40 CFR Appendix A-1 to Part 60 - Test Methods 1 through 2F

Appendix A-1 to Part 60 - Test Methods 1 through 2F
Method 1 - Sample and velocity traverses for stationary sources
Method 1A - Sample and velocity traverses for stationary sources with small stacks or ducts
Method 2 - Determination of stack gas velocity and volumetric flow rate (Type S pitot tube)
Method 2A - Direct measurement of gas volume through pipes and small ducts
Method 2B - Determination of exhaust gas volume flow rate from gasoline vapor incinerators
Method 2C - Determination of gas velocity and volumetric flow rate in small stacks or ducts (standard pitot tube)
Method 2D - Measurement of gas volume flow rates in small pipes and ducts
Method 2E - Determination of landfill gas production flow rate
Method 2F - Determination of Stack Gas Velocity and Volumetric Flow Rate With Three-Dimensional Probes

The test methods in this appendix are referred to in § 60.8 (Performance Tests) and § 60.11 (Compliance With Standards and Maintenance Requirements) of 40 CFR part 60, subpart A (General Provisions). Specific uses of these test methods are described in the standards of performance contained in the subparts, beginning with Subpart D.

Within each standard of performance, a section title “Test Methods and Procedures” is provided to: (1) Identify the test methods to be used as reference methods to the facility subject to the respective standard and (2) identify any special instructions or conditions to be followed when applying a method to the respective facility. Such instructions (for example, establish sampling rates, volumes, or temperatures) are to be used either in addition to, or as a substitute for procedures in a test method. Similarly, for sources subject to emission monitoring requirements, specific instructions pertaining to any use of a test method as a reference method are provided in the subpart or in appendix B.

Inclusion of methods in this appendix is not intended as an endorsement or denial of their applicability to sources that are not subject to standards of performance. The methods are potentially applicable to other sources; however, applicability should be confirmed by careful and appropriate evaluation of the conditions prevalent at such sources.

The approach followed in the formulation of the test methods involves specifications for equipment, procedures, and performance. In concept, a performance specification approach would be preferable in all methods because this allows the greatest flexibility to the user. In practice, however, this approach is impractical in most cases because performance specifications cannot be established. Most of the methods described herein, therefore, involve specific equipment specifications and procedures, and only a few methods in this appendix rely on performance criteria.

Minor changes in the test methods should not necessarily affect the validity of the results and it is recognized that alternative and equivalent methods exist. section 60.8 provides authority for the Administrator to specify or approve (1) equivalent methods, (2) alternative methods, and (3) minor changes in the methodology of the test methods. It should be clearly understood that unless otherwise identified all such methods and changes must have prior approval of the Administrator. An owner employing such methods or deviations from the test methods without obtaining prior approval does so at the risk of subsequent disapproval and retesting with approved methods.

Within the test methods, certain specific equipment or procedures are recognized as being acceptable or potentially acceptable and are specifically identified in the methods. The items identified as acceptable options may be used without approval but must be identified in the test report. The potentially approvable options are cited as “subject to the approval of the Administrator” or as “or equivalent.” Such potentially approvable techniques or alternatives may be used at the discretion of the owner without prior approval. However, detailed descriptions for applying these potentially approvable techniques or alternatives are not provided in the test methods. Also, the potentially approvable options are not necessarily acceptable in all applications. Therefore, an owner electing to use such potentially approvable techniques or alternatives is responsible for: (1) assuring that the techniques or alternatives are in fact applicable and are properly executed; (2) including a written description of the alternative method in the test report (the written method must be clear and must be capable of being performed without additional instruction, and the degree of detail should be similar to the detail contained in the test methods); and (3) providing any rationale or supporting data necessary to show the validity of the alternative in the particular application. Failure to meet these requirements can result in the Administrator's disapproval of the alternative.

Method 1 - Sample and Velocity Traverses for Stationary Sources
Note:

This method does not include all of the specifications (e.g., equipment and supplies) and procedures (e.g., sampling) essential to its performance. Some material is incorporated by reference from other methods in this part. Therefore, to obtain reliable results, persons using this method should have a thorough knowledge of at least the following additional test method: Method 2.

1.0 Scope and Application

1.1 Measured Parameters. The purpose of the method is to provide guidance for the selection of sampling ports and traverse points at which sampling for air pollutants will be performed pursuant to regulations set forth in this part. Two procedures are presented: a simplified procedure, and an alternative procedure (see section 11.5). The magnitude of cyclonic flow of effluent gas in a stack or duct is the only parameter quantitatively measured in the simplified procedure.

1.2 Applicability. This method is applicable to gas streams flowing in ducts, stacks, and flues. This method cannot be used when: (1) the flow is cyclonic or swirling; or (2) a stack is smaller than 0.30 meter (12 in.) in diameter, or 0.071 m 2 (113 in. 2) in cross-sectional area. The simplified procedure cannot be used when the measurement site is less than two stack or duct diameters downstream or less than a half diameter upstream from a flow disturbance.

1.3 Data Quality Objectives. Adherence to the requirements of this method will enhance the quality of the data obtained from air pollutant sampling methods.

Note:

The requirements of this method must be considered before construction of a new facility from which emissions are to be measured; failure to do so may require subsequent alterations to the stack or deviation from the standard procedure. Cases involving variants are subject to approval by the Administrator.

2.0 Summary of Method

2.1 This method is designed to aid in the representative measurement of pollutant emissions and/or total volumetric flow rate from a stationary source. A measurement site where the effluent stream is flowing in a known direction is selected, and the cross-section of the stack is divided into a number of equal areas. Traverse points are then located within each of these equal areas.

3.0 Definitions [Reserved]
4.0 Interferences [Reserved]
5.0 Safety

5.1 Disclaimer. This method may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This test method may not address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this test method to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to performing this test method.

6.0 Equipment and Supplies.

6.1 Apparatus. The apparatus described below is required only when utilizing the alternative site selection procedure described in section 11.5 of this method.

