aviation

overbooking

A common practice whereby an airline, hotel, or other company accepts more reservations than it has seats or rooms available, on the presumption that a certain percentage of people will not show up. Airlines have a legal right to overbook, while hotels do not. A hotel must find a room for everyone who has a reservation and shows up on time. An airline may be required to offer compensation for people involuntarily bumped from a flight, depending on several factors, including how long they must wait for another flight.

Conditions of Carriage

The terms of the contract with an airline after purchasing a ticket. Conditions of carriage cover everything from baggage limitations to the amount of compensation the passenger can recover if injured on the flight. These provisions vary from airline to airline. To read the conditions of carriage for an airline, either check its website or look in the fine print on the back of the ticket (if there is a print version -- even if there is, it may not have room for the full contract). If none of that works, the airline is legally obligated to provide a copy.

Commerce

In 15 U.S.C. §1127:

 1) The exchanging, buying, or selling of things having economic value between two or more entities, for example goods, services, and money.  Commerce is often done on a large scale, typically between individuals, businesses, or nations.  

 2) The Lanham Act (trademark) provides that a mark is all be deemed to be in "use in commerce"

   (1) on goods when: 

Carrier

Any business that transports property or people by any means of conveyance (truck, auto, taxi, bus, airplane, railroad, ship) for a charge. There are two types of carriers: common carrier (in the regular business of providing transport) and a private carrier (a party not in the business, but agrees to make a delivery or carry a passenger in a specific instance).

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