probable cause

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Oral argument: Mar. 1, 2011

Appealed from: United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (Oct. 12, 2010)

FOURTH AMENDMENT, PROBABLE CAUSE, REASONABLENESS TEST, SPECIAL NEEDS, QUALIFIED IMMUNITY

When the Oregon...

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In 2003, Nimrod Greene was arrested after F.S., a seven-year old child, informed his parents and investigators that Mr. Greene had inappropriately touched him twice. See Greene v. Camreta, 588 F.3d 1011, 1016 (9th Cir...

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In 2013, Matthew Vogt, a police officer in the City of Hays, Kansas, applied for a new position with the City of Haysville’s police department. See Vogt v. City of Hays, Kansas, 844 F.3d 1235, 1238 (10th Cir. 2017). In his application to the City of...

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Early in the morning on March 16, 2008, Metropolitan Police Department (“MPD”) officers responded to a complaint of illegal activity occurring in a vacant house. See Wesby v. District of Columbia, 765 F.3d 13 at 3–4 (D.C. Cir. 2014). When the officers...

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In June 2006, Officer William Wheetley stopped Clayton Harris’s truck because its tags had expired. See Harris v. State, 71 So.3d 756, 759–60 (Fla. 2011). As he approached, Officer Wheetley noticed...

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[Questions Presented] [Issue] [Facts] [Discussion] [Analysis] Issue

Did the Florida Supreme Court err in creating an additional evidentiary standard that the state must satisfy before an alert from a well-trained drug-detection dog may suffice to...

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On November 3, 2006, the Drug Enforcement Agency ("DEA") received an anonymous tip that home of Respondent, Joelis Jardines, was being used as a marijuana grow house. See Jardines v. State, 73 So. 3d 34, 37 (Fla. 2011...

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On November 3, 2006, the Drug Enforcement Agency ("DEA") received an anonymous tip that home of Respondent, Joelis Jardines, was being used as a marijuana grow house. See Jardines v. State, 73 So. 3d 34, 37 (Fla. 2011...

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[Question Presented] [Issue] [Facts] [Discussion] [Analysis] Issue

Whether police violated the Fourth Amendment by taking a dog that had been trained to alert officers of the presence of illegal substances to a house where the officers suspected,...

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William Moore was CEO of Recognition Equipment, Inc. (REI), a company that specialized in optical scanning technology. Moore v. Hartman, 388 F.3d 871, 873 (D.C. Cir 2004) (Moore I). Specifically, REI manufactured multi-line optical character...

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Appealed from: United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia

Oral argument: January 10, 2006

RETALIATORY PROSECUTION, FIRST AMENDMENT RIGHTS, PROSECUTORIAL DISCRETION, PROBABLE...
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In October 2005, the police of Lexington-Fayette Urban County, Kentucky performed a “buy bust” operation in which a confidential informant attempted to buy crack cocaine from a suspected drug dealer. See King v. Kentucky, 302 S.W.3d...

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Oral argument: Jan. 12, 2011

Appealed from: Supreme Court of Kentucky (Jan. 21, 2010)

EXIGENT CIRCUMSTANCES, SEARCH AND SEIZURE, PROBABLE CAUSE, FOURTH AMENDMENT

While pursuing a known drug felon,...

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In March 2006, Fane Lozman moved his floating home to the Riviera Beach Marina. Lozman v. City of Riviera Beach, 681 F. App'x 746, 748 (11th Cir. 2017). Shortly after moving there, Lozman learned that the City of Riviera Beach (“Riviera Beach”) planned...

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Shelly Kelly decided to end her romantic relationship with Jerry Ray Bowen, but she feared that Bowen might become physically violent. See Millender v. Messerschmidt, 620 F.3d 1016, 1020 (9th Cir. 2010). She requested that...

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Oral argument: Dec. 5, 2011

Appealed from: United States Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit (Dec. 30, 2010)

Petitioner, detective Curt Messerschmidt, obtained and executed a warrant to search Respondent Augusta Millender’s residence....

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[Question(s) presented] [Issue(s)] [Facts] [Discussion] [Analysis]  Issue

Is there an exception to the Fourth Amendment warrant requirement for forcibly drawing blood from a person suspected of drunk driving?

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Overview

Reasonable suspicion is a standard used in criminal procedure. Reasonable suspicion is used in determining the legality of a police officer's decision to perform a search.

When an officer stops someone to search the person,...

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In 2006, Respondent Steven Howards visited the Beaver Creek Mall in Beaver Creek, Colorado to bring his older son to a piano recital. See Howards v. McLaughlin, 634 F.3d 1131, 1135 (10th Cir. 2011). Both Petitioners—Secret...

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Oral argument: Mar. 21, 2012

Appealed from: United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit (Mar. 14, 2011)

Respondent Steven Howards criticized and touched Vice President Cheney while the Vice President was on a meet-and-greet at a...

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The following Facts is derived from the United State’s Supreme Court Brief, see Brief of the United States as Petitioner, and the Ninth Circuit’s amended opinion, see United States v. Grubbs, 377 F.3d 1072 (9th...

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Appealed from: United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit

Oral argument: Jan. 18, 2006

Anticipatory search warrants are used by law enforcement to gain permission to perform a search where...

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In 2003, police in Virginia were discussing over the radio that someone nicknamed "Chubs" (David Lee Moore) was driving in the area. Moore v. Commonwealth, 622 S.E.2d 253, 255 (Va. Ct. App. 2005), rev'd, 636 S.E.2d 395 ( Va. 2006), cert...

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Oral argument: January 14, 2008

Appealed from: Supreme Court of Virginia (November 3, 2006)

FOURTH AMENDMENT, SEARCH AND SEIZURE, SEARCH INCIDENT TO...