establishment clause

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This case is a combination of appeals from United States Courts of Appeals for the Seventh, Ninth, and Third Circuits. The facts from each case are substantially similar.

Congress enacted the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (“ERISA”) in...

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In 1997, the Arizona Legislature approved the Arizona Tuition Tax Credit, Section 1089 of which permits individuals to claim income tax credit in return for contributions to school tuition organizations ("STOs"). See Brief for Petitioner Gale Garriott...

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Factual Summary In 2000, Congress passed the Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act ("RLUIPA"), which, in relevant part required that no government shall impose a substantial burden on the religious exercise of a person residing in or...
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In May, 1999, federal customs officials seized goods labeled “tea extract” en route to Sante Fe, New Mexico, to Jeffrey Bronfman, President of the United States Chapter of a Brazilian religious group known as O Centro Espirita Beneficiente Uniao Do...

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In 2004, the Freedom from Religion Foundation (“the Foundation”), represented by three taxpayer plaintiffs, filed suit in Federal District Court, challenging part of President Bush’s Faith Based and Community Initiatives (“FBCI”) plan. See Freedom from...

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The Mojave National Preserve and the Cross

In 1934, the Veterans of Foreign Wars (“VFW”) erected a Latin cross atop Sunrise Rock on the north side of Cima Road in southeastern California. See Buono v. Norton, 212 F.Supp.2d 1202, 1205 (C.D. Cal. 2002)....

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Prince George County, Maryland is the location of a World War I monument entitled the Peace Cross. Am. Humanist Ass'n v. Maryland-National Capital Park at 201, 208. Erected in 1925, the Peace Cross is placed in the middle of a public highway...

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Facts

Greece, New York (“the Town”) is a town of nearly 94,000 residents, located just outside the city of Rochester, in Monroe County. Galloway v. Town of Greece, 681 F.3d 20, 23 (2nd Cir. 2012). Town residents can attend and participate in monthly...

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Trinity Lutheran Church of Columbia, Inc. (“Trinity Lutheran”) is a Lutheran church that includes within its operations a preschool and daycare center known as the Learning Center. See Trinity Lutheran Church of Columbia, Inc. v. Pauley, 788 F.3d 779,...

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On January 27, 2017, President Donald Trump issued Executive Order 13769 (“EO-1”), which placed significant immigration restrictions on foreign nationals from seven Muslim-majority countries. Hawaii v. Trump, 878 F.3d 662 (9th Cir. 2017). EO-1, whose...