40 CFR § 1037.150 - Interim provisions.
The provisions in this section apply instead of other provisions in this part.
(a) Incentives for early introduction. The provisions of this paragraph (a) apply with respect to tractors and vocational vehicles produced in model years before 2014. Manufacturers may voluntarily certify in model year 2013 (or earlier model years for electric vehicles) to the greenhouse gas standards of this part.
(1) This paragraph (a)(1) applies for regulatory subcategories subject to the standards of § 1037.105 or § 1037.106. Except as specified in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, to generate early credits under this paragraph for any vehicles other than electric vehicles, you must certify your entire U.S.-directed production volume within the regulatory subcategory to these standards. Except as specified in paragraph (a)(4) of this section, if some vehicle families within a regulatory subcategory are certified after the start of the model year, you may generate credits only for production that occurs after all families are certified. For example, if you produce three vehicle families in an averaging set and you receive your certificates for those families on January 4, 2013, March 15, 2013, and April 24, 2013, you may not generate credits for model year 2013 production in any of the families that occurs before April 24, 2013. Calculate credits relative to the standard that would apply in model year 2014 using the equations in subpart H of this part. You may bank credits equal to the surplus credits you generate under this paragraph (a) multiplied by 1.50. For example, if you have 1.0 Mg of surplus credits for model year 2013, you may bank 1.5 Mg of credits. Credit deficits for an averaging set prior to model year 2014 do not carry over to model year 2014. These credits may be used to show compliance with the standards of this part for 2014 and later model years. We recommend that you notify EPA of your intent to use this provision before submitting your applications.
(3) You may generate emission credits for the number of additional SmartWay designated tractors (relative to your 2012 production), provided you do not generate credits for those vehicles under paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Calculate credits for each regulatory subcategory relative to the standard that would apply in model year 2014 using the equations in subpart H of this part. Use a production volume equal to the number of designated model year 2013 SmartWay tractors minus the number of designated model year 2012 SmartWay tractors. You may bank credits equal to the surplus credits you generate under this paragraph (a)(3) multiplied by 1.50. Your 2012 and 2013 model years must be equivalent in length.
(4) This paragraph (a)(4) applies where you do not receive your final certificate in a regulatory subcategory within 30 days of submitting your final application for that subcategory. Calculate your credits for all production that occurs 30 days or more after you submit your final application for the subcategory.
(b) Phase 1 coastdown procedures. For tractors subject to Phase 1 standards under § 1037.106, the default method for measuring drag area (CdA) is the coastdown procedure specified in 40 CFR part 1066, subpart D. This includes preparing the tractor and the standard trailer with wheels meeting specifications of § 1037.528(b) and submitting information related to your coastdown testing under § 1037.528(h).
(c) Small manufacturers. The following provisions apply for small manufacturers:
(2) The greenhouse gas standards of §§ 1037.105 and 1037.106 are optional for small manufacturers producing vehicles with a date of manufacture before January 1, 2022. In addition, small manufacturers producing vehicles that run on any fuel other than gasoline, E85, or diesel fuel may delay complying with every later standard under this part by one model year.
(3) Qualifying manufacturers must notify the Designated Compliance Officer each model year before introducing excluded vehicles into U.S. commerce. This notification must include a description of the manufacturer's qualification as a small business under 13 CFR 121.201. Manufacturers must label excluded vehicles with the following statement: “THIS VEHICLE IS EXCLUDED UNDER 40 CFR 1037.150(c).”
(4) Small manufacturers may meet Phase 1 standards instead of Phase 2 standards in the first year Phase 2 standards apply to them if they voluntarily comply with the Phase 1 standards for the full preceding year. Specifically, small manufacturers may certify their model year 2022 vehicles to the Phase 1 greenhouse gas standards of §§ 1037.105 and 1037.106 if they certify all the vehicles from their annual U.S.-directed production volume to the Phase 1 standards starting on or before January 1, 2021.
(5) See paragraphs (r), (t), (y), and (aa) of this section for additional allowances for small manufacturers.
(e) Delegated assembly. The delegated-assembly provisions of § 1037.621 do not apply before January 1, 2018.
