reference in such subparagraph to the “first cost reporting period” described in such subparagraph is deemed a reference to the first cost reporting period beginning on or after October 1, 2006.
(ii)
This subparagraph shall only apply to ahospital if the substitution described in clause (i)(I) results in an increase in the target amount under subparagraph (D) for the hospital.
(L)
(i)
For cost reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2009, in the case of a sole community hospital there shall be substituted for the amount otherwise determined under subsection (d)(5)(D)(i) of this section, if such substitution results in a greater amount of payment under this section for the hospital, the subparagraph (L) rebased target amount.
(ii) For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “subparagraph (L) rebased target amount” has the meaning given the term “target amount” in subparagraph (C), except that—
(I)
there shall be substituted for the base cost reporting period the 12-month cost reporting period beginning during fiscal year 2006;
(II)
any reference in subparagraph (C)(i) to the “first cost reporting period” described in such subparagraph is deemed a reference to the first cost reporting period beginning on or after January 1, 2009; and
(III)
the applicable percentage increase shall only be applied under subparagraph (C)(iv) for discharges occurring on or after January 1, 2009.
(4)
(A)
(i)
The Secretary shall provide for an exception and adjustment to (and in the case of a hospital described in subsection (d)(1)(B)(iii), may provide an exemption from) the method under this subsection for determining the amount of payment to a hospital where events beyond the hospital’s control or extraordinary circumstances, including changes in the case mix of such hospital, create a distortion in the increase in costs for a cost reporting period (including any distortion in the costs for the base period against which such increase is measured). The Secretary may provide for such other exemptions from, and exceptions and adjustments to, such method as the Secretary deems appropriate, including the assignment of a new base period which is more representative, as determined by the Secretary, of the reasonable and necessary cost of inpatient services and including those which he deems necessary to take into account a decrease in the inpatient hospital services that a hospital provides and that are customarily provided directly by similar hospitals which results in a significant distortion in the operating costs of inpatient hospital services. The Secretary shall announce a decision on any request for an exemption, exception, or adjustment under this paragraph not later than 180 days after receiving a completed application from the intermediary for such exemption, exception, or adjustment, and shall include in such decision a detailed explanation of the grounds on which such request was approved or denied.
(ii)
The payment reductions under paragraph (3)(B)(ii)(V) shall not be considered by the Secretary in making adjustments pursuant to clause (i). In making such reductions, the Secretary shall treat the applicable update factor described in paragraph (3)(B)(vi) for a fiscal year as being equal to the market basket percentage for that year.
(B) In determining under subparagraph (A) whether to assign a new base period which is more representative of the reasonable and necessary cost to a hospital of providing inpatient services, the Secretary shall take into consideration—
(i)
changes in applicable technologies and medical practices, or differences in the severity of illness among patients, that increase the hospital’s costs;
(ii)
whether increases in wages and wage-related costs for hospitals located in the geographic area in which the hospital is located exceed the average of the increases in such costs paid by hospitals in the United States; and
(iii)
such other factors as the Secretary considers appropriate in determining increases in the hospital’s costs of providing inpatient services.
(C)
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to payment of hospitals which is otherwise determined under paragraph (3) of section 1395f(b) of this title.
(5)
In the case of any hospital having any cost reporting period of other than a 12-month period, the Secretary shall determine the 12-month period which shall be used for purposes of this section.
(6)
In the case of any hospital which becomes subject to the taxes under section 3111 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, with respect to any or all of its employees, for part or all of a cost reporting period, and was not subject to such taxes with respect to any or all of its employees for all or part of the 12-month base cost reporting period referred to in subsection (b)(3)(A)(i), the Secretary shall provide for an adjustment by increasing the base period amount described in such subsection for such hospital by an amount equal to the amount of such taxes which would have been paid or accrued by such hospital for such base period if such hospital had been subject to such taxes for all of such base period with respect to all its employees, minus the amount of any such taxes actually paid or accrued for such base period.
(7)
(A) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), in the case of ahospital or unit that is within a class of hospital described in subparagraph (B) which first receives payments under this section on or after October 1, 1997
(i) for each of the first 2 cost reporting periods for which the hospital has a settled cost report, the amount of the payment with respect to operating costs described in paragraph (1) under part A on a per discharge or per admission basis (as the case may be) is equal to the lesser of—
(I)
the amount of operating costs for such respective period, or
(II)
110 percent of the national median (as estimated by the Secretary) of the target amount for hospitals in the same class as the hospital for cost reporting periods ending during fiscal year 1996, updated by the hospital market basket increase percentage to the fiscal year in which the hospital first received payments under this section, as adjusted under subparagraph (C); and
(ii)
for purposes of computing the target amount for the subsequent cost reporting period, the target amount for the preceding cost reporting period is equal to the amount determined under clause (i) for such preceding period.
(B) For purposes of this paragraph, each of the following shall be treated as a separate class of hospital:
(i)
Hospitals described in clause (i) of subsection (d)(1)(B) and psychiatric units described in the matter following clause (v) of such subsection.
(ii)
Hospitals described in clause (ii) of such subsection and rehabilitation units described in the matter following clause (v) of such subsection.
(iii)
Hospitals described in clause (iv) of such subsection.
(C)
In applying subparagraph (A)(i)(II) in the case of ahospital or unit, the Secretary shall provide for an appropriate adjustment to the labor-related portion of the amount determined under such subparagraph to take into account differences between average wage-related costs in the area of the hospital and the national average of such costs within the same class of hospital.
(c) Payment in accordance with State hospital reimbursement control system; amount of payment; discontinuance of payments
(1) The Secretary may provide, in his discretion, that payment with respect to services provided by a hospital in a State may be made in accordance with a hospital reimbursement control system in a State, rather than in accordance with the other provisions of this subchapter, if the chief executive officer of the State requests such treatment and if—
(A)
the Secretary determines that the system, if approved under this subsection, will apply (i) to substantially all non-Federal acute care hospitals (as defined by the Secretary) in the State and (ii) to the review of at least 75 percent of all revenues or expenses in the State for inpatient hospital services and of revenues or expenses for inpatient hospital services provided under the State’s plan approved under subchapter XIX;
(B)
the Secretary has been provided satisfactory assurances as to the equitable treatment under the system of all entities (including Federal and State programs) that pay hospitals for inpatient hospital services, of hospital employees, and of hospital patients;
(C)
the Secretary has been provided satisfactory assurances that under the system, over 36-month periods (the first such period beginning with the first month in which this subsection applies to that system in the State), the amount of payments made under this subchapter under such system will not exceed the amount of payments which would otherwise have been made under this subchapter not using such system;
(D)
the Secretary determines that the system will not preclude an eligible organization (as defined in section 1395mm(b) of this title) from negotiating directly with hospitals with respect to the organization’s rate of payment for inpatient hospital services; and
(E)
the Secretary determines that the system requires hospitals to meet the requirement of section 1395cc(a)(1)(G) of this title and the system provides for the exclusion of certain costs in accordance with section 1395y(a)(14) of this title (except for such waivers thereof as the Secretary provides by regulation).
The Secretary cannot deny the application of a State under this subsection on the ground that the State’s hospital reimbursement control system is based on a payment methodology other than on the basis of a diagnosis-related group or on the ground that the amount of payments made under this subchapter under such system must be less than the amount of payments which would otherwise have been made under this subchapter not using such system. If the Secretary determines that the conditions described in subparagraph (C) are based on maintaining payment amounts at no more than a specified percentage increase above the payment amounts in a base period, the State has the option of applying such test (for inpatient hospital services under part A) on an aggregate payment basis or on the basis of the amount of payment per inpatient discharge or admission. If the Secretary determines that the conditions described in subparagraph (C) are based on maintaining aggregate payment amounts below a national average percentage increase in total payments under part A for inpatient hospital services, the Secretary cannot deny the application of a State under this subsection on the ground that the State’s rate of increase in such payments for such services must be less than such national average rate of increase.
(2)
In determining under paragraph (1)(C) the amount of payment which would otherwise have been made under this subchapter for aState, the Secretary may provide for appropriate adjustment of such amount to take into account previous reductions effected in the amount of payments made under this subchapter in the State due to the operation of the hospital reimbursement control system in the State if the system has resulted in an aggregate rate of increase in operating costs of inpatient hospital services(as defined in subsection (a)(4)) under this subchapter for hospitals in the State which is less than the aggregate rate of increase in such costs under this subchapter for hospitals in the United States.
(3) The Secretary shall discontinue payments under a system described in paragraph (1) if the Secretary
(A)
determines that the system no longer meets the requirements of subparagraphs (A), (D), and (E) of paragraph (1) and, if applicable, the requirements of paragraph (5), or
(B)
has reason to believe that the assurances described in subparagraph (B) or (C) of paragraph (1) (or, if applicable, in paragraph (5)) are not being (or will not be) met.
(4) The Secretary shall approve the request of a State under paragraph (1) with respect to a hospital reimbursement control system if—
(A)
the requirements of subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), (D), and (E) of paragraph (1) have been met with respect to the system, and
(B)
with respect to that system a waiver of certain requirements of this subchapter has been approved on or before (and which is in effect as of) April 20, 1983, pursuant to section 1395b–1(a) of this title or section 222(a) of the Social Security Amendments of 1972.
With respect to aState system described in this paragraph, the Secretary shall judge the effectiveness of such system on the basis of its rate of increase or inflation in inpatient hospital payments for individuals under this subchapter, as compared to the national rate of increase or inflation for such payments, with the State retaining the option to have the test applied on the basis of the aggregate payments under the State system as compared to aggregate payments which would have been made under the national system since October 1, 1984, to the most recent date for which annual data are available.