6.1.1 Directional Probe. Any directional probe, such as United Sensor Type DA Three-Dimensional Directional Probe, capable of measuring both the pitch and yaw angles of gas flows is acceptable. Before using the probe, assign an identification number to the directional probe, and permanently mark or engrave the number on the body of the probe. The pressure holes of directional probes are susceptible to plugging when used in particulate-laden gas streams. Therefore, a procedure for cleaning the pressure holes by “back-purging” with pressurized air is required.

6.1.2 Differential Pressure Gauges. Inclined manometers, U-tube manometers, or other differential pressure gauges (e.g., magnehelic gauges) that meet the specifications described in Method 2, section 6.2.

Note:

If the differential pressure gauge produces both negative and positive readings, then both negative and positive pressure readings shall be calibrated at a minimum of three points as specified in Method 2, section 6.2.

7.0 Reagents and Standards [Reserved]
8.0 Sample Collection, Preservation, Storage, and Transport [Reserved]
9.0 Quality Control [Reserved]
10.0 Calibration and Standardization [Reserved]
11.0 Procedure

11.1 Selection of Measurement Site.

11.1.1 Sampling and/or velocity measurements are performed at a site located at least eight stack or duct diameters downstream and two diameters upstream from any flow disturbance such as a bend, expansion, or contraction in the stack, or from a visible flame. If necessary, an alternative location may be selected, at a position at least two stack or duct diameters downstream and a half diameter upstream from any flow disturbance.

11.1.2 An alternative procedure is available for determining the acceptability of a measurement location not meeting the criteria above. This procedure described in section 11.5 allows for the determination of gas flow angles at the sampling points and comparison of the measured results with acceptability criteria.

11.2 Determining the Number of Traverse Points.

11.2.1 Particulate Traverses.

11.2.1.1 When the eight- and two-diameter criterion can be met, the minimum number of traverse points shall be: (1) twelve, for circular or rectangular stacks with diameters (or equivalent diameters) greater than 0.61 meter (24 in.); (2) eight, for circular stacks with diameters between 0.30 and 0.61 meter (12 and 24 in.); and (3) nine, for rectangular stacks with equivalent diameters between 0.30 and 0.61 meter (12 and 24 in.).

11.2.1.2 When the eight- and two-diameter criterion cannot be met, the minimum number of traverse points is determined from Figure 1-1. Before referring to the figure, however, determine the distances from the measurement site to the nearest upstream and downstream disturbances, and divide each distance by the stack diameter or equivalent diameter, to determine the distance in terms of the number of duct diameters. Then, determine from Figure 1-1 the minimum number of traverse points that corresponds:

(1) To the number of duct diameters upstream; and

(2) To the number of diameters downstream. Select the higher of the two minimum numbers of traverse points, or a greater value, so that for circular stacks, the number is a multiple of 4, and for rectangular stacks, the number is one of those shown in Table 1-1.

11.2.2 Velocity (Non-Particulate) Traverses. When velocity or volumetric flow rate is to be determined (but not particulate matter), the same procedure as that used for particulate traverses (Section 11.2.1) is followed, except that Figure 1-2 may be used instead of Figure 1-1.

11.3 Cross-Sectional Layout and Location of Traverse Points.

11.3.1 Circular Stacks.

11.3.1.1 Locate the traverse points on two perpendicular diameters according to Table 1-2 and the example shown in Figure 1-3. Any equation (see examples in References 2 and 3 in section 16.0) that gives the same values as those in Table 1-2 may be used in lieu of Table 1-2.

11.3.1.2 For particulate traverses, one of the diameters must coincide with the plane containing the greatest expected concentration variation (e.g., after bends); one diameter shall be congruent to the direction of the bend. This requirement becomes less critical as the distance from the disturbance increases; therefore, other diameter locations may be used, subject to the approval of the Administrator.

11.3.1.3 In addition, for elliptical stacks having unequal perpendicular diameters, separate traverse points shall be calculated and located along each diameter. To determine the cross-sectional area of the elliptical stack, use the following equation:

Square Area = D1 × D2 × 0.7854
Where: D1 = Stack diameter 1
D2 = Stack diameter 2

11.3.1.4 In addition, for stacks having diameters greater than 0.61 m (24 in.), no traverse points shall be within 2.5 centimeters (1.00 in.) of the stack walls; and for stack diameters equal to or less than 0.61 m (24 in.), no traverse points shall be located within 1.3 cm (0.50 in.) of the stack walls. To meet these criteria, observe the procedures given below.

11.3.2 Stacks With Diameters Greater Than 0.61 m (24 in.).

11.3.2.1 When any of the traverse points as located in section 11.3.1 fall within 2.5 cm (1.0 in.) of the stack walls, relocate them away from the stack walls to: (1) a distance of 2.5 cm (1.0 in.); or (2) a distance equal to the nozzle inside diameter, whichever is larger. These relocated traverse points (on each end of a diameter) shall be the “adjusted” traverse points.

11.3.2.2 Whenever two successive traverse points are combined to form a single adjusted traverse point, treat the adjusted point as two separate traverse points, both in the sampling and/or velocity measurement procedure, and in recording of the data.

11.3.3 Stacks With Diameters Equal To or Less Than 0.61 m (24 in.). Follow the procedure in section 11.3.1.1, noting only that any “adjusted” points should be relocated away from the stack walls to: (1) a distance of 1.3 cm (0.50 in.); or (2) a distance equal to the nozzle inside diameter, whichever is larger.

11.3.4 Rectangular Stacks.

11.3.4.1 Determine the number of traverse points as explained in sections 11.1 and 11.2 of this method. From Table 1-1, determine the grid configuration. Divide the stack cross-section into as many equal rectangular elemental areas as traverse points, and then locate a traverse point at the centroid of each equal area according to the example in Figure 1-4.

11.3.4.2 To use more than the minimum number of traverse points, expand the “minimum number of traverse points” matrix (see Table 1-1) by adding the extra traverse points along one or the other or both legs of the matrix; the final matrix need not be balanced. For example, if a 4 × 3 “minimum number of points” matrix were expanded to 36 points, the final matrix could be 9 × 4 or 12 × 3, and would not necessarily have to be 6 × 6. After constructing the final matrix, divide the stack cross-section into as many equal rectangular, elemental areas as traverse points, and locate a traverse point at the centroid of each equal area.

