The forced sale of stock owned by minority shareholders in a joint-stock company, usually in the context of an acquisition. State law governs squeeze-outs and requires fair cash value be paid to the minority shareholders from the acquiring corporation in exchange for their stock.
Foreign Direct Investment: An Overview
The International Monetary Fund (“IMF”) defines foreign direct investment (“FDI”) as a “cross-border investment” in which an investor that is “resident in one economy [has] control or a significant degree of influence on the management of an enterprise that is resident in another economy.” IMF, Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual 100 (6th ed. 2009).
Clean Water Act (CWA) 33 U.S.C. §1251 et seq. (1972)
A part of Environmental Law, the CWA uses two methods to protect the quality of water, both monitoring the water quality, and controlling discharge from point sources.
The Clean Air Act (CAA) U.S.C. Title 42, Chapter 85
A part of Environmental Law, the CAA is a massive piece of legislation from the 1970s, that promulgates uniform national standards for a wide range of air pollutants and sources, through a handful of systems. The CAA uses a two prong attack - in addition to regulating the air quality levels, it also allows regulate sources of pollution.
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act is better known as CERCLA. It is codified in 42 U.S.C. Chapter 103.
A type of limited liability partnership (LLP), which operates to “significantly further the accomplishment of one or more charitable or educational purposes". Unlike a non-profit charitable organization, L3Cs may make a small profit, as long as that is the secondary goal of the organization.
The federal agency that oversees the nation's securities markets and interprets federal securities law. The SEC also oversees ratings agencies and private regulatory organizations.
Gases that absorb the sun's infrared radiation and trap its heat in the earth's atmosphere. Common greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide and methane.
Also called the Waxman-Markey Bill, this legislation sought to address climate change while building a clean energy economy. Among other things, this bill established a national cap-and-trade system for greenhouse gases and promoted renewable sources of energy.