(5) The Secretary shall approve the request of a State under paragraph (1) with respect to a hospital reimbursement control system if—
(A)
the requirements of subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), (D), and (E) of paragraph (1) have been met with respect to the system;
(B) the Secretary determines that the system—
(i)
is operated directly by the State or by an entity designated pursuant to State law,
(ii)
provides for payment of hospitals covered under the system under a methodology (which sets forth exceptions and adjustments, as well as any method for changes in the methodology) by which rates or amounts to be paid for hospitalservices during a specified period are established under the system prior to the defined rate period, and
(iii)
hospitals covered under the system will make such reports (in lieu of cost and other reports, identified by the Secretary, otherwise required under this subchapter) as the Secretary may require in order to properly monitor assurances provided under this subsection;
(C) the State has provided the Secretary with satisfactory assurances that operation of the system will not result in any change in hospital admission practices which result in—
(i)
a significant reduction in the proportion of patients (receiving hospital services covered under the system) who have no third-party coverage and who are unable to pay for hospital services,
(ii)
a significant reduction in the proportion of individuals admitted to hospitals for inpatient hospital services for which payment is (or is likely to be) less than the anticipated charges for or costs of such services,
(iii)
the refusal to admit patients who would be expected to require unusually costly or prolonged treatment for reasons other than those related to the appropriateness of the care available at the hospital, or
(iv)
the refusal to provide emergency services to any person who is in need of emergency services if the hospital provides such services;
(D)
any change by the State in the system which has the effect of materially reducing payments to hospitals can only take effect upon 60 days notice to the Secretary and to the hospitals the payment to which is likely to be materially affected by the change; and
(E)
the State has provided the Secretary with satisfactory assurances that in the development of the system the State has consulted with local governmental officials concerning the impact of the system on public hospitals.
The Secretary shall respond to requests of States under this paragraph within 60 days of the date the request is submitted to the Secretary.
(6)
If the Secretary determines that the assurances described in paragraph (1)(C) have not been met with respect to any 36-month period, the Secretary may reduce payments under this subchapter to hospitals under the system in an amount equal to the amount by which the payment under this subchapter under such system for such period exceeded the amount of payments which would otherwise have been made under this subchapter not using such system.
(7) In the case of aState which made a request under paragraph (5) before December 31, 1984, for the approval of a State hospital reimbursement control system and which request was approved—
(A)
in applying paragraphs (1)(C) and (6), a reference to a “36-month period” is deemed a reference to a “48-month period”, and
(B)
in order to allow the State the opportunity to provide the assurances described in paragraph (1)(C) for a 48-month period, the Secretary may not discontinue payments under the system, under the authority of paragraph (3)(A) because the Secretary has reason to believe that such assurances are not being (or will not be) met, before July 1, 1986.
(d) Inpatient hospital service payments on basis of prospective rates; Medicare Geographical Classification Review Board
(1)
(A) Notwithstanding section 1395f(b) of this title but subject to the provisions of section 1395e of this title, the amount of the payment with respect to the operating costs of inpatient hospital services (as defined in subsection (a)(4)) of a subsection (d) hospital (as defined in subparagraph (B)) for inpatient hospital discharges in a cost reporting period or in a fiscal year—
(i) beginning on or after October 1, 1983, and before October 1, 1984, is equal to the sum of—
(I)
the target percentage (as defined in subparagraph (C)) of the hospital’s target amount for the cost reporting period (as defined in subsection (b)(3)(A) of this section, but determined without the application of subsection (a)), and
(II)
the DRG percentage (as defined in subparagraph (C)) of the regional adjusted DRG prospective payment rate determined under paragraph (2) for such discharges;
(ii) beginning on or after October 1, 1984, and before October 1, 1987, is equal to the sum of—
(I)
the target percentage (as defined in subparagraph (C)) of the hospital’s target amount for the cost reporting period (as defined in subsection (b)(3)(A), but determined without the application of subsection (a)), and
(II)
the DRG percentage (as defined in subparagraph (C)) of the applicable combined adjusted DRG prospective payment rate determined under subparagraph (D) for such discharges; or
(iii) beginning on or after April 1, 1988, is equal to—
(I)
the national adjusted DRG prospective payment rate determined under paragraph (3) for such discharges, or
(II)
for discharges occurring during a fiscal year ending on or before September 30, 1996, the sum of 85 percent of the national adjusted DRG prospective payment rate determined under paragraph (3) for such discharges and 15 percent of the regional adjusted DRG prospective payment rate determined under such paragraph, but only if the average standardized amount (described in clause (i)(I) or clause (ii)(I) of paragraph (3)(D)) for hospitals within the region of, and in the same large urban or other area (or, for discharges occurring during a fiscal year ending on or before September 30, 1994, the same large urban or other area) as, the hospital is greater than the average standardized amount (described in the respective clause) for hospitals within the United States in that type of area for discharges occurring during such fiscal year.
(B)As used in this section, the term “subsection (d) hospital” means a hospital located in one of the fifty States or the District of Columbia other than—
(ii)
a rehabilitation hospital(as defined by the Secretary),
(iii)
ahospital whose inpatients are predominantly individuals under 18 years of age,
(iv)
ahospital which has an average inpatient length of stay (as determined by the Secretary) of greater than 25 days,
(v)
(I)
ahospital that the Secretary has classified, at any time on or before December 31, 1990,[3] (or, in the case of a hospital that, as of December 19, 1989, is located in a State operating a demonstration project under section 1395f(b) of this title, on or before December 31, 1991) for purposes of applying exceptions and adjustments to payment amounts under this subsection, as a hospital involved extensively in treatment for or research on cancer,
(II)
ahospital that was recognized as a comprehensive cancer center or clinical cancer research center by the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health as of April 20, 1983, that is located in a State which, as of December 19, 1989, was not operating a demonstration project under section 1395f(b) of this title, that applied and was denied, on or before December 31, 1990, for classification as a hospital involved extensively in treatment for or research on cancer under this clause (as in effect on the day before August 5, 1997), that as of August 5, 1997, is licensed for less than 50 acute care beds, and that demonstrates for the 4-year period ending on December 31, 1996, that at least 50 percent of its total discharges have a principal finding of neoplastic disease, as defined in subparagraph (E), or
(III)
ahospital that was recognized as a clinical cancer research center by the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health as of February 18, 1998, that has never been reimbursed for inpatient hospital services pursuant to a reimbursement system under a demonstration project under section 1395f(b) of this title, that is a freestanding facility organized primarily for treatment of and research on cancer and is not a unit of another hospital, that as of December 21, 2000, is licensed for 162 acute care beds, and that demonstrates for the 4-year period ending on June 30, 1999, that at least 50 percent of its total discharges have a principal finding of neoplastic disease, as defined in subparagraph (E), or
(vi)
ahospital that first received payment under this subsection in 1986 which has an average inpatient length of stay (as determined by the Secretary) of greater than 20 days and that has 80 percent or more of its annual medicare inpatient discharges with a principal diagnosis that reflects a finding of neoplastic disease in the 12-month cost reporting period ending in fiscal year 1997;
and, in accordance with regulations of the Secretary, does not include a psychiatric or rehabilitation unit of the hospital which is a distinct part of the hospital (as defined by the Secretary). A hospital that was classified by the Secretary on or before September 30, 1995, as a hospital described in clause (iv) (as in effect as of such date) shall continue to be so classified (or, in the case of a hospital described in clause (iv)(II), as so in effect, shall be classified under clause (vi) on and after the effective date of such clause (vi) and for cost reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2015, shall not be subject to subsection (m) as of the date of such classification) notwithstanding that it is located in the same building as, or on the same campus as, another hospital.
(C) For purposes of this subsection, for cost reporting periods beginning—
(i)
on or after October 1, 1983, and before October 1, 1984, the “target percentage” is 75 percent and the “DRG percentage” is 25 percent;
(ii)
on or after October 1, 1984, and before October 1, 1985, the “target percentage” is 50 percent and the “DRG percentage” is 50 percent;
(iii)
on or after October 1, 1985, and before October 1, 1986, the “target percentage” is 45 percent and the “DRG percentage” is 55 percent; and
(iv)
on or after October 1, 1986, and before October 1, 1987, the “target percentage” is 25 percent and the “DRG percentage” is 75 percent.
(D) For purposes of subparagraph (A)(ii)(II), the “applicable combined adjusted DRG prospective payment rate” for discharges occurring—
(i)
on or after October 1, 1984, and before October 1, 1986, is a combined rate consisting of 25 percent of the national adjusted DRG prospective payment rate, and 75 percent of the regional adjusted DRG prospective payment rate, determined under paragraph (3) for such discharges; and
(ii)
on or after October 1, 1986, and before October 1, 1987, is a combined rate consisting of 50 percent of the national adjusted DRG prospective payment rate, and 50 percent of the regional adjusted DRG prospective payment rate, determined under paragraph (3) for such discharges.
(E)
For purposes of subclauses (II) and (III) of subparagraph (B)(v) only, the term “principal finding of neoplastic disease” means the condition established after study to be chiefly responsible for occasioning the admission of a patient to a hospital, except that only discharges with ICD–9–CM principal diagnosis codes of 140 through 239, V58.0, V58.1, V66.1, V66.2, or 990 will be considered to reflect such a principal diagnosis.
(2) The Secretary shall determine a national adjusted DRG prospective payment rate, for each inpatient hospital discharge in fiscal year 1984 involving inpatient hospital services of a subsection (d) hospital in the United States, and shall determine a regional adjusted DRG prospective payment rate for such discharges in each region, for which payment may be made under part A of this subchapter. Each such rate shall be determined for hospitals located in urban or rural areas within the United States or within each such region, respectively, as follows:
(A)Determining allowable costs for base period.—
The Secretary shall determine the allowable operating costs per discharge of inpatient hospital services for the hospital for the most recent cost reporting period for which data are available.
(B)Updating for fiscal 1984.—The Secretary shall update each amount determined under subparagraph (A) for fiscal year 1984 by—
(i)
updating for fiscal year 1983 by the estimated average rate of change of hospital costs industry-wide between the cost reporting period used under such subparagraph and fiscal year 1983 and the most recent case-mix data available, and
(ii)
projecting for fiscal year 1984 by the applicable percentage increase(as defined in subsection (b)(3)(B)) for fiscal year 1984.