11.3.4.3 The situation of traverse points being too close to the stack walls is not expected to arise with rectangular stacks. If this problem should ever arise, the Administrator must be contacted for resolution of the matter.

11.4 Verification of Absence of Cyclonic Flow.

11.4.1 In most stationary sources, the direction of stack gas flow is essentially parallel to the stack walls. However, cyclonic flow may exist (1) after such devices as cyclones and inertial demisters following venturi scrubbers, or (2) in stacks having tangential inlets or other duct configurations which tend to induce swirling; in these instances, the presence or absence of cyclonic flow at the sampling location must be determined. The following techniques are acceptable for this determination.

11.4.2 Level and zero the manometer. Connect a Type S pitot tube to the manometer and leak-check system. Position the Type S pitot tube at each traverse point, in succession, so that the planes of the face openings of the pitot tube are perpendicular to the stack cross-sectional plane; when the Type S pitot tube is in this position, it is at “0° reference.” Note the differential pressure (Δp) reading at each traverse point. If a null (zero) pitot reading is obtained at 0° reference at a given traverse point, an acceptable flow condition exists at that point. If the pitot reading is not zero at 0° reference, rotate the pitot tube (up to ±90° yaw angle), until a null reading is obtained. Carefully determine and record the value of the rotation angle (α) to the nearest degree. After the null technique has been applied at each traverse point, calculate the average of the absolute values of α; assign α values of 0° to those points for which no rotation was required, and include these in the overall average. If the average value of α is greater than 20°, the overall flow condition in the stack is unacceptable, and alternative methodology, subject to the approval of the Administrator, must be used to perform accurate sample and velocity traverses.

11.5 The alternative site selection procedure may be used to determine the rotation angles in lieu of the procedure outlined in section 11.4.

11.5.1 Alternative Measurement Site Selection Procedure. This alternative applies to sources where measurement locations are less than 2 equivalent or duct diameters downstream or less than one-half duct diameter upstream from a flow disturbance. The alternative should be limited to ducts larger than 24 in. in diameter where blockage and wall effects are minimal. A directional flow-sensing probe is used to measure pitch and yaw angles of the gas flow at 40 or more traverse points; the resultant angle is calculated and compared with acceptable criteria for mean and standard deviation.

Note:

Both the pitch and yaw angles are measured from a line passing through the traverse point and parallel to the stack axis. The pitch angle is the angle of the gas flow component in the plane that INCLUDES the traverse line and is parallel to the stack axis. The yaw angle is the angle of the gas flow component in the plane PERPENDICULAR to the traverse line at the traverse point and is measured from the line passing through the traverse point and parallel to the stack axis.

11.5.2 Traverse Points. Use a minimum of 40 traverse points for circular ducts and 42 points for rectangular ducts for the gas flow angle determinations. Follow the procedure outlined in section 11.3 and Table 1-1 or 1-2 for the location and layout of the traverse points. If the measurement location is determined to be acceptable according to the criteria in this alternative procedure, use the same traverse point number and locations for sampling and velocity measurements.

11.5.3 Measurement Procedure.

11.5.3.1 Prepare the directional probe and differential pressure gauges as recommended by the manufacturer. Capillary tubing or surge tanks may be used to dampen pressure fluctuations. It is recommended, but not required, that a pretest leak check be conducted. To perform a leak check, pressurize or use suction on the impact opening until a reading of at least 7.6 cm (3 in.) H2O registers on the differential pressure gauge, then plug the impact opening. The pressure of a leak-free system will remain stable for at least 15 seconds.

11.5.3.2 Level and zero the manometers. Since the manometer level and zero may drift because of vibrations and temperature changes, periodically check the level and zero during the traverse.

11.5.3.3 Position the probe at the appropriate locations in the gas stream, and rotate until zero deflection is indicated for the yaw angle pressure gauge. Determine and record the yaw angle. Record the pressure gauge readings for the pitch angle, and determine the pitch angle from the calibration curve. Repeat this procedure for each traverse point. Complete a “back-purge” of the pressure lines and the impact openings prior to measurements of each traverse point.

11.5.3.4 A post-test check as described in section 11.5.3.1 is required. If the criteria for a leak-free system are not met, repair the equipment, and repeat the flow angle measurements.

11.5.4 Calibration. Use a flow system as described in sections 10.1.2.1 and 10.1.2.2 of Method 2. In addition, the flow system shall have the capacity to generate two test-section velocities: one between 365 and 730 m/min (1,200 and 2,400 ft/min) and one between 730 and 1,100 m/min (2,400 and 3,600 ft/min).

11.5.4.1 Cut two entry ports in the test section. The axes through the entry ports shall be perpendicular to each other and intersect in the centroid of the test section. The ports should be elongated slots parallel to the axis of the test section and of sufficient length to allow measurement of pitch angles while maintaining the pitot head position at the test-section centroid. To facilitate alignment of the directional probe during calibration, the test section should be constructed of plexiglass or some other transparent material. All calibration measurements should be made at the same point in the test section, preferably at the centroid of the test section.

11.5.4.2 To ensure that the gas flow is parallel to the central axis of the test section, follow the procedure outlined in section 11.4 for cyclonic flow determination to measure the gas flow angles at the centroid of the test section from two test ports located 90° apart. The gas flow angle measured in each port must be ±2° of 0°. Straightening vanes should be installed, if necessary, to meet this criterion.

11.5.4.3 Pitch Angle Calibration. Perform a calibration traverse according to the manufacturer's recommended protocol in 5° increments for angles from −60° to + 60° at one velocity in each of the two ranges specified above. Average the pressure ratio values obtained for each angle in the two flow ranges, and plot a calibration curve with the average values of the pressure ratio (or other suitable measurement factor as recommended by the manufacturer) versus the pitch angle. Draw a smooth line through the data points. Plot also the data values for each traverse point. Determine the differences between the measured data values and the angle from the calibration curve at the same pressure ratio. The difference at each comparison must be within 2° for angles between 0° and 40° and within 3° for angles between 40° and 60°.

