The following links lead to summaries of major cases in the United States Supreme Court's jurisprudence on immigration law. Each summary contains a link to the opinion it summarizes.
The Supreme Court invalidated a Texas statute that denied state funds to local school districts for the education of children unlawfully admitted to the United States and authorized local school districts to deny enrollment to such children because the statute violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. (Read the opinion here).
In 1996, Congress enacted the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) that held that legal permanent residents who had been convicted of a crime and had travelled abroad were eligible to face permanent removal proceedings. The question that the Court faced in Vartelas v. Holder was whether the IIRIRA applies retroactively to lawful permanent residents who were convicted of a crime and left the United States before enactment of the 1996 law. The Court held that the governing law at the time of conviction and not the IIRIRA applies.
The Supreme Court held that it was constitutional for Congress to grant special preference immigration status to legitimate children and their parents, or illegitimate children and their mothers, while excluding illegitimate children and their fathers. (Read the opinion here.)
The Supreme Court held that a provision of the Social Security Act denying eligibility for Medicare part B unless the applicant has been in the United States for a minimum of five years and has been admitted for permanent residency does not deny the applicant of liberty or property without due process of law. (Read the opinion here.)
The Supreme Court held that the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) had the statutory authority to determine the admissibility of a permanent resident alien in an exclusion hearing, but that permanent resident aliens may claim the protections of the due process clause in such proceedings. (Read the opinion here).
The Supreme Court held that citizenship as prescribed in the Fourteenth Amendment extends to U.S.-born children of foreign subjects or citizens who, at the time of the child’s birth, are permanent residents and are carrying on business in the United States. Such children acquire U.S. citizenship at birth, but this does not apply if the parents are in the United States in any diplomatic or official capacity. (Read the opinion here.)