(C)Standardizing amounts.—The Secretary shall standardize the amount updated under subparagraph (B) for each hospital by—
(i)
excluding an estimate of indirect medical education costs (taking into account, for discharges occurring after September 30, 1986, the amendments made by section 9104(a) of the Medicare and Medicaid Budget Reconciliation Amendments of 1985), except that the Secretary shall not take into account any reduction in the amount of additional payments under paragraph (5)(B)(ii) resulting from the amendment made by section 4621(a)(1) of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 or any additional payments under such paragraph resulting from the application of section 111 of the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Balanced Budget Refinement Act of 1999, of section 302 of the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000, or the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003,
(ii)
adjusting for variations among hospitals by area in the average hospital wage level,
(iii)
adjusting for variations in case mix among hospitals, and
(iv)
for discharges occurring on or after October 1, 1986, excluding an estimate of the additional payments to certain hospitals to be made under paragraph (5)(F), except that the Secretary shall not exclude additional payments under such paragraph made as a result of the enactment of section 6003(c) of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1989, the enactment of section 4002(b) of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990, the enactment of section 303 of the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000, or the enactment of section 402(a)(1) [4] of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003.
(D)Computing urban and rural averages.—The Secretary shall compute an average of the standardized amounts determined under subparagraph (C) for the United States and for each region—
(i)
for all subsection (d) hospitals located in an urban area within the United States or that region, respectively, and
(ii)
for all subsection (d) hospitals located in a rural area within the United States or that region, respectively.
For purposes of this subsection, the term “region” means one of the nine census divisions, comprising the fifty States and the District of Columbia, established by the Bureau of the Census for statistical and reporting purposes; the term “urban area” means an area within a Metropolitan Statistical Area (as defined by the Office of Management and Budget) or within such similar area as the Secretary has recognized under subsection (a) by regulation; the term “large urban area” means, with respect to a fiscal year, such an urban area which the Secretary determines (in the publications described in subsection (e)(5) before the fiscal year) has a population of more than 1,000,000 (as determined by the Secretary based on the most recent available population data published by the Bureau of the Census); and the term “rural area” means any area outside such an area or similar area. A hospital located in a Metropolitan Statistical Area shall be deemed to be located in the region in which the largest number of the hospitals in the same Metropolitan Statistical Area are located, or, at the option of the Secretary, the region in which the majority of the inpatient discharges (with respect to which payments are made under this subchapter) from hospitals in the same Metropolitan Statistical Area are made.
(E)Reducing for value of outlier payments.—
The Secretary shall reduce each of the average standardized amounts determined under subparagraph (D) by a proportion equal to the proportion (estimated by the Secretary) of the amount of payments under this subsection based on DRG prospective payment rates which are additional payments described in paragraph (5)(A)(relating to outlier payments).
(F)Maintaining budget neutrality.—
The Secretary shall adjust each of such average standardized amounts as may be required under subsection (e)(1)(B) for that fiscal year.
(G)Computing drg-specific rates for urban and rural in the and in each region.—For each discharge classified within a diagnosis-related group, the Secretary shall establish a national DRG prospective payment rate and shall establish a regional DRG prospective payment rate for each region, each of which is equal—
(i) for hospitals located in an urban area in the United States or that region (respectively), to the product of—
(I)
the average standardized amount (computed under subparagraph (D), reduced under subparagraph (E), and adjusted under subparagraph (F)) for hospitals located in an urban area in the United States or that region, and
(II)
the weighting factor (determined under paragraph (4)(B)) for that diagnosis-related group; and
(ii) for hospitals located in a rural area in the United States or that region (respectively), to the product of—
(I)
the average standardized amount (computed under subparagraph (D), reduced under subparagraph (E), and adjusted under subparagraph (F)) for hospitals located in a rural area in the United States or that region, and
(II)
the weighting factor (determined under paragraph (4)(B)) for that diagnosis-related group.
(H)Adjusting for different area wage levels.—
The Secretary shall adjust the proportion, (as estimated by the Secretary from time to time) of hospitals’ costs which are attributable to wages and wage-related costs, of the national and regional DRG prospective payment rates computed under subparagraph (G) for area differences in hospital wage levels by a factor (established by the Secretary) reflecting the relative hospital wage level in the geographic area of the hospital compared to the national average hospital wage level.
(3) The Secretary shall determine a national adjusted DRG prospective payment rate, for each inpatient hospital discharge in a fiscal year after fiscal year 1984 involving inpatient hospital services of a subsection (d) hospital in the United States, and shall determine, for fiscal years before fiscal year 1997, a regional adjusted DRG prospective payment rate for such discharges in each region for which payment may be made under part A of this subchapter. Each such rate shall be determined for hospitals located in large urban, other urban, or rural areas within the United States and within each such region, respectively, as follows:
(A)Updating previous standardized amounts.—
(i)
For discharges occurring in a fiscal year beginning before October 1, 1987, the Secretary shall compute an average standardized amount for hospitals located in an urban area and for hospitals located in a rural area within the United States and for hospitals located in an urban area and for hospitals located in a rural area within each region, equal to the respective average standardized amount computed for the previous fiscal year under paragraph (2)(D) or under this subparagraph, increased for the fiscal year involved by the applicable percentage increase under subsection (b)(3)(B). With respect to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 1987, the Secretary shall compute urban and rural averages on the basis of discharge weighting rather than hospital weighting, making appropriate adjustments to ensure that computation on such basis does not result in total payments under this section that are greater or less than the total payments that would have been made under this section but for this sentence, and making appropriate changes in the manner of determining the reductions under subparagraph (C)(ii).
(ii)
For discharges occurring in a fiscal year beginning on or after October 1, 1987, and ending on or before September 30, 1994, the Secretary shall compute an average standardized amount for hospitals located in a large urban area, for hospitals located in a rural area, and for hospitals located in other urban areas, within the United States and within each region, equal to the respective average standardized amount computed for the previous fiscal year under this subparagraph increased by the applicable percentage increase under subsection (b)(3)(B)(i) with respect to hospitals located in the respective areas for the fiscal year involved.
(iii)
For discharges occurring in the fiscal year beginning on October 1, 1994, the average standardized amount for hospitals located in a rural area shall be equal to the average standardized amount for hospitals located in an urban area. For discharges occurring on or after October 1, 1994, the Secretary shall adjust the ratio of the labor portion to non-labor portion of each average standardized amount to equal such ratio for the national average of all standardized amounts.
(iv)
(I)
Subject to subclause (II), for discharges occurring in a fiscal year beginning on or after October 1, 1995, the Secretary shall compute an average standardized amount for hospitals located in a large urban area and for hospitals located in other areas within the United States and within each region equal to the respective average standardized amount computed for the previous fiscal year under this subparagraph increased by the applicable percentage increase under subsection (b)(3)(B)(i) with respect to hospitals located in the respective areas for the fiscal year involved.
(II)
For discharges occurring in a fiscal year (beginning with fiscal year 2004), the Secretary shall compute a standardized amount for hospitals located in any area within the United States and within each region equal to the standardized amount computed for the previous fiscal year under this subparagraph for hospitals located in a large urban area (or, beginning with fiscal year 2005, for all hospitals in the previous fiscal year) increased by the applicable percentage increase under subsection (b)(3)(B)(i) for the fiscal year involved.
(v)
Average standardized amounts computed under this paragraph shall be adjusted to reflect the most recent case-mix data available.
(vi)
Insofar as the Secretary determines that the adjustments under paragraph (4)(C)(i) for a previous fiscal year (or estimates that such adjustments for a future fiscal year) did (or are likely to) result in a change in aggregate payments under this subsection during the fiscal year that are a result of changes in the coding or classification of discharges that do not reflect real changes in case mix, the Secretary may adjust the average standardized amounts computed under this paragraph for subsequent fiscal years so as to eliminate the effect of such coding or classification changes.
(B)Reducing for value of outlier payments.—
The Secretary shall reduce each of the average standardized amounts determined under subparagraph (A) by a factor equal to the proportion of payments under this subsection (as estimated by the Secretary) based on DRG prospective payment amounts which are additional payments described in paragraph (5)(A)(relating to outlier payments).
(C)Maintaining budget neutrality for fiscal 1985.—
(i)
For discharges occurring in fiscal year 1985, the Secretary shall adjust each of such average standardized amounts as may be required under subsection (e)(1)(B) for that fiscal year.
(ii)Reducing for savings from amendment to indirect teaching adjustment for after .—
For discharges occurring after September 30, 1986, the Secretary shall further reduce each of the average standardized amounts (in a proportion which takes into account the differing effects of the standardization effected under paragraph (2)(C)(i)) so as to provide for a reduction in the total of the payments (attributable to this paragraph) made for discharges occurring on or after October 1, 1986, of an amount equal to the estimated reduction in the payment amounts under paragraph (5)(B) that would have resulted from the enactment of the amendments made by section 9104 of the Medicare and Medicaid Budget Reconciliation Amendments of 1985 and by section 4003(a)(1) of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 if the factor described in clause (ii)(II) of paragraph (5)(B) (determined without regard to amendments made by the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990) were applied for discharges occurring on or after such date instead of the factor described in clause (ii) of that paragraph.