(f) Electric vehicles. Tailpipe emissions of regulated pollutants from electric vehicles (as defined in § 1037.801) are deemed to be zero. No emission testing is required for electric vehicles. Use good engineering judgment to apply other requirements of this part to electric vehicles.
(g) Compliance date. Compliance with the standards of this part was optional prior to January 1, 2014. This means that if your 2014 model year begins before January 1, 2014, you may certify for a partial model year that begins on January 1, 2014 and ends on the day your model year would normally end. You must label model year 2014 vehicles excluded under this paragraph (g) with the following statement: “THIS VEHICLE IS EXCLUDED UNDER 40 CFR 1037.150(g).”
(h) Off-road vehicle exemption.
(1) Vocational vehicles with a date of manufacture before January 1, 2021 automatically qualify for an exemption under § 1037.631 if the tires installed on the vehicle have a maximum speed rating at or below 55 miles per hour.
(2) In unusual circumstances, vehicle manufacturers may ask us to exempt vehicles under § 1037.631 based on other criteria that are equivalent to those specified in § 1037.631(a); however, we will normally not grant relief in cases where the vehicle manufacturer has credits or can otherwise comply with applicable standards. Request approval for an exemption under this paragraph (h) before you produce the subject vehicles. Send your request with supporting information to the Designated Compliance Officer; we will coordinate with NHTSA in making a determination under § 1037.210. If you introduce into U.S. commerce vehicles that depend on our approval under this paragraph (h) before we inform you of our approval, those vehicles violate 40 CFR 1068.101(a)(1).
(i) Limited carryover from Phase 1 to Phase 2. The provisions for carryover data in § 1037.235(d) do not allow you to use aerodynamic test results from Phase 1 to support a compliance demonstration for Phase 2 certification.
(j) Limited prohibition related to early model year engines. The provisions of this paragraph (j) apply only for vehicles that have a date of manufacture before January 1, 2018. See § 1037.635 for related provisions that apply in later model years. The prohibition in § 1037.601 against introducing into U.S. commerce a vehicle containing an engine not certified to the standards applicable for the calendar year of installation does not apply for vehicles using model year 2014 or 2015 spark-ignition engines, or any model year 2013 or earlier engines.
(k) Verifying drag areas from in-use tractors. This paragraph (k) applies for tractors instead of § 1037.401(b) through model year 2020. We may measure the drag area of your vehicles after they have been placed into service. To account for measurement variability, your vehicle is deemed to conform to the regulations of this part with respect to aerodynamic performance if we measure its drag area to be at or below the maximum drag area allowed for the bin above the bin to which you certified (for example, Bin II if you certified the vehicle to Bin III), unless we determine that you knowingly produced the vehicle to have a higher drag area than is allowed for the bin to which it was certified.
(l) Optional sister-vehicle certification under 40 CFR part 86. You may certify certain complete or cab-complete vehicles to the GHG standards of 40 CFR 86.1819 instead of the standards of § 1037.105 as specified in 40 CFR 86.1819-14(j).
(m) Loose engine sales. Manufacturers may certify certain spark-ignition engines along with chassis-certified heavy-duty vehicles where they are identical to engines used in those vehicles as described in 40 CFR 86.1819-14(k)(8). Vehicles in which those engines are installed are subject to standards under this part as specified in § 1037.105.
(n) Transition to engine-based model years. The following provisions apply for production and ABT reports during the transition to engine-based model year determinations for tractors and vocational vehicles in 2020 and 2021:
(1) If you install model year 2020 or earlier engines in your vehicles in calendar year 2020, include all those Phase 1 vehicles in your production and ABT reports related to model year 2020 compliance, although we may require you identify these separately from vehicles produced in calendar year 2019.
(2) If you install model year 2020 engines in your vehicles in calendar year 2021, submit production and ABT reports for those Phase 1 vehicles separate from the reports you submit for Phase 2 vehicles with model year 2021 engines.