11.5.4.4 Yaw Angle Calibration. Mark the three-dimensional probe to allow the determination of the yaw position of the probe. This is usually a line extending the length of the probe and aligned with the impact opening. To determine the accuracy of measurements of the yaw angle, only the zero or null position need be calibrated as follows: Place the directional probe in the test section, and rotate the probe until the zero position is found. With a protractor or other angle measuring device, measure the angle indicated by the yaw angle indicator on the three-dimensional probe. This should be within 2° of 0°. Repeat this measurement for any other points along the length of the pitot where yaw angle measurements could be read in order to account for variations in the pitot markings used to indicate pitot head positions.

12.0 Data Analysis and Calculations

12.1 Nomenclature.

L = length.
n = total number of traverse points.
Pi = pitch angle at traverse point i, degree.
Ravg = average resultant angle, degree.
Ri = resultant angle at traverse point i, degree.
Sd = standard deviation, degree.
W = width.
Yi = yaw angle at traverse point i, degree.

12.2 For a rectangular cross section, an equivalent diameter (De) shall be calculated using the following equation, to determine the upstream and downstream distances:

${D}_{e}=\frac{2\left(L\right)\left(W\right)}{L+W}\phantom{\rule{4em}{0ex}}\text{Eq. 1-1}$

12.3 If use of the alternative site selection procedure (Section 11.5 of this method) is required, perform the following calculations using the equations below: the resultant angle at each traverse point, the average resultant angle, and the standard deviation. Complete the calculations retaining at least one extra significant figure beyond that of the acquired data. Round the values after the final calculations.

12.3.1 Calculate the resultant angle at each traverse point:

12.3.2 Calculate the average resultant for the measurements:

${R}_{\mathrm{avg}}=\sum {R}_{i}/n\phantom{\rule{4em}{0ex}}\text{Eq. 1-3}$

12.3.3 Calculate the standard deviations:

12.3.4 Acceptability Criteria. The measurement location is acceptable if Ravg ≤20° and Sd ≤10°.

13.0 Method Performance [Reserved]
14.0 Pollution Prevention [Reserved]
15.0 Waste Management [Reserved]
16.0 References

1. Determining Dust Concentration in a Gas Stream, ASME Performance Test Code No. 27. New York. 1957.

2. DeVorkin, Howard, et al. Air Pollution Source Testing Manual. Air Pollution Control District. Los Angeles, CA. November 1963.

3. Methods for Determining of Velocity, Volume, Dust and Mist Content of Gases. Western Precipitation Division of Joy Manufacturing Co. Los Angeles, CA. Bulletin WP-50. 1968.

4. Standard Method for Sampling Stacks for Particulate Matter. In: 1971 Book of ASTM Standards, Part 23. ASTM Designation D 2928-71. Philadelphia, PA. 1971.

5. Hanson, H.A., et al. Particulate Sampling Strategies for Large Power Plants Including Nonuniform Flow. USEPA, ORD, ESRL, Research Triangle Park, NC. EPA-600/2-76-170. June 1976.

6. Entropy Environmentalists, Inc. Determination of the Optimum Number of Sampling Points: An Analysis of Method 1 Criteria. Environmental Protection Agency. Research Triangle Park, NC. EPA Contract No. 68-01-3172, Task 7.

7. Hanson, H.A., R.J. Davini, J.K. Morgan, and A.A. Iversen. Particulate Sampling Strategies for Large Power Plants Including Nonuniform Flow. USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC. Publication No. EPA-600/2-76-170. June 1976. 350 pp.

8. Brooks, E.F., and R.L. Williams. Flow and Gas Sampling Manual. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Research Triangle Park, NC. Publication No. EPA-600/2-76-203. July 1976. 93 pp.

9. Entropy Environmentalists, Inc. Traverse Point Study. EPA Contract No. 68-02-3172. June 1977. 19 pp.

10. Brown, J. and K. Yu. Test Report: Particulate Sampling Strategy in Circular Ducts. Emission Measurement Branch. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. July 31, 1980. 12 pp.

11. Hawksley, P.G.W., S. Badzioch, and J.H. Blackett. Measurement of Solids in Flue Gases. Leatherhead, England, The British Coal Utilisation Research Association. 1961. pp. 129-133.

12. Knapp, K.T. The Number of Sampling Points Needed for Representative Source Sampling. In: Proceedings of the Fourth National Conference on Energy and Environment. Theodore, L. et al. (ed). Dayton, Dayton section of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. October 3-7, 1976. pp. 563-568.

13. Smith, W.S. and D.J. Grove. A Proposed Extension of EPA Method 1 Criteria. Pollution Engineering. XV (8):36-37. August 1983.

14. Gerhart, P.M. and M.J. Dorsey. Investigation of Field Test Procedures for Large Fans. University of Akron. Akron, OH. (EPRI Contract CS-1651). Final Report (RP-1649-5). December 1980.

15. Smith, W.S. and D.J. Grove. A New Look at Isokinetic Sampling - Theory and Applications. Source Evaluation Society Newsletter. VIII (3):19-24. August 1983.

17.0 Tables, Diagrams, Flowcharts, and Validation Data

Table 1-1 Cross-Section Layout for Rectangular Stacks

Number of tranverse points layout Matrix
9 3 × 3
12 4 × 3
16 4 × 4
20 5 × 4
25 5 × 5
30 6 × 5
36 6 × 6
42 7 × 6
49 7 × 7

Table 1-2 - Location of Traverse Points in Circular Stacks

[Percent of stack diameter from inside wall to tranverse point]