(D)Computing drg-specific rates for hospitals.—For each discharge classified within a diagnosis-related group, the Secretary shall establish for the fiscal year a national DRG prospective payment rate and shall establish, for fiscal years before fiscal year 1997, a regional DRG prospective payment rate for each region which is equal—
(i) for fiscal years before fiscal year 2004, for hospitals located in a large urban area in the United States or that region (respectively), to the product of—
(I)
the average standardized amount (computed under subparagraph (A), reduced under subparagraph (B), and adjusted or reduced under subparagraph (C)) for the fiscal year for hospitals located in such a large urban area in the United States or that region, and
(II)
the weighting factor (determined under paragraph (4)(B)) for that diagnosis-related group;
(ii) for fiscal years before fiscal year 2004, for hospitals located in other areas in the United States or that region (respectively), to the product of—
(I)
the average standardized amount (computed under subparagraph (A), reduced under subparagraph (B), and adjusted or reduced under subparagraph (C)) for the fiscal year for hospitals located in other areas in the United States or that region, and
(II)
the weighting factor (determined under paragraph (4)(B)) for that diagnosis-related group; and
(iii) for a fiscal year beginning after fiscal year 2003, for hospitals located in all areas, to the product of—
(I)
the applicable standardized amount (computed under subparagraph (A)), reduced under subparagraph (B), and adjusted or reduced under subparagraph (C) for the fiscal year; and
(II)
the weighting factor (determined under paragraph (4)(B)) for that diagnosis-related group.
(E)Adjusting for different area wage levels.—
(i)In general.—
Except as provided in clause (ii) or (iii), the Secretary shall adjust the proportion, (as estimated by the Secretary from time to time) of hospitals’ costs which are attributable to wages and wage-related costs, of the DRG prospective payment rates computed under subparagraph (D) for area differences in hospital wage levels by a factor (established by the Secretary) reflecting the relative hospital wage level in the geographic area of the hospital compared to the national average hospital wage level. Not later than October 1, 1990, and October 1, 1993 (and at least every 12 months thereafter), the Secretary shall update the factor under the preceding sentence on the basis of a survey conducted by the Secretary (and updated as appropriate) of the wages and wage-related costs of subsection (d) hospitals in the United States. Not less often than once every 3 years the Secretary (through such survey or otherwise) shall measure the earnings and paid hours of employment by occupational category and shall exclude data with respect to the wages and wage-related costs incurred in furnishing skilled nursing facility services. Any adjustments or updates made under this subparagraph for a fiscal year (beginning with fiscal year 1991) shall be made in a manner that assures that the aggregate payments under this subsection in the fiscal year are not greater or less than those that would have been made in the year without such adjustment. The Secretary shall apply the previous sentence for any period as if the amendments made by section 403(a)(1) of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 and the amendments made by section 10324(a)(1) of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act had not been enacted.
(ii)Alternative proportion to be adjusted beginning in fiscal 2005.—
For discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2004, the Secretary shall substitute “62 percent” for the proportion described in the first sentence of clause (i), unless the application of this clause would result in lower payments to a hospital than would otherwise be made.
(iii)Floor on area wage index for in frontier .—
(I)In general.—
Subject to subclause (IV), for discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2010, the area wage index applicable under this subparagraph to any hospital which is located in a frontier State (as defined in subclause (II)) may not be less than 1.00.
(II)Frontier defined.—
In this clause, the term “frontier State” means a State in which at least 50 percent of the counties in the State are frontier counties.
(III)Frontier county defined.—
In this clause, the term “frontier county” means a county in which the population per square mile is less than 6.
(IV)Limitation.—
This clause shall not apply to any hospital located in a State that receives a non-labor related share adjustment under paragraph (5)(H).
(4)
(A)
The Secretary shall establish a classification of inpatient hospital discharges by diagnosis-related groups and a methodology for classifying specific hospital discharges within these groups.
(B)
For each such diagnosis-related group the Secretary shall assign an appropriate weighting factor which reflects the relative hospital resources used with respect to discharges classified within that group compared to discharges classified within other groups.
(C)
(i)
The Secretary shall adjust the classifications and weighting factors established under subparagraphs (A) and (B), for discharges in fiscal year 1988 and at least annually thereafter, to reflect changes in treatment patterns, technology (including a new medical service or technology under paragraph (5)(K)), and other factors which may change the relative use of hospital resources.
(ii)
For discharges in fiscal year 1990, the Secretary shall reduce the weighting factor for each diagnosis-related group by 1.22 percent.
(iii)
Any such adjustment under clause (i) for discharges in a fiscal year (beginning with fiscal year 1991) shall be made in a manner that assures that the aggregate payments under this subsection for discharges in the fiscal year are not greater or less than those that would have been made for discharges in the year without such adjustment.
(D)
(i)
For discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2008, the diagnosis-related group to be assigned under this paragraph for a discharge described in clause (ii) shall be a diagnosis-related group that does not result in higher payment based on the presence of a secondary diagnosis code described in clause (iv).
(ii)Adischarge described in this clause is a discharge which meets the following requirements:
(I)
The discharge includes a condition identified by a diagnosis code selected under clause (iv) as a secondary diagnosis.
(II)
But for clause (i), the discharge would have been classified to a diagnosis-related group that results in a higher payment based on the presence of a secondary diagnosis code selected under clause (iv).
(III)
At the time of admission, no code selected under clause (iv) was present.
(iii)
As part of the information required to be reported by ahospital with respect to a discharge of an individual in order for payment to be made under this subsection, for discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2007, the information shall include the secondary diagnosis of the individual at admission.
(iv) By not later than October 1, 2007, the Secretary shall select diagnosis codes associated with at least two conditions, each of which codes meets all of the following requirements (as determined by the Secretary):
(I)
Cases described by such code have a high cost or high volume, or both, under this subchapter.
(II)
The code results in the assignment of a case to a diagnosis-related group that has a higher payment when the code is present as a secondary diagnosis.
(III)
The code describes such conditions that could reasonably have been prevented through the application of evidence-based guidelines.
The Secretary may from time to time revise (through addition or deletion of codes) the diagnosis codes selected under this clause so long as there are diagnosis codes associated with at least two conditions selected for discharges occurring during any fiscal year.
(v)
In selecting and revising diagnosis codes under clause (iv), the Secretary shall consult with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other appropriate entities.
(vi)
Any change resulting from the application of this subparagraph shall not be taken into account in adjusting the weighting factors under subparagraph (C)(i) or in applying budget neutrality under subparagraph (C)(iii).
(5)
(A)
(i)
For discharges occurring during fiscal years ending on or before September 30, 1997, the Secretary shall provide for an additional payment for a subsection (d) hospital for any discharge in a diagnosis-related group, the length of stay of which exceeds the mean length of stay for discharges within that group by a fixed number of days, or exceeds such mean length of stay by some fixed number of standard deviations, whichever is the fewer number of days.
(ii)
For cases which are not included in clause (i), asubsection (d) hospital may request additional payments in any case where charges, adjusted to cost, exceed a fixed multiple of the applicable DRG prospective payment rate, or exceed such other fixed dollar amount, whichever is greater, or, for discharges in fiscal years beginning on or after October 1, 1994, exceed the sum of the applicable DRG prospective payment rate plus any amounts payable under subparagraphs (B) and (F) plus a fixed dollar amount determined by the Secretary.
(iii)
The amount of such additional payment under clauses (i) and (ii) shall be determined by the Secretary and shall (except as payments under clause (i) are required to be reduced to take into account the requirements of clause (v)) approximate the marginal cost of care beyond the cutoff point applicable under clause (i) or (ii).
(iv)
The total amount of the additional payments made under this subparagraph for discharges in a fiscal year may not be less than 5 percent nor more than 6 percent of the total payments projected or estimated to be made based on DRG prospective payment rates for discharges in that year.
(v) The Secretary shall provide that—
(I)
the day outlier percentage for fiscal year 1995 shall be 75 percent of the day outlier percentage for fiscal year 1994;
(II)
the day outlier percentage for fiscal year 1996 shall be 50 percent of the day outlier percentage for fiscal year 1994; and
(III)
the day outlier percentage for fiscal year 1997 shall be 25 percent of the day outlier percentage for fiscal year 1994.
(vi)
For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “day outlier percentage” means, for a fiscal year, the percentage of the total additional payments made by the Secretary under this subparagraph for discharges in that fiscal year which are additional payments under clause (i).
(B) The Secretary shall provide for an additional payment amount for subsection (d) hospitals with indirect costs of medical education, in an amount computed in the same manner as the adjustment for such costs under regulations (in effect as of January 1, 1983) under subsection (a)(2), except as follows:
(i)
The amount of such additional payment shall be determined by multiplying (I) the sum of the amount determined under paragraph (1)(A)(ii)(II) (or, if applicable, the amount determined under paragraph (1)(A)(iii)) and, for cases qualifying for additional payment under subparagraph (A)(i), the amount paid to the hospital under subparagraph (A), by (II) the indirect teaching adjustment factor described in clause (ii).
(ii) For purposes of clause (i)(II), the indirect teaching adjustment factor is equal to c × (((1+r) to the nth power) −1), where “r” is the ratio of the hospital’s full-time equivalent interns and residents to beds and “n” equals .405. Subject to clause (ix), for discharges occurring—
(I)
on or after October 1, 1988, and before October 1, 1997, “c” is equal to 1.89;
(II)
during fiscal year 1998, “c” is equal to 1.72;
(III)
during fiscal year 1999, “c” is equal to 1.6;
(IV)
during fiscal year 2000, “c” is equal to 1.47;
(V)
during fiscal year 2001, “c” is equal to 1.54;
(VI)
during fiscal year 2002, “c” is equal to 1.6;
(VII)
on or after October 1, 2002, and before April 1, 2004, “c” is equal to 1.35;
(VIII)
on or after April 1, 2004, and before October 1, 2004, “c” is equal to 1.47;
(IX)
during fiscal year 2005, “c” is equal to 1.42;
(X)
during fiscal year 2006, “c” is equal to 1.37;
(XI)
during fiscal year 2007, “c” is equal to 1.32; and
(XII)
on or after October 1, 2007, “c” is equal to 1.35.
(iii)
In determining such adjustment the Secretary shall not distinguish between those interns and residents who are employees of a hospital and those interns and residents who furnish services to a hospital but are not employees of such hospital.
(iv)
(I)
Effective for discharges occurring on or after October 1, 1997, and before July 1, 2010, all the time spent by an intern or resident in patient care activities under an approved medical residency training program at an entity in a nonhospital setting shall be counted towards the determination of full-time equivalency if the hospital incurs all, or substantially all, of the costs for the training program in that setting.
