railroads

Commerce

In 15 U.S.C. §1127:

 1) The exchanging, buying, or selling of things having economic value between two or more entities, for example goods, services, and money.  Commerce is often done on a large scale, typically between individuals, businesses, or nations.  

 2) The Lanham Act (trademark) provides that a mark is all be deemed to be in "use in commerce"

   (1) on goods when: 

Carrier

Any business that transports property or people by any means of conveyance (truck, auto, taxi, bus, airplane, railroad, ship) for a charge. There are two types of carriers: common carrier (in the regular business of providing transport) and a private carrier (a party not in the business, but agrees to make a delivery or carry a passenger in a specific instance).

Carrier's Lien

A type of lien that gives a security interest in shipped goods to a shipper that publicly operates a business for the transportation of goods.  This lien typically arises when the shipper takes possession of the goods and lasts until the shipper has been paid for their transportation.  If someone fails to pay for shipment as promised, a carrier's lien allows the carrier to keep the goods as collateral

Charter

1.  Broadly, the highest law of an entity.  More specifically:

(a)  In corporate law, the articles of incorporation.

(b)  In public law, the instrument by which a municipality is incorporated (e.g., city charter).  This type of charter includes the highest laws of the municipality and its organizational structure.

Commerce Clause

    The Commerce Clause refers to Article 1, Section 8, Clause 3 of the U.S. Constitution, which gives Congress the power “to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes.”

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