Traverse
point
number on
a diameter
Number of traverse points on a diameter
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
1 14.6 6.7 4.4 3.2 2.6 2.1 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.1
2 85.4 25.0 14.6 10.5 8.2 6.7 5.7 4.9 4.4 3.9 3.5 3.2
3 75.0 29.6 19.4 14.6 11.8 9.9 8.5 7.5 6.7 6.0 5.5
4 93.3 70.4 32.3 22.6 17.7 14.6 12.5 10.9 9.7 8.7 7.9
5 85.4 67.7 34.2 25.0 20.1 16.9 14.6 12.9 11.6 10.5
6 95.6 80.6 65.8 35.6 26.9 22.0 18.8 16.5 14.6 13.2
7 89.5 77.4 64.4 36.6 28.3 23.6 20.4 18.0 16.1
8 96.8 85.4 75.0 63.4 37.5 29.6 25.0 21.8 19.4
9 91.8 82.3 73.1 62.5 38.2 30.6 26.2 23.0
10 97.4 88.2 79.9 71.7 61.8 38.8 31.5 27.2
11 93.3 85.4 78.0 70.4 61.2 39.3 32.3
12 97.9 90.1 83.1 76.4 69.4 60.7 39.8
13 94.3 87.5 81.2 75.0 68.5 60.2
14 98.2 91.5 85.4 79.6 73.8 67.7
15 95.1 89.1 83.5 78.2 72.8
16 98.4 92.5 87.1 82.0 77.0
17 95.6 90.3 85.4 80.6
18 98.6 93.3 88.4 83.9
19 96.1 91.3 86.8
20 98.7 94.0 89.5
21 96.5 92.1
22 98.9 94.5
23 96.8
24 99.9
Method 1A - Sample and Velocity Traverses for Stationary Sources With Small Stacks or Ducts
Note:

This method does not include all of the specifications (e.g., equipment and supplies) and procedures (e.g., sampling) essential to its performance. Some material is incorporated by reference from other methods in this part. Therefore, to obtain reliable results, persons using this method should have a thorough knowledge of at least the following additional test method: Method 1.

1.0 Scope and Application

1.1 Measured Parameters. The purpose of the method is to provide guidance for the selection of sampling ports and traverse points at which sampling for air pollutants will be performed pursuant to regulations set forth in this part.

1.2 Applicability. The applicability and principle of this method are identical to Method 1, except its applicability is limited to stacks or ducts. This method is applicable to flowing gas streams in ducts, stacks, and flues of less than about 0.30 meter (12 in.) in diameter, or 0.071 m 2 (113 in. 2) in cross-sectional area, but equal to or greater than about 0.10 meter (4 in.) in diameter, or 0.0081 m 2 (12.57 in. 2) in cross-sectional area. This method cannot be used when the flow is cyclonic or swirling.

1.3 Data Quality Objectives. Adherence to the requirements of this method will enhance the quality of the data obtained from air pollutant sampling methods.

2.0 Summary of Method

2.1 The method is designed to aid in the representative measurement of pollutant emissions and/or total volumetric flow rate from a stationary source. A measurement site or a pair of measurement sites where the effluent stream is flowing in a known direction is (are) selected. The cross-section of the stack is divided into a number of equal areas. Traverse points are then located within each of these equal areas.

2.2 In these small diameter stacks or ducts, the conventional Method 5 stack assembly (consisting of a Type S pitot tube attached to a sampling probe, equipped with a nozzle and thermocouple) blocks a significant portion of the cross-section of the duct and causes inaccurate measurements. Therefore, for particulate matter (PM) sampling in small stacks or ducts, the gas velocity is measured using a standard pitot tube downstream of the actual emission sampling site. The straight run of duct between the PM sampling and velocity measurement sites allows the flow profile, temporarily disturbed by the presence of the sampling probe, to redevelop and stabilize.

3.0 Definitions [Reserved]
4.0 Interferences [Reserved]
5.0 Safety

5.1 Disclaimer. This method may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This test method may not address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this test method to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to performing this test method.

6.0 Equipment and Supplies [Reserved]
7.0 Reagents and Standards [Reserved]
8.0 Sample Collection, Preservation, Storage, and Transport [Reserved]
9.0 Quality Control [Reserved]
10.0 Calibration and Standardization [Reserved]
11.0 Procedure

11.1 Selection of Measurement Site.

11.1.1 Particulate Measurements - Steady or Unsteady Flow. Select a particulate measurement site located preferably at least eight equivalent stack or duct diameters downstream and 10 equivalent diameters upstream from any flow disturbances such as bends, expansions, or contractions in the stack, or from a visible flame. Next, locate the velocity measurement site eight equivalent diameters downstream of the particulate measurement site (see Figure 1A-1). If such locations are not available, select an alternative particulate measurement location at least two equivalent stack or duct diameters downstream and two and one-half diameters upstream from any flow disturbance. Then, locate the velocity measurement site two equivalent diameters downstream from the particulate measurement site. (See section 12.2 of Method 1 for calculating equivalent diameters for a rectangular cross-section.)

11.1.2 PM Sampling (Steady Flow) or Velocity (Steady or Unsteady Flow) Measurements. For PM sampling when the volumetric flow rate in a duct is constant with respect to time, section 11.1.1 of Method 1 may be followed, with the PM sampling and velocity measurement performed at one location. To demonstrate that the flow rate is constant (within 10 percent) when PM measurements are made, perform complete velocity traverses before and after the PM sampling run, and calculate the deviation of the flow rate derived after the PM sampling run from the one derived before the PM sampling run. The PM sampling run is acceptable if the deviation does not exceed 10 percent.

11.2 Determining the Number of Traverse Points.

11.2.1 Particulate Measurements (Steady or Unsteady Flow). Use Figure 1-1 of Method 1 to determine the number of traverse points to use at both the velocity measurement and PM sampling locations. Before referring to the figure, however, determine the distances between both the velocity measurement and PM sampling sites to the nearest upstream and downstream disturbances. Then divide each distance by the stack diameter or equivalent diameter to express the distances in terms of the number of duct diameters. Then, determine the number of traverse points from Figure 1-1 of Method 1 corresponding to each of these four distances. Choose the highest of the four numbers of traverse points (or a greater number) so that, for circular ducts the number is a multiple of four; and for rectangular ducts, the number is one of those shown in Table 1-1 of Method 1. When the optimum duct diameter location criteria can be satisfied, the minimum number of traverse points required is eight for circular ducts and nine for rectangular ducts.