(II)
Effective for discharges occurring on or after July 1, 2010, all the time spent by an intern or resident in patient care activities in a nonprovider setting shall be counted towards the determination of full-time equivalency if a hospital incurs the costs of the stipends and fringe benefits of the intern or resident during the time the intern or resident spends in that setting. If more than one hospital incurs these costs, either directly or through a third party, such hospitals shall count a proportional share of the time, as determined by written agreement between the hospitals, that a resident spends training in that setting.
(v)
In determining the adjustment with respect to ahospital for discharges occurring on or after October 1, 1997, the total number of full-time equivalent interns and residents in the fields of allopathic and osteopathic medicine in either a hospital or nonhospital setting may not exceed the number (or, 130 percent of such number in the case of a hospital located in a rural area) of such full-time equivalent interns and residents in the hospital with respect to the hospital’s most recent cost reporting period ending on or before December 31, 1996. Rules similar to the rules of subsection (h)(4)(F)(ii) shall apply for purposes of this clause. The provisions of subsections (h)(4)(H)(vi), (h)(7), and (h)(8) shall apply with respect to the first sentence of this clause in the same manner as they apply with respect to subsection (h)(4)(F)(i).
(vi) For purposes of clause (ii)—
(I)
r” may not exceed the ratio of the number of interns and residents, subject to the limit under clause (v), with respect to the hospital for its most recent cost reporting period to the hospital’s available beds (as defined by the Secretary) during that cost reporting period, and
(II)
for the hospital’s cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 1997, subject to the limits described in clauses (iv) and (v), the total number of full-time equivalent residents for payment purposes shall equal the average of the actual full-time equivalent resident count for the cost reporting period and the preceding two cost reporting periods.
In the case of the first cost reporting period beginning on or after October 1, 1997, subclause (II) shall be applied by using the average for such period and the preceding cost reporting period.
(vii)
If any cost reporting period beginning on or after October 1, 1997, is not equal to twelve months, the Secretary shall make appropriate modifications to ensure that the average full-time equivalent residency count pursuant to subclause (II) of clause (vi) is based on the equivalent of full twelve-month cost reporting periods.
(viii)
Rules similar to the rules of subsection (h)(4)(H) shall apply for purposes of clauses (v) and (vi).
(ix)
For discharges occurring on or after July 1, 2005, insofar as an additional payment amount under this subparagraph is attributable to resident positions redistributed to a hospital under subsection (h)(7)(B), in computing the indirect teaching adjustment factor under clause (ii) the adjustment shall be computed in a manner as if “c” were equal to 0.66 with respect to such resident positions.
(x)
[5] For discharges occurring on or after July 1, 2011, insofar as an additional payment amount under this subparagraph is attributable to resident positions distributed to a hospital under subsection (h)(8)(B), the indirect teaching adjustment factor shall be computed in the same manner as provided under clause (ii) with respect to such resident positions.
(x)
(I)
5 The provisions of subparagraph (K) of subsection (h)(4) shall apply under this subparagraph in the same manner as they apply under such subsection.
(II) In determining the hospital’s number of full-time equivalent residents for purposes of this subparagraph, all the time spent by an intern or resident in an approved medical residency training program in non-patient care activities, such as didactic conferences and seminars, as such time and activities are defined by the Secretary, that occurs in the hospital shall be counted toward the determination of full-time equivalency if the hospital—
(aa)
(bb)
is recognized as a subsection (d) Puerto Rico hospital;
(cc)
is reimbursed under a reimbursement system authorized under section 1395f(b)(3) of this title; or
(dd)
is aprovider-based hospital outpatient department.
(III)
In determining the hospital’s number of full-time equivalent residents for purposes of this subparagraph, all the time spent by an intern or resident in an approved medical residency training program in research activities that are not associated with the treatment or diagnosis of a particular patient, as such time and activities are defined by the Secretary, shall not be counted toward the determination of full-time equivalency.
(C)
(i)
The Secretary shall provide for such exceptions and adjustments to the payment amounts established under this subsection (other than under paragraph (9)) as the Secretary deems appropriate to take into account the special needs of regional and national referral centers (including those hospitals of 275 or more beds located in rural areas). A hospital which is classified as a rural hospital may appeal to the Secretary to be classified as a rural referral center under this clause on the basis of criteria (established by the Secretary) which shall allow the hospital to demonstrate that it should be so reclassified by reason of certain of its operating characteristics being similar to those of a typical urban hospital located in the same census region and which shall not require a rural osteopathic hospital to have more than 3,000 discharges in a year in order to be classified as a rural referral center. Such characteristics may include wages, scope of services, service area, and the mix of medical specialties. The Secretary shall publish the criteria not later than August 17, 1984, for implementation by October 1, 1984. An appeal allowed under this clause must be submitted to the Secretary (in such form and manner as the Secretary may prescribe) during the quarter before the first quarter of the hospital’s cost reporting period (or, in the case of a cost reporting period beginning during October 1984, during the first quarter of that period), and the Secretary must make a final determination with respect to such appeal within 60 days after the date the appeal was submitted. Any payment adjustments necessitated by a reclassification based upon the appeal shall be effective at the beginning of such cost reporting period.
(ii)
The Secretary shall provide, under clause (i), for the classification of a rural hospital as a regional referral center if the hospital has a case mix index equal to or greater than the median case mix index for hospitals (other than hospitals with approved teaching programs) located in an urban area in the same region (as defined in paragraph (2)(D)), has at least 5,000 discharges a year or, if less, the median number of discharges in urban hospitals in the region in which the hospital is located (or, in the case of a rural osteopathic hospital, meets the criterion established by the Secretary under clause (i) with respect to the annual number of discharges for such hospitals), and meets any other criteria established by the Secretary under clause (i).
(D)
(i) For any cost reporting period beginning on or after April 1, 1990, with respect to a subsection (d) hospital which is a sole community hospital, payment under paragraph (1)(A) shall be—
(I)
an amount based on 100 percent of the hospital’s target amount for the cost reporting period, as defined in subsection (b)(3)(C), or
(II)
the amount determined under paragraph (1)(A)(iii),
whichever results in greater payment to the hospital.
(ii)
In the case of asole community hospital that experiences, in a cost reporting period compared to the previous cost reporting period, a decrease of more than 5 percent in its total number of inpatient cases due to circumstances beyond its control, the Secretary shall provide for such adjustment to the payment amounts under this subsection (other than under paragraph (9)) as may be necessary to fully compensate the hospital for the fixed costs it incurs in the period in providing inpatient hospital services, including the reasonable cost of maintaining necessary core staff and services.
(iii) For purposes of this subchapter, the term “sole community hospital” means any hospital—
(I)
that the Secretary determines is located more than 35 road miles from another hospital,
(II)
that, by reason of factors such as the time required for an individual to travel to the nearest alternative source of appropriate inpatient care (in accordance with standards promulgated by the Secretary), location, weather conditions, travel conditions, or absence of other like hospitals (as determined by the Secretary), is the sole source of inpatient hospital services reasonably available to individuals in a geographic area who are entitled to benefits under part A, or
(III)
that is located in arural area and designated by the Secretary as an essential access community hospital under section 1395i–4(i)(1) of this title as in effect on September 30, 1997.
(iv)
The Secretary shall promulgate a standard for determining whether a hospital meets the criteria for classification as a sole community hospital under clause (iii)(II) because of the time required for an individual to travel to the nearest alternative source of appropriate inpatient care.
(v)
If the Secretary determines that, in the case of a hospital located in a rural area and designated by the Secretary as an essential access community hospital under section 1395i–4(i)(1) of this title as in effect on September 30, 1997, the hospital has incurred increases in reasonable costs during a cost reporting period as a result of becoming a member of a rural health network (as defined in section 1395i–4(d) of this title) in the State in which it is located, and in incurring such increases, the hospital will increase its costs for subsequent cost reporting periods, the Secretary shall increase the hospital’s target amount under subsection (b)(3)(C) to account for such incurred increases.
(E)
(i)
The Secretary shall estimate the amount of reimbursement made for services described in section 1395y(a)(14) of this title with respect to which payment was made under part B in the base reporting periods referred to in paragraph (2)(A) and with respect to which payment is no longer being made.
(ii)
The Secretary shall provide for an adjustment to the payment for subsection (d) hospitals in each fiscal year so as appropriately to reflect the net amount described in clause (i).
(F)
(i) Subject to subsection (r), for discharges occurring on or after May 1, 1986, the Secretary shall provide, in accordance with this subparagraph, for an additional payment amount for each subsection (d) hospital which—
(I)
serves a significantly disproportionate number of low-income patients (as defined in clause (v)), or
(II)
is located in an urban area, has 100 or more beds, and can demonstrate that its net inpatient care revenues (excluding any of such revenues attributable to this subchapter or State plans approved under subchapter XIX), during the cost reporting period in which the discharges occur, for indigent care from State and local government sources exceed 30 percent of its total of such net inpatient care revenues during the period.
(ii)
Subject to clause (ix), the amount of such payment for each discharge shall be determined by multiplying (I) the sum of the amount determined under paragraph (1)(A)(ii)(II) (or, if applicable, the amount determined under paragraph (1)(A)(iii)) and, for cases qualifying for additional payment under subparagraph (A)(i), the amount paid to the hospital under subparagraph (A) for that discharge, by (II) the disproportionate share adjustment percentage established under clause (iii) or (iv) for the cost reporting period in which the discharge occurs.
(iii)
The disproportionate share adjustment percentage for a cost reporting period for a hospital described in clause (i)(II) is equal to 35 percent.