(o) Interim useful life for light heavy-duty vocational vehicles. Class 2b through Class 5 vocational vehicles certified to Phase 1 standards are subject to a useful life of 110,000 miles or 10 years, whichever comes first, instead of the useful life specified in § 1037.105. For emission credits generated from these Phase 1 vehicles, multiply any banked credits that you carry forward to demonstrate compliance with Phase 2 standards by 1.36.
(p) Credit multiplier for advanced technology. If you generate credits from Phase 1 vehicles certified with advanced technology, you may multiply these credits by 1.50, except that you may not apply this multiplier in addition to the early-credit multiplier of paragraph (a) of this section. If you generate credits from model year 2027 and earlier Phase 2 vehicles certified with advanced technology, you may multiply these credits by 3.5 for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, 4.5 for electric vehicles, and 5.5 for fuel cell vehicles.
(q) Vehicle families for advanced and off-cycle technologies. Apply the following provisions for grouping vehicles into families if you use off-cycle technologies under § 1037.610 or advanced technologies under § 1037.615:
(1) For vocational vehicles and tractors subject to Phase 1 standards, create separate vehicle families for vehicles that contain advanced or off-cycle technologies; group those vehicles together in a vehicle family if they use the same advanced or off-cycle technologies.
(2) For vocational vehicles and tractors subject to Phase 2 standards, create separate vehicle subfamilies if there is a credit multiplier for advanced technology; group those vehicles together in a vehicle subfamily if they use the same multiplier.
(r) Conversion to mid- roof and high-roof configurations. Secondary vehicle manufacturers that qualify as small manufacturers may convert low- and mid-roof tractors to mid- and high-roof configurations without recertification for the purpose of building a custom sleeper tractor or converting it to run on natural gas, as follows:
(1) The original low- or mid-roof tractor must be covered by a valid certificate of conformity.
(2) The modifications may not increase the frontal area of the tractor beyond the frontal area of the equivalent mid- or high-roof tractor with the corresponding standard trailer. Note that these dimensions have a tolerance of ±2 inches. Use good engineering judgment to achieve aerodynamic performance similar to or better than the certifying manufacturer's corresponding mid- or high-roof tractor.
(3) Add a permanent supplemental label to the vehicle near the original manufacturer's emission control information label. On the label identify your full corporate name and include the following statement: “THIS VEHICLE WAS MODIFIED AS ALLOWED UNDER 40 CFR 1037.150.”
(4) We may require that you submit annual production reports as described in § 1037.250.
(5) Modifications made under this paragraph (r) do not violate 40 CFR 1068.101(b)(1).
(s) Confirmatory testing for Falt-aero. If we conduct coastdown testing to verify your Falt-aero value for Phase 2 tractors, we will make our determination using the principles of SEA testing in § 1037.305. We will not replace your Falt-aero value if the tractor passes. If your tractor fails, we will generate a replacement value of Falt-aero based on at least one CdA value and corresponding effective yaw angle, Ceff, from a minimum of 100 valid runs using the procedures of § 1037.528(h). Note that we intend to minimize the differences between our test conditions and those of the manufacturer by testing at similar times of the year where possible and the same location where possible and when appropriate.
(t) Glider kits and glider vehicles.
(1) Glider vehicles conforming to the requirements in this paragraph (t)(1) are exempt from the Phase 1 emission standards of this part 1037 prior to January 1, 2021. Engines in such vehicles (including vehicles produced after January 1, 2021) remain subject to the requirements of 40 CFR part 86 applicable for the engines' original model year, but not subject to the Phase 1 or Phase 2 standards of 40 CFR part 1036 unless they were originally manufactured in model year 2014 or later.
(i) You are eligible for this exemption if you are a small manufacturer and you sold one or more glider vehicles in 2014 under the provisions of § 1037.150(c). You do not qualify if you only produced glider vehicles for your own use. You must notify us of your plans to use this exemption before you introduce exempt vehicles into U.S. commerce. In your notification, you must identify your annual U.S.-directed production volume (and sales, if different) of such vehicles for calendar years 2010 through 2014. Vehicles you produce before notifying us are not exempt under this section.