11.2.2 PM Sampling (Steady Flow) or only Velocity (Non-Particulate) Measurements. Use Figure 1-2 of Method 1 to determine number of traverse points, following the same procedure used for PM sampling as described in section 11.2.1 of Method 1. When the optimum duct diameter location criteria can be satisfied, the minimum number of traverse points required is eight for circular ducts and nine for rectangular ducts.

11.3 Cross-sectional Layout, Location of Traverse Points, and Verification of the Absence of Cyclonic Flow. Same as Method 1, sections 11.3 and 11.4, respectively.

12.0 Data Analysis and Calculations [Reserved]
13.0 Method Performance [Reserved]
14.0 Pollution Prevention [Reserved]
15.0 Waste Management [Reserved]
16.0 References

Same as Method 1, section 16.0, References 1 through 6, with the addition of the following:

1. Vollaro, Robert F. Recommended Procedure for Sample Traverses in Ducts Smaller Than 12 Inches in Diameter. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Emission Measurement Branch, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. January 1977.

17.0 Tables, Diagrams, Flowcharts, and Validation Data
Method 2 - Determination of Stack Gas Velocity and Volumetric Flow Rate (Type S Pitot Tube)
Note:

This method does not include all of the specifications (e.g., equipment and supplies) and procedures (e.g., sampling) essential to its performance. Some material is incorporated by reference from other methods in this part. Therefore, to obtain reliable results, persons using this method should have a thorough knowledge of at least the following additional test method: Method 1.

1.0 Scope and Application.

1.1 This method is applicable for the determination of the average velocity and the volumetric flow rate of a gas stream.

1.2 This method is not applicable at measurement sites that fail to meet the criteria of Method 1, section 11.1. Also, the method cannot be used for direct measurement in cyclonic or swirling gas streams; section 11.4 of Method 1 shows how to determine cyclonic or swirling flow conditions. When unacceptable conditions exist, alternative procedures, subject to the approval of the Administrator, must be employed to produce accurate flow rate determinations. Examples of such alternative procedures are: (1) to install straightening vanes; (2) to calculate the total volumetric flow rate stoichiometrically, or (3) to move to another measurement site at which the flow is acceptable.

1.3 Data Quality Objectives. Adherence to the requirements of this method will enhance the quality of the data obtained from air pollutant sampling methods.

2.0 Summary of Method.

2.1 The average gas velocity in a stack is determined from the gas density and from measurement of the average velocity head with a Type S (Stausscheibe or reverse type) pitot tube.

3.0 Definitions [Reserved]
4.0 Interferences [Reserved]
5.0 Safety

5.1 Disclaimer. This method may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This test method may not address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this test method to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to performing this test method.

6.0 Equipment and Supplies

Specifications for the apparatus are given below. Any other apparatus that has been demonstrated (subject to approval of the Administrator) to be capable of meeting the specifications will be considered acceptable.

6.1 Type S Pitot Tube.

6.1.1 Pitot tube made of metal tubing (e.g., stainless steel) as shown in Figure 2-1. It is recommended that the external tubing diameter (dimension Dt, Figure 2-2b) be between 0.48 and 0.95 cm ( 3/16 and 3/8 inch). There shall be an equal distance from the base of each leg of the pitot tube to its face-opening plane (dimensions PA and PB, Figure 2-2b); it is recommended that this distance be between 1.05 and 1.50 times the external tubing diameter. The face openings of the pitot tube shall, preferably, be aligned as shown in Figure 2-2; however, slight misalignments of the openings are permissible (see Figure 2-3).

6.1.2 The Type S pitot tube shall have a known coefficient, determined as outlined in section 10.0. An identification number shall be assigned to the pitot tube; this number shall be permanently marked or engraved on the body of the tube. A standard pitot tube may be used instead of a Type S, provided that it meets the specifications of sections 6.7 and 10.2. Note, however, that the static and impact pressure holes of standard pitot tubes are susceptible to plugging in particulate-laden gas streams. Therefore, whenever a standard pitot tube is used to perform a traverse, adequate proof must be furnished that the openings of the pitot tube have not plugged up during the traverse period. This can be accomplished by comparing the velocity head (Δp) measurement recorded at a selected traverse point (readable Δp value) with a second Δp measurement recorded after “back purging” with pressurized air to clean the impact and static holes of the standard pitot tube. If the before and after Δp measurements are within 5 percent, then the traverse data are acceptable. Otherwise, the data should be rejected and the traverse measurements redone. Note that the selected traverse point should be one that demonstrates a readable Δp value. If “back purging” at regular intervals is part of a routine procedure, then comparative Δp measurements shall be conducted as above for the last two traverse points that exhibit suitable Δp measurements.

6.2 Differential Pressure Gauge. An inclined manometer or equivalent device. Most sampling trains are equipped with a 10 in. (water column) inclined-vertical manometer, having 0.01 in. H20 divisions on the 0 to 1 in. inclined scale, and 0.1 in. H20 divisions on the 1 to 10 in. vertical scale. This type of manometer (or other gauge of equivalent sensitivity) is satisfactory for the measurement of Δp values as low as 1.27 mm (0.05 in.) H20. However, a differential pressure gauge of greater sensitivity shall be used (subject to the approval of the Administrator), if any of the following is found to be true: (1) the arithmetic average of all Δp readings at the traverse points in the stack is less than 1.27 mm (0.05 in.) H20; (2) for traverses of 12 or more points, more than 10 percent of the individual Δp readings are below 1.27 mm (0.05 in.) H20; or (3) for traverses of fewer than 12 points, more than one Δp reading is below 1.27 mm (0.05 in.) H20. Reference 18 (see section 17.0) describes commercially available instrumentation for the measurement of low-range gas velocities.

6.2.1 As an alternative to criteria (1) through (3) above, Equation 2-1 (Section 12.2) may be used to determine the necessity of using a more sensitive differential pressure gauge. If T is greater than 1.05, the velocity head data are unacceptable and a more sensitive differential pressure gauge must be used.