(iv) The disproportionate share adjustment percentage for a cost reporting period for a hospital that is not described in clause (i)(II) and that—
(I)
is located in an urban area and has 100 or more beds or is described in the second sentence of clause (v), is equal to the percent determined in accordance with the applicable formula described in clause (vii);
(II)
is located in an urban area and has less than 100 beds, is equal to 5 percent or, subject to clause (xiv) and for discharges occurring on or after April 1, 2001, is equal to the percent determined in accordance with clause (xiii);
(III)
is located in arural area and is not described in subclause (IV) or (V) or in the second sentence of clause (v), is equal to 4 percent or, subject to clause (xiv) and for discharges occurring on or after April 1, 2001, is equal to the percent determined in accordance with clause (xii);
(IV)
is located in arural area, is classified as a rural referral center under subparagraph (C), and is classified as a sole community hospital under subparagraph (D), is equal to 10 percent or, if greater, the percent determined in accordance with the applicable formula described in clause (viii) or, subject to clause (xiv) and for discharges occurring on or after April 1, 2001, the greater of the percentages determined under clause (x) or (xi);
(V)
is located in arural area, is classified as a rural referral center under subparagraph (C), and is not classified as a sole community hospital under subparagraph (D), is equal to the percent determined in accordance with the applicable formula described in clause (viii) or, subject to clause (xiv) and for discharges occurring on or after April 1, 2001, is equal to the percent determined in accordance with clause (xi); or
(VI)
is located in arural area, is classified as a sole community hospital under subparagraph (D), and is not classified as a rural referral center under subparagraph (C), is 10 percent or, subject to clause (xiv) and for discharges occurring on or after April 1, 2001, is equal to the percent determined in accordance with clause (x).
(v) In this subparagraph, ahospital “serves a significantly disproportionate number of low income patients” for a cost reporting period if the hospital has a disproportionate patient percentage(as defined in clause (vi)) for that period which equals, or exceeds—
(I)
15 percent, if the hospital is located in an urban area and has 100 or more beds,
(II)
30 percent (or 15 percent, for discharges occurring on or after April 1, 2001), if the hospital is located in a rural area and has more than 100 beds, or is located in a rural area and is classified as a sole community hospital under subparagraph (D),
(III)
40 percent (or 15 percent, for discharges occurring on or after April 1, 2001), if the hospital is located in an urban area and has less than 100 beds, or
(IV)
45 percent (or 15 percent, for discharges occurring on or after April 1, 2001), if the hospital is located in a rural area and is not described in subclause (II).
A hospital located in a rural area and with 500 or more beds also “serves a significantly disproportionate number of low income patients” for a cost reporting period if the hospital has a disproportionate patient percentage(as defined in clause (vi)) for that period which equals or exceeds a percentage specified by the Secretary.
(vi) In this subparagraph, the term “disproportionate patient percentage” means, with respect to a cost reporting period of a hospital, the sum of—
(I)
the fraction (expressed as a percentage), the numerator of which is the number of such hospital’s patient days for such period which were made up of patients who (for such days) were entitled to benefits under part A of this subchapter and were entitled to supplementary security income benefits (excluding any State supplementation) under subchapter XVI of this chapter, and the denominator of which is the number of such hospital’s patient days for such fiscal year which were made up of patients who (for such days) were entitled to benefits under part A of this subchapter, and
(II)
the fraction (expressed as a percentage), the numerator of which is the number of the hospital’s patient days for such period which consist of patients who (for such days) were eligible for medical assistance under a State plan approved under subchapter XIX, but who were not entitled to benefits under part A of this subchapter, and the denominator of which is the total number of the hospital’s patient days for such period.
In determining under subclause (II) the number of the hospital’s patient days for such period which consist of patients who (for such days) were eligible for medical assistance under a State plan approved under subchapter XIX, the Secretary may, to the extent and for the period the Secretary determines appropriate, include patient days of patients not so eligible but who are regarded as such because they receive benefits under a demonstration project approved under subchapter XI.
(vii) The formula used to determine the disproportionate share adjustment percentage for a cost reporting period for a hospital described in clause (iv)(I) is—
(I) in the case of such ahospital with a disproportionate patient percentage(as defined in clause (vi)) greater than 20.2—
(a)
for discharges occurring on or after April 1, 1990, and on or before December 31, 1990, (P−20.2)(.65) + 5.62,
(b)
for discharges occurring on or after January 1, 1991, and on or before September 30, 1993, (P−20.2)(.7) + 5.62,
(c)
for discharges occurring on or after October 1, 1993, and on or before September 30, 1994, (P−20.2)(.8) + 5.88, and
(d)
for discharges occurring on or after October 1, 1994, (P−20.2)(.825) + 5.88; or
(II) in the case of any other such hospital
(a)
for discharges occurring on or after April 1, 1990, and on or before December 31, 1990, (P−15)(.6) + 2.5,
(b)
for discharges occurring on or after January 1, 1991, and on or before September 30, 1993, (P−15)(.6) + 2.5,[6]
(c)
for discharges occurring on or after October 1, 1993, (P−15)(.65) + 2.5,
where “P” is the hospital’s disproportionate patient percentage(as defined in clause (vi)).
(viii)
Subject to clause (xiv), the formula used to determine the disproportionate share adjustment percentage for a cost reporting period for a hospital described in clause (iv)(IV) or (iv)(V) is the percentage determined in accordance with the following formula: (P−30)(.6) + 4.0, where “P” is the hospital’s disproportionate patient percentage(as defined in clause (vi)).
(ix) In the case of discharges occurring—
(I)
during fiscal year 1998, the additional payment amount otherwise determined under clause (ii) shall be reduced by 1 percent;
(II)
during fiscal year 1999, such additional payment amount shall be reduced by 2 percent;
(III)
during fiscal years 2000 and 2001, such additional payment amount shall be reduced by 3 percent and 2 percent, respectively;
(IV)
during fiscal year 2002, such additional payment amount shall be reduced by 3 percent; and
(V)
during fiscal year 2003 and each subsequent fiscal year, such additional payment amount shall be reduced by 0 percent.
(x) Subject to clause (xiv), for purposes of clause (iv)(VI) (relating tosole community hospitals), in the case of a hospital for a cost reporting period with a disproportionate patient percentage(as defined in clause (vi)) that—
(I)
is less than 19.3, the disproportionate share adjustment percentage is determined in accordance with the following formula: (P−15)(.65) + 2.5;
(II)
is equal to or exceeds 19.3, but is less than 30.0, such adjustment percentage is equal to 5.25 percent; or
(III)
is equal to or exceeds 30, such adjustment percentage is equal to 10 percent,
where “P” is the hospital’s disproportionate patient percentage(as defined in clause (vi)).
(xi) Subject to clause (xiv), for purposes of clause (iv)(V) (relating to rural referral centers), in the case of a hospital for a cost reporting period with a disproportionate patient percentage(as defined in clause (vi)) that—
(I)
is less than 19.3, the disproportionate share adjustment percentage is determined in accordance with the following formula: (P−15)(.65) + 2.5;
(II)
is equal to or exceeds 19.3, but is less than 30.0, such adjustment percentage is equal to 5.25 percent; or
(III)
is equal to or exceeds 30, such adjustment percentage is determined in accordance with the following formula: (P−30)(.6) + 5.25,
where “P” is the hospital’s disproportionate patient percentage(as defined in clause (vi)).
(xii) Subject to clause (xiv), for purposes of clause (iv)(III) (relating to small rural hospitals generally), in the case of a hospital for a cost reporting period with a disproportionate patient percentage(as defined in clause (vi)) that—
(I)
is less than 19.3, the disproportionate share adjustment percentage is determined in accordance with the following formula: (P−15)(.65) + 2.5; or
(II)
is equal to or exceeds 19.3, such adjustment percentage is equal to 5.25 percent,
where “P” is the hospital’s disproportionate patient percentage(as defined in clause (vi)).
(xiii) Subject to clause (xiv), for purposes of clause (iv)(II) (relating to urban hospitals with less than 100 beds), in the case of a hospital for a cost reporting period with a disproportionate patient percentage(as defined in clause (vi)) that—
(I)
is less than 19.3, the disproportionate share adjustment percentage is determined in accordance with the following formula: (P−15)(.65) + 2.5; or
(II)
is equal to or exceeds 19.3, such adjustment percentage is equal to 5.25 percent,
where “P” is the hospital’s disproportionate patient percentage(as defined in clause (vi)).
(xiv)
(I)
In the case of discharges occurring on or after April 1, 2004, subject to subclause (II), there shall be substituted for the disproportionate share adjustment percentage otherwise determined under clause (iv) (other than subclause (I)) or under clause (viii), (x), (xi), (xii), or (xiii), the disproportionate share adjustment percentage determined under clause (vii) (relating to large, urban hospitals).
(II)
Under subclause (I), the disproportionate share adjustment percentage shall not exceed 12 percent for ahospital that is not classified as a rural referral center under subparagraph (C) or, in the case of discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2006, as a medicare-dependent, small rural hospital under subparagraph (G)(iv).
(G)
(i)
For any cost reporting period beginning on or after April 1, 1990, and before October 1, 1994, or discharges occurring on or after October 1, 1997, and before October 1, 2022, in the case of a subsection (d) hospital which is a medicare-dependent, small rural hospital, payment under paragraph (1)(A) shall be equal to the sum of the amount determined under clause (ii) and the amount determined under paragraph (1)(A)(iii).
(ii) The amount determined under this clause is—
(I)
for discharges occurring during the 36-month period beginning with the first day of the cost reporting period that begins on or after April 1, 1990, the amount by which the hospital’s target amount for the cost reporting period (as defined in subsection (b)(3)(D)) exceeds the amount determined under paragraph (1)(A)(iii); and
(II)
for discharges occurring during any subsequent cost reporting period (or portion thereof) and before October 1, 1994, or discharges occurring on or after October 1, 1997, and before October 1, 2022, 50 percent (or 75 percent in the case of discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2006) of the amount by which the hospital’s target amount for the cost reporting period or for discharges in the fiscal year (as defined in subsection (b)(3)(D)) exceeds the amount determined under paragraph (1)(A)(iii).