(ii) In a given calendar year, you may produce up to 300 exempt vehicles under this section, or up to the highest annual production volume you identify in paragraph (t)(1) of this section, whichever is less.
(v) If you produce your glider vehicle by installing remanufactured or previously used components in a glider kit produced by another manufacturer, you must provide the following to the glider kit manufacturer prior to obtaining the glider kit:
(A) Your name, the name of your company, and contact information.
(B) A signed statement that you are a qualifying small manufacturer and that your production will not exceed the production limits of this paragraph (t)(1). This statement is deemed to be a submission to EPA, and we may require the glider kit manufacturer to provide a copy to us at any time.
(vi) This exemption is valid for a given vehicle and engine only if you meet all the requirements and conditions of this paragraph (t)(1) that apply with respect to that vehicle and engine. Introducing such a vehicle into U.S. commerce without meeting all applicable requirements and conditions violates 40 CFR 1068.101(a)(1).
(vii) Companies that are not small manufacturers may sell uncertified incomplete vehicles without engines to small manufacturers for the purpose of producing exempt vehicles under this paragraph (t)(1), subject to the provisions of § 1037.622. However, such companies must take reasonable steps to ensure that their incomplete vehicles will be used in conformance with the requirements of this part 1037.
(2) Glider vehicles produced using engines certified to model year 2010 or later standards for all pollutants are subject to the same provisions that apply to vehicles using engines within their useful life in § 1037.635.
(3) For calendar year 2017, you may produce a limited number of glider kits and/or glider vehicles subject to the requirements applicable to model year 2016 glider vehicles, instead of the requirements of § 1037.635. The limit applies to your combined 2017 production of glider kits and glider vehicles and is equal to your highest annual production of glider kits and glider vehicles for any year from 2010 to 2014. Any glider kits or glider vehicles produced beyond this cap are subject to the provisions of § 1037.635. Count any glider kits and glider vehicles you produce under paragraph (t)(1) of this section as part of your production with respect to this paragraph (t)(3).
(u) Streamlined preliminary approval for trailer devices. Before January 1, 2018, manufacturers of aerodynamic devices for trailers may ask for preliminary EPA approval of compliance data for their devices based on qualifying for designation under the SmartWay program based on measured CdA values, whether or not that involves testing or other methods specified in § 1037.526. Trailer manufacturers may certify based on ΔCdA values established under this paragraph (u) through model year 2020. Manufacturers must perform testing as specified in subpart F of this part for any vehicles or aerodynamic devices not qualifying for approval under this paragraph (u).
(v) Transitional allowances for trailers. Through model year 2026, trailer manufacturers may calculate a number of trailers that are exempt from the standards and certification requirements of this part. Calculate the number of exempt box vans in a given model year by multiplying your total U.S.-directed production volume of certified box vans by 0.20 and rounding to the nearest whole number; however, in no case may the number of exempted box vans be greater than 350 units in any given model year. Repeat this calculation to determine the number of non-box trailers, up to 250 annual units, that are exempt from standards and certification requirements. Perform the calculation based on your projected production volumes in the first year that standards apply; in later years, use actual production volumes from the preceding model year. Include these calculated values and your production volumes of exempt trailers in your annual production report under § 1037.250. You must apply a label meeting the requirements of 40 CFR 1068.45(a) that identifies your corporate name and states that the trailer is exempt under the provisions of § 1037.150. Unlabeled trailers will be considered in violation of 40 CFR 1068.101(a)(1).
(w) Roll-up doors for non-aero box vans. Through model year 2023, box vans may qualify for non-aero or partial-aero standards under § 1037.107 by treating roll-up rear doors as being equivalent to rear lift gates.
(x) Aerodynamic testing for trailers. Section 1037.526 generally requires you to adjust ΔCdA values from alternate test methods to be equivalent to measurements with the primary test method. This paragraph (x) describes approximations that we believe are consistent with good engineering judgment; however, you may not use these approximations where we determine that clear and convincing evidence shows that they would significantly overestimate actual improvements in aerodynamic performance.
(1) You may presume that CFD measurements at a yaw angle of 4.5° are equal to measurements made using the primary method, and you may use them without adjustment.