Note:

If differential pressure gauges other than inclined manometers are used (e.g., magnehelic gauges), their calibration must be checked after each test series. To check the calibration of a differential pressure gauge, compare Δp readings of the gauge with those of a gauge-oil manometer at a minimum of three points, approximately representing the range of Δp values in the stack. If, at each point, the values of Δp as read by the differential pressure gauge and gauge-oil manometer agree to within 5 percent, the differential pressure gauge shall be considered to be in proper calibration. Otherwise, the test series shall either be voided, or procedures to adjust the measured Δp values and final results shall be used, subject to the approval of the Administrator.

6.3 Temperature Sensor. A thermocouple, liquid-filled bulb thermometer, bimetallic thermometer, mercury-in-glass thermometer, or other gauge capable of measuring temperatures to within 1.5 percent of the minimum absolute stack temperature. The temperature sensor shall be attached to the pitot tube such that the sensor tip does not touch any metal; the gauge shall be in an interference-free arrangement with respect to the pitot tube face openings (see Figure 2-1 and Figure 2-4). Alternative positions may be used if the pitot tube-temperature gauge system is calibrated according to the procedure of section 10.0. Provided that a difference of not more than 1 percent in the average velocity measurement is introduced, the temperature gauge need not be attached to the pitot tube. This alternative is subject to the approval of the Administrator.

6.4 Pressure Probe and Gauge. A piezometer tube and mercury- or water-filled U-tube manometer capable of measuring stack pressure to within 2.5 mm (0.1 in.) Hg. The static tap of a standard type pitot tube or one leg of a Type S pitot tube with the face opening planes positioned parallel to the gas flow may also be used as the pressure probe.

6.5 Barometer. A mercury, aneroid, or other barometer capable of measuring atmospheric pressure to within 2.54 mm (0.1 in.) Hg.

Note:

The barometric pressure reading may be obtained from a nearby National Weather Service station. In this case, the station value (which is the absolute barometric pressure) shall be requested and an adjustment for elevation differences between the weather station and sampling point shall be made at a rate of minus 2.5 mm (0.1 in.) Hg per 30 m (100 ft) elevation increase or plus 2.5 mm (0.1 in.) Hg per 30 m (100 ft.) for elevation decrease.

6.6 Gas Density Determination Equipment. Method 3 equipment, if needed (see section 8.6), to determine the stack gas dry molecular weight, and Method 4 (reference method) or Method 5 equipment for moisture content determination. Other methods may be used subject to approval of the Administrator.

6.7 Calibration Pitot Tube. Calibration of the Type S pitot tube requires a standard pitot tube for a reference. When calibration of the Type S pitot tube is necessary (see Section 10.1), a standard pitot tube shall be used for a reference. The standard pitot tube shall, preferably, have a known coefficient, obtained directly from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899, (301) 975-2002; or by calibration against another standard pitot tube with a NIST-traceable coefficient. Alternatively, a standard pitot tube designed according to the criteria given in sections 6.7.1 through 6.7.5 below and illustrated in Figure 2-5 (see also References 7, 8, and 17 in section 17.0) may be used. Pitot tubes designed according to these specifications will have baseline coefficients of 0.99 ±0.01.

6.7.1 Standard Pitot Design.

6.7.1.1 Hemispherical (shown in Figure 2-5), ellipsoidal, or conical tip.

6.7.1.2 A minimum of six diameters straight run (based upon D, the external diameter of the tube) between the tip and the static pressure holes.

6.7.1.3 A minimum of eight diameters straight run between the static pressure holes and the centerline of the external tube, following the 90° bend.

6.7.1.4 Static pressure holes of equal size (approximately 0.1 D), equally spaced in a piezometer ring configuration.

6.7.1.5 90° bend, with curved or mitered junction.

6.8 Differential Pressure Gauge for Type S Pitot Tube Calibration. An inclined manometer or equivalent. If the single-velocity calibration technique is employed (see section 10.1.2.3), the calibration differential pressure gauge shall be readable to the nearest 0.127 mm (0.005 in.) H20. For multivelocity calibrations, the gauge shall be readable to the nearest 0.127 mm (0.005 in.) H20 for Δp values between 1.27 and 25.4 mm (0.05 and 1.00 in.) H20, and to the nearest 1.27 mm (0.05 in.) H20 for Δp values above 25.4 mm (1.00 in.) H20. A special, more sensitive gauge will be required to read Δp values below 1.27 mm (0.05 in.) H20 (see Reference 18 in section 16.0).

7.0 Reagents and Standards [Reserved]
8.0 Sample Collection and Analysis

8.1 Set up the apparatus as shown in Figure 2-1. Capillary tubing or surge tanks installed between the manometer and pitot tube may be used to dampen ΔP fluctuations. It is recommended, but not required, that a pretest leak-check be conducted as follows: (1) blow through the pitot impact opening until at least 7.6 cm (3.0 in.) H2O velocity head registers on the manometer; then, close off the impact opening. The pressure shall remain stable (±2.5 mm H2O, ±0.10 in. H2O) for at least 15 seconds; (2) do the same for the static pressure side, except using suction to obtain the minimum of 7.6 cm (3.0 in.) H2O. Other leak-check procedures, subject to the approval of the Administrator, may be used.

8.2 Level and zero the manometer. Because the manometer level and zero may drift due to vibrations and temperature changes, make periodic checks during the traverse (at least once per hour). Record all necessary data on a form similar to that shown in Figure 2-6.

8.3 Measure the velocity head and temperature at the traverse points specified by Method 1. Ensure that the proper differential pressure gauge is being used for the range of Δp values encountered (see section 6.2). If it is necessary to change to a more sensitive gauge, do so, and remeasure the Δp and temperature readings at each traverse point. Conduct a post-test leak-check (mandatory), as described in section 8.1 above, to validate the traverse run.

8.4 Measure the static pressure in the stack. One reading is usually adequate.

8.5 Determine the atmospheric pressure.

8.6 Determine the stack gas dry molecular weight. For combustion processes or processes that emit essentially CO2, O2, CO, and N2, use Method 3. For processes emitting essentially air, an analysis need not be conducted; use a dry molecular weight of 29.0. For other processes, other methods, subject to the approval of the Administrator, must be used.