(iii)
In the case of amedicare dependent, small rural hospital that experiences, in a cost reporting period compared to the previous cost reporting period, a decrease of more than 5 percent in its total number of inpatient cases due to circumstances beyond its control, the Secretary shall provide for such adjustment to the payment amounts under this subsection (other than under paragraph (9)) as may be necessary to fully compensate the hospital for the fixed costs it incurs in the period in providing inpatient hospital services, including the reasonable cost of maintaining necessary core staff and services.
(iv) The term “medicare-dependent, small rural hospital” means, with respect to any cost reporting period to which clause (i) applies, any hospital—
(I) that is located in—
(aa)
(bb)
aState with no rural area (as defined in paragraph (2)(D)) and satisfies any of the criteria in subclause (I), (II), or (III) of paragraph (8)(E)(ii),
(II)
that has not more than 100 beds,
(III)
that is not classified as a sole community hospital under subparagraph (D), and
(IV)
for which not less than 60 percent of its inpatient days or discharges during the cost reporting period beginning in fiscal year 1987, or two of the three most recently audited cost reporting periods for which the Secretary has a settled cost report, were attributable to inpatients entitled to benefits under part A.
Subclause (I)(bb) shall apply for purposes of payment under clause (ii) only for discharges of a hospital occurring on or after the effective date of a determination of medicare-dependent small rural hospital status made by the Secretary with respect to the hospital after February 9, 2018. For purposes of applying subclause (II) of paragraph (8)(E)(ii) under subclause (I)(bb), such subclause (II) shall be applied by inserting “as of January 1, 2018,” after “such State” each place it appears.
(H)
The Secretary may provide for such adjustments to the payment amounts under this subsection as the Secretary deems appropriate to take into account the unique circumstances of hospitals located in Alaska and Hawaii.
(I)
(i)
The Secretary shall provide by regulation for such other exceptions and adjustments to such payment amounts under this subsection as the Secretary deems appropriate.
(ii)
In making adjustments under clause (i) for transfer cases(as defined by the Secretary) in a fiscal year, not taking in account the effect of subparagraph (J), the Secretary may make adjustments to each of the average standardized amounts determined under paragraph (3) to assure that the aggregate payments made under this subsection for such fiscal year are not greater or lesser than those that would have otherwise been made in such fiscal year.
(J)
(i) The Secretary shall treat the term “transfer case(as defined in subparagraph (I)(ii)) as including the case of a qualified discharge(as defined in clause (ii)), which is classified within a diagnosis-related group described in clause (iii), and which occurs on or after October 1, 1998. In the case of a qualified discharge for which a substantial portion of the costs of care are incurred in the early days of the inpatient stay (as defined by the Secretary), in no case may the payment amount otherwise provided under this subsection exceed an amount equal to the sum of—
(I)
50 percent of the amount of payment under this subsection for transfer cases(as established under subparagraph (I)(i)), and
(II)
50 percent of the amount of payment which would have been made under this subsection with respect to the qualified discharge if no transfer were involved.
(ii) For purposes of clause (i), subject to clause (iii), the term “qualified discharge” means a discharge classified with a diagnosis-related group (described in clause (iii)) of an individual from a subsection (d) hospital, if upon such discharge the individual—
(I)
is admitted as an inpatient to ahospital or hospital unit that is not a subsection (d) hospital for the provision of inpatient hospital services;
(II)
is admitted to askilled nursing facility;
(III)
is provided home health services from a home health agency, if such services relate to the condition or diagnosis for which such individual received inpatient hospital services from the subsection (d) hospital, and if such services are provided within an appropriate period (as determined by the Secretary);
(IV)
for discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2018, is provided hospice care by a hospice program; or
(V)
for discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2000, the individual receives post discharge services described in clause (iv)(I).
(iii) Subject to clause (iv), a diagnosis-related group described in this clause is—
(I)
1 of 10 diagnosis-related groups selected by the Secretary based upon a high volume of discharges classified within such groups and a disproportionate use of post discharge services described in clause (ii); and
(II)
a diagnosis-related group specified by the Secretary under clause (iv)(II).
(iv) The Secretary shall include in the proposed rule published under subsection (e)(5)(A) for fiscal year 2001, a description of the effect of this subparagraph. The Secretary shall include in the proposed rule published for fiscal year 2019, a description of the effect of clause (ii)(IV). The Secretary may include in the proposed rule (and in the final rule published under paragraph (6)) for fiscal year 2001 or a subsequent fiscal year, a description of—
(I)
post-discharge services not described in subclauses (I), (II), (III), and, in the case of proposed and final rules for fiscal year 2019 and subsequent fiscal years, (IV) of clause (ii), the receipt of which results in a qualified discharge; and
(II)
diagnosis-related groups described in clause (iii)(I) in addition to the 10 selected under such clause.
(K)
(i)
Effective for discharges beginning on or after October 1, 2001, the Secretary shall establish a mechanism to recognize the costs of new medical services and technologies under the payment system established under this subsection. Such mechanism shall be established after notice and opportunity for public comment (in the publications required by subsection (e)(5) for a fiscal year or otherwise). Such mechanism shall be modified to meet the requirements of clause (viii).
(ii) The mechanism established pursuant to clause (i) shall—
(I)
apply to a new medical service or technology if, based on the estimated costs incurred with respect to discharges involving such service or technology, the DRG prospective payment rate otherwise applicable to such discharges under this subsection is inadequate (applying a threshold specified by the Secretary that is the lesser of 75 percent of the standardized amount (increased to reflect the difference between cost and charges) or 75 percent of one standard deviation for the diagnosis-related group involved);
(II)
provide for the collection of data with respect to the costs of a new medical service or technology described in subclause (I) for a period of not less than two years and not more than three years beginning on the date on which an inpatient hospital code is issued with respect to the service or technology;
(III)
provide for additional payment to be made under this subsection with respect to discharges involving a new medical service or technology described in subclause (I) that occur during the period described in subclause (II) in an amount that adequately reflects the estimated average cost of such service or technology; and
(IV)
provide that discharges involving such a service or technology that occur after the close of the period described in subclause (II) will be classified within a new or existing diagnosis-related group with a weighting factor under paragraph (4)(B) that is derived from cost data collected with respect to discharges occurring during such period.
(iii)
For purposes of clause (ii)(II), the term “inpatient hospital code” means any code that is used with respect to inpatient hospital services for which payment may be made under this subsection and includes an alphanumeric code issued under the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (“ICD–9–CM”) and its subsequent revisions.
(iv)
For purposes of clause (ii)(III), the term “additional payment” means, with respect to a discharge for a new medical service or technology described in clause (ii)(I), an amount that exceeds the prospective payment rate otherwise applicable under this subsection to discharges involving such service or technology that would be made but for this subparagraph.
(v)
The requirement under clause (ii)(III) for an additional payment may be satisfied by means of a new-technology group (described in subparagraph (L)), an add-on payment, a payment adjustment, or any other similar mechanism for increasing the amount otherwise payable with respect to a discharge under this subsection. The Secretary may not establish a separate fee schedule for such additional payment for such services and technologies, by utilizing a methodology established under subsection (a) or (h) of section 1395m of this title to determine the amount of such additional payment, or by other similar mechanisms or methodologies.
(vi)
For purposes of this subparagraph and subparagraph (L), a medical service or technology will be considered a “new medical service or technology” if the service or technology meets criteria established by the Secretary after notice and an opportunity for public comment.
(vii)
Under the mechanism under this subparagraph, the Secretary shall provide for the addition of new diagnosis and procedure codes in April 1 of each year, but the addition of such codes shall not require the Secretary to adjust the payment (or diagnosis-related group classification) under this subsection until the fiscal year that begins after such date.
(viii) The mechanism established pursuant to clause (i) shall be adjusted to provide, before publication of a proposed rule, for public input regarding whether a new service or technology represents an advance in medical technology that substantially improves the diagnosis or treatment of individuals entitled to benefits under part A as follows:
(I)
The Secretary shall make public and periodically update a list of all the services and technologies for which an application for additional payment under this subparagraph is pending.
(II)
The Secretary shall accept comments, recommendations, and data from the public regarding whether the service or technology represents a substantial improvement.
(III)
The Secretary shall provide for a meeting at which organizations representing hospitals, physicians, such individuals, manufacturers, and any other interested party may present comments, recommendations, and data to the clinical staff of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services before publication of a notice of proposed rulemaking regarding whether service or technology represents a substantial improvement.
(ix)
Before establishing any add-on payment under this subparagraph with respect to a new technology, the Secretary shall seek to identify one or more diagnosis-related groups associated with such technology, based on similar clinical or anatomical characteristics and the cost of the technology. Within such groups the Secretary shall assign an eligible new technology into a diagnosis-related group where the average costs of care most closely approximate the costs of care of using the new technology. No add-on payment under this subparagraph shall be made with respect to such new technology and this clause shall not affect the application of paragraph (4)(C)(iii).
(L)
(i)
In establishing the mechanism under subparagraph (K), the Secretary may establish new-technology groups into which a new medical service or technology will be classified if, based on the estimated average costs incurred with respect to discharges involving such service or technology, the DRG prospective payment rate otherwise applicable to such discharges under this subsection is inadequate.
(ii) Such groups—
(I)
shall not be based on the costs associated with a specific new medical service or technology; but
(II)
shall, in combination with the applicable standardized amounts and the weighting factors assigned to such groups under paragraph (4)(B), reflect such cost cohorts as the Secretary determines are appropriate for all new medical services and technologies that are likely to be provided as inpatient hospital services in a fiscal year.
(iii)
The methodology for classifying specific hospitaldischarges within a diagnosis-related group under paragraph (4)(A) or a new-technology group shall provide that a specific hospital discharge may not be classified within both a diagnosis-related group and a new-technology group.
(6)
The Secretary shall provide for publication in the Federal Register, on or before the August 1 before each fiscal year (beginning with fiscal year 1984), of a description of the methodology and data used in computing the adjusted DRG prospective payment rates under this subsection, including any adjustments required under subsection (e)(1)(B).