(2) You may presume that coastdown measurements at yaw angles smaller than ± 4.5° are equal to measurements made using the primary method, and you may use them without adjustment. This applies equally for device manufacturers, but it does not apply for EPA testing.
(3) You may use testing or analytical methods to adjust coastdown measurements to account for aerodynamic effects at a yaw angle of ±4.5°. This applies for rear fairings and other devices whose performance is affected by yaw angle.
(y) Transition to Phase 2 standards. The following provisions allow for enhanced generation and use of emission credits from Phase 1 tractors and vocational vehicles for meeting the Phase 2 standards:
(1) For vocational Light HDV and vocational Medium HDV, emission credits you generate in model years 2018 through 2021 may be used through model year 2027, instead of being limited to a five-year credit life as specified in § 1037.740(c). For Class 8 vocational vehicles with medium heavy-duty engines, we will approve your request to generate these credits in and use these credits for the Medium HDV averaging set if you show that these vehicles would qualify as Medium HDV under the Phase 2 program as described in § 1037.140(g)(4).
(iv) For vocational vehicles with neutral-idle systems conforming with § 1037.660, you may apply an improvement factor of 0.98. You may adjust this improvement factor if we approve a partial reduction under § 1037.660(a)(2); for example, if your design reduces fuel consumption by half as much as shifting to neutral, you may apply an improvement factor of 0.99.
(i) Small manufacturers may certify their vehicles instead of relying on the exemption of paragraph (c) of this section. The provisions of this part apply for such vehicles, except as specified in this paragraph (y)(3).
(z) Constraints for vocational regulatory subcategories. The following provisions apply to determinations of vocational regulatory subcategories as described in § 1037.140:
(1) Select the Regional regulatory subcategory if you certify the engine based on testing only with the Supplemental Emission Test.
(8) You may select the Urban regulatory subcategory for any vehicle with a hydrokinetic torque converter paired with an automatic transmission, or a continuously variable automatic transmission, or a dual-clutch transmission with no more than two consecutive forward gears between which it is normal for both clutches to be momentarily disengaged.
(1) You may use emission credits generated under § 1037.105(d), including banked or traded credits from any averaging set. Such credits remain subject to other limitations that apply under subpart H of this part.
(2) You may produce up to 200 drayage tractors in a given model year to the standards described in § 1037.105(h) for “other buses”. The limit in this paragraph (aa)(2) applies with respect to vehicles produced by you and your affiliated companies. Treat these drayage tractors as being in their own averaging set.
(bb) Transition to updated GEM.
(1) Vehicle manufacturers may demonstrate compliance with Phase 2 GHG standards in model years 2021 through 2023 using GEM Phase 2, Version 3.0, Version 3.5.1, or Version 4.0 (incorporated by reference in § 1037.810). Manufacturers may change to a different version of GEM for model years 2022 and 2023 for a given vehicle family after initially submitting an application for certification; such a change must be documented as an amendment under § 1037.225. Manufacturers may submit an end-of-year report for model year 2021 using any of the three regulatory versions of GEM, but only for demonstrating compliance with the custom-chassis standards in § 1037.105(h); such a change must be documented in the report submitted under § 1037.730. Once a manufacturer certifies a vehicle family based on GEM Version 4.0, it may not revert back to using GEM Phase 2, Version 3.0 or Version 3.5.1 for that vehicle family in any model year.
(2) Vehicle manufacturers may certify for model years 2021 through 2023 based on fuel maps from engines or powertrains that were created using GEM Phase 2, Version 3.0, Version 3.5.1, or Version 4.0 (incorporated by reference in § 1037.810). Vehicle manufacturers may alternatively certify in those years based on fuel maps from powertrains that were created using GEM Phase 2, Version 3.0, GEM HIL model 3.8, or GEM Phase 2, Version 4.0 (incorporated by reference in § 1037.810). Vehicle manufacturers may continue to certify vehicles in later model years using fuel maps generated with earlier versions of GEM for model year 2024 and later vehicle families that qualify for using carryover provisions in § 1037.235(d).