(7) There shall be no administrative or judicial review under section 1395oo of this title or otherwise of—
(A)
the determination of the requirement, or the proportional amount, of any adjustment effected pursuant to subsection (e)(1) or the determination of the applicable percentage increase under paragraph (12)(A)(ii),
(B)
the establishment of diagnosis-related groups, of the methodology for the classification of discharges within such groups, and of the appropriate weighting factors thereof under paragraph (4), including the selection and revision of codes under paragraph (4)(D), and
(C)
the determination of whether services provided prior to a patient’s inpatient admission are related to the admission (as described in subsection (a)(4)).
(8)
(A) In the case of any hospital which is located in an area which is, at any time after April 20, 1983, reclassified from an urban to a rural area, payments to such hospital for the first two cost reporting periods for which such reclassification is effective shall be made as follows:
(i) For the first such cost reporting period, payment shall be equal to the amount payable to such hospital for such reporting period on the basis of the rural classification, plus an amount equal to two-thirds of the amount (if any) by which—
(I)
the amount which would have been payable to such hospital for such reporting period on the basis of an urban classification, exceeds
(II)
the amount payable to such hospital for such reporting period on the basis of the rural classification.
(ii) For the second such cost reporting period, payment shall be equal to the amount payable to such hospital for such reporting period on the basis of the rural classification, plus an amount equal to one-third of the amount (if any) by which—
(I)
the amount which would have been payable to such hospital for such reporting period on the basis of an urban classification, exceeds
(II)
the amount payable to such hospital for such reporting period on the basis of the rural classification.
(B)
(i)
For purposes of this subsection, the Secretary shall treat a hospital located in a rural county adjacent to one or more urban areas as being located in the urban metropolitan statistical area to which the greatest number of workers in the county commute, if the rural county would otherwise be considered part of an urban area, under the standards for designating Metropolitan Statistical Areas (and for designating New England County Metropolitan Areas) described in clause (ii), if the commuting rates used in determining outlying counties (or, for New England, similar recognized areas) were determined on the basis of the aggregate number of resident workers who commute to (and, if applicable under the standards, from) the central county or counties of all contiguous Metropolitan Statistical Areas (or New England County Metropolitan Areas).
(ii) The standards described in this clause for cost reporting periods beginning in a fiscal year—
(I)
before fiscal year 2003, are the standards published in the Federal Register on January 3, 1980, or, at the election of the hospital with respect to fiscal years 2001 and 2002, standards so published on March 30, 1990; and
(II)
after fiscal year 2002, are the standards published in the Federal Register by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget based on the most recent available decennial population data.
Subparagraphs (C) and (D) shall not apply with respect to the application of subclause (I).
(C)
(i) If the application of subparagraph (B) or a decision of the Medicare Geographic Classification Review Board or the Secretary under paragraph (10), by treating hospitals located in a rural county or counties as being located in an urban area, or by treating hospitals located in one urban area as being located in another urban area—
(I)
reduces the wage index for that urban area (as applied under this subsection) by 1 percentage point or less, the Secretary, in calculating such wage index under this subsection, shall exclude those hospitals so treated, or
(II)
reduces the wage index for that urban area by more than 1 percentage point (as applied under this subsection), the Secretary shall calculate and apply such wage index under this subsection separately to hospitals located in such urban area (excluding all the hospitals so treated) and to the hospitals so treated (as if such hospitals were located in such urban area).
(ii)
If the application of subparagraph (B) or a decision of the Medicare Geographic Classification Review Board or the Secretary under paragraph (10), by treating hospitals located in a rural county or counties as not being located in the rural area in a State, reduces the wage index for that rural area (as applied under this subsection), the Secretary shall calculate and apply such wage index under this subsection as if the hospitals so treated had not been excluded from calculation of the wage index for that rural area.
(iii)
The application of subparagraph (B) or a decision of the Medicare Geographic Classification Review Board or the Secretary under paragraph (10) may not result in the reduction of any county’s wage index to a level below the wage index for rural areas in the State in which the county is located.
(iv) The application of subparagraph (B) or a decision of the Medicare Geographic Classification Review Board or of the Secretary under paragraph (10) may not result in a reduction in an urban area’s wage index if—
(I)
the urban area has a wage index below the wage index for rural areas in the State in which it is located; or
(II)
the urban area is located in aState that is composed of a single urban area.
(v)
This subparagraph shall apply with respect to discharges occurring in a fiscal year only if the Secretary uses a method for making adjustments to the DRG prospective payment rate for area differences in hospital wage levels under paragraph (3)(E) for the fiscal year that is based on the use of Metropolitan Statistical Area classifications.
(D)
The Secretary shall make a proportional adjustment in the standardized amounts determined under paragraph (3) to assure that the provisions of subparagraphs (B) and (C) or a decision of the Medicare Geographic Classification Review Board or the Secretary under paragraph (10) do not result in aggregate payments under this section that are greater or less than those that would otherwise be made.
(E)
(i)
For purposes of this subsection, not later than 60 days after the receipt of an application (in a form and manner determined by the Secretary) from a subsection (d) hospital described in clause (ii), the Secretary shall treat the hospital as being located in the rural area (as defined in paragraph (2)(D)) of the State in which the hospital is located.
(ii) For purposes of clause (i), asubsection (d) hospital described in this clause is a subsection (d) hospital that is located in an urban area (as defined in paragraph (2)(D)) and satisfies any of the following criteria:
(I)
The hospital is located in a rural census tract of a metropolitan statistical area (as determined under the most recent modification of the Goldsmith Modification, originally published in the Federal Register on February 27, 1992 (57 Fed. Reg. 6725)).
(II)
The hospital is located in an area designated by any law or regulation of such State as a rural area (or is designated by such State as a rural hospital).
(III)
The hospital would qualify as a rural, regional, or national referral center under paragraph (5)(C) or as a sole community hospital under paragraph (5)(D) if the hospital were located in a rural area.
(IV)
The hospital meets such other criteria as the Secretary may specify.
(9)
(A) Notwithstanding section 1395f(b) of this title but subject to the provisions of section 1395e of this title, the amount of the payment with respect to the operating costs of inpatient hospital services of a subsection (d) Puerto Rico hospital for inpatient hospital discharges is equal to the sum of—
(i)
the applicable Puerto Rico percentage (specified in subparagraph (E)) of the Puerto Rico adjusted DRG prospective payment rate (determined under subparagraph (B) or (C)) for such discharges,
(ii) the applicable Federal percentage (specified in subparagraph (E)) of—
(I) for discharges beginning in a fiscal year beginning on or after October 1, 1997, and before October 1, 2003, the discharge-weighted average of—
(aa)
the national adjusted DRG prospective payment rate (determined under paragraph (3)(D)) for hospitals located in a large urban area,
(bb)
such rate for hospitals located in other urban areas, and
(cc)
such rate for hospitals located in a rural area,
for such discharges, adjusted in the manner provided in paragraph (3)(E) for different area wage levels; and
(II)
for discharges in a fiscal year beginning on or after October 1, 2003, the national DRG prospective payment rate determined under paragraph (3)(D)(iii) for hospitals located in any area for such discharges, adjusted in the manner provided in paragraph (3)(E) for different area wage levels.
As used in this section, the term “subsection (d) Puerto Rico hospital” means a hospital that is located in Puerto Rico and that would be a subsection (d) hospital (as defined in paragraph (1)(B)) if it were located in one of the 50 States.
(B) The Secretary shall determine a Puerto Rico adjusted DRG prospective payment rate, for each inpatient hospital discharge in fiscal year 1988 involving inpatient hospital services of a subsection (d) Puerto Rico hospital for which payment may be made under part A of this subchapter. Such rate shall be determined for such hospitals located in urban or rural areas within Puerto Rico, as follows:
(i)
The Secretary shall determine the target amount(as defined in subsection (b)(3)(A)) for the hospital for the cost reporting period beginning in fiscal year 1987 and increase such amount by prorating the applicable percentage increase(as defined in subsection (b)(3)(B)) to update the amount to the midpoint in fiscal year 1988.
(ii) The Secretary shall standardize the amount determined under clause (i) for each hospital by—
(I)
excluding an estimate of indirect medical education costs,
(II)
adjusting for variations among hospitals by area in the average hospital wage level,
(III)
adjusting for variations in case mix among hospitals, and
(IV)
excluding an estimate of the additional payments to certain subsection (d) Puerto Rico hospitals to be made under subparagraph (D)(iii) (relating to disproportionate share payments).
(iii)
The Secretary shall compute a discharge weighted average of the standardized amounts determined under clause (ii) for all hospitals located in an urban area and for all hospitals located in a rural area (as such terms are defined in paragraph (2)(D)).
(iv)
The Secretary shall reduce the average standardized amount by a proportion equal to the proportion (estimated by the Secretary) of the amount of payments under this paragraph which are additional payments described in subparagraph (D)(i) (relating to outlier payments).
(v) For each discharge classified within a diagnosis-related group for hospitals located in an urban or rural area, respectively, the Secretary shall establish a Puerto Rico DRG prospective payment rate equal to the product of—
(I)
the average standardized amount (computed under clause (iii) and reduced under clause (iv)) for hospitals located in an urban or rural area, respectively, and
(II)
the weighting factor (determined under paragraph (4)(B)) for that diagnosis-related group.
(vi)
The Secretary shall adjust the proportion (as estimated by the Secretary from time to time) of hospitals’ costs which are attributable to wages and wage-related costs, of the Puerto Rico DRG prospective payment rate computed under clause (v) for area differences in hospital wage levels by a factor (established by the Secretary) reflecting the relative hospital wage level in the geographic area of the hospital compared to the Puerto Rican average hospital wage level.
(C) The Secretary shall determine a Puerto Rico adjusted DRG prospective payment rate, for each inpatient hospital discharge after fiscal year 1988 involving inpatient hospital services of a subsection (d) Puerto Rico hospital for which payment may be made under part