8.7 Obtain the moisture content from Method 4 (reference method, or equivalent) or from Method 5.

8.8 Determine the cross-sectional area of the stack or duct at the sampling location. Whenever possible, physically measure the stack dimensions rather than using blueprints. Do not assume that stack diameters are equal. Measure each diameter distance to verify its dimensions.

9.0 Quality Control
Section Quality control measure Effect
10.1-10.4 Sampling equipment calibration Ensure accurate measurement of stack gas flow rate, sample volume.
10.0 Calibration and Standardization

10.1 Type S Pitot Tube. Before its initial use, carefully examine the Type S pitot tube top, side, and end views to verify that the face openings of the tube are aligned within the specifications illustrated in Figures 2-2 and 2-3. The pitot tube shall not be used if it fails to meet these alignment specifications. After verifying the face opening alignment, measure and record the following dimensions of the pitot tube: (a) the external tubing diameter (dimension Dt, Figure 2-2b); and (b) the base-to-opening plane distances (dimensions PA and PB, Figure 2-2b). If Dt is between 0.48 and 0.95 cm 3/16 and 3/8 in.), and if PA and PB are equal and between 1.05 and 1.50 Dt, there are two possible options: (1) the pitot tube may be calibrated according to the procedure outlined in sections 10.1.2 through 10.1.5, or (2) a baseline (isolated tube) coefficient value of 0.84 may be assigned to the pitot tube. Note, however, that if the pitot tube is part of an assembly, calibration may still be required, despite knowledge of the baseline coefficient value (see section 10.1.1). If Dt, PA, and PB are outside the specified limits, the pitot tube must be calibrated as outlined in sections 10.1.2 through 10.1.5.

10.1.1 Type S Pitot Tube Assemblies. During sample and velocity traverses, the isolated Type S pitot tube is not always used; in many instances, the pitot tube is used in combination with other source-sampling components (e.g., thermocouple, sampling probe, nozzle) as part of an “assembly.” The presence of other sampling components can sometimes affect the baseline value of the Type S pitot tube coefficient (Reference 9 in section 17.0); therefore, an assigned (or otherwise known) baseline coefficient value may or may not be valid for a given assembly. The baseline and assembly coefficient values will be identical only when the relative placement of the components in the assembly is such that aerodynamic interference effects are eliminated. Figures 2-4, 2-7, and 2-8 illustrate interference-free component arrangements for Type S pitot tubes having external tubing diameters between 0.48 and 0.95 cm ( 3/16 and 3/8 in.). Type S pitot tube assemblies that fail to meet any or all of the specifications of Figures 2-4, 2-7, and 2-8 shall be calibrated according to the procedure outlined in sections 10.1.2 through 10.1.5, and prior to calibration, the values of the intercomponent spacings (pitot-nozzle, pitot-thermocouple, pitot-probe sheath) shall be measured and recorded.

Note:

Do not use a Type S pitot tube assembly that is constructed such that the impact pressure opening plane of the pitot tube is below the entry plane of the nozzle (see Figure 2-7B).

10.1.2 Calibration Setup. If the Type S pitot tube is to be calibrated, one leg of the tube shall be permanently marked A, and the other, B. Calibration shall be performed in a flow system having the following essential design features:

10.1.2.1 The flowing gas stream must be confined to a duct of definite cross-sectional area, either circular or rectangular. For circular cross sections, the minimum duct diameter shall be 30.48 cm (12 in.); for rectangular cross sections, the width (shorter side) shall be at least 25.4 cm (10 in.).

10.1.2.2 The cross-sectional area of the calibration duct must be constant over a distance of 10 or more duct diameters. For a rectangular cross section, use an equivalent diameter, calculated according to Equation 2-2 (see section 12.3), to determine the number of duct diameters. To ensure the presence of stable, fully developed flow patterns at the calibration site, or “test section,” the site must be located at least eight diameters downstream and two diameters upstream from the nearest disturbances.

Note:

The eight- and two-diameter criteria are not absolute; other test section locations may be used (subject to approval of the Administrator), provided that the flow at the test site has been demonstrated to be or found stable and parallel to the duct axis.

10.1.2.3 The flow system shall have the capacity to generate a test-section velocity around 910 m/min (3,000 ft/min). This velocity must be constant with time to guarantee constant and steady flow during the entire period of calibration. A centrifugal fan is recommended for this purpose, as no flow rate adjustment for back pressure of the fan is allowed during the calibration process. Note that Type S pitot tube coefficients obtained by single-velocity calibration at 910 m/min (3,000 ft/min) will generally be valid to ±3 percent for the measurement of velocities above 300 m/min (1,000 ft/min) and to ±6 percent for the measurement of velocities between 180 and 300 m/min (600 and 1,000 ft/min). If a more precise correlation between the pitot tube coefficient (Cp) and velocity is desired, the flow system should have the capacity to generate at least four distinct, time-invariant test-section velocities covering the velocity range from 180 to 1,500 m/min (600 to 5,000 ft/min), and calibration data shall be taken at regular velocity intervals over this range (see References 9 and 14 in section 17.0 for details).

10.1.2.4 Two entry ports, one for each of the standard and Type S pitot tubes, shall be cut in the test section. The standard pitot entry port shall be located slightly downstream of the Type S port, so that the standard and Type S impact openings will lie in the same cross-sectional plane during calibration. To facilitate alignment of the pitot tubes during calibration, it is advisable that the test section be constructed of Plexiglas TM or some other transparent material.

10.1.3 Calibration Procedure. Note that this procedure is a general one and must not be used without first referring to the special considerations presented in section 10.1.5. Note also that this procedure applies only to single-velocity calibration. To obtain calibration data for the A and B sides of the Type S pitot tube, proceed as follows:

10.1.3.1 Make sure that the manometer is properly filled and that the oil is free from contamination and is of the proper density. Inspect and leak-check all pitot lines; repair or replace if necessary.

10.1.3.2 Level and zero the manometer. Switch on the fan, and allow the flow to stabilize. Seal the Type S pitot tube entry port.

10.1.3.3 Ensure that the manometer is level and zeroed. Position the standard pitot tube at the calibration point (determined as outlined in section 10.1.5.1), and align the tube so that its tip is pointed directly into the flow. Particular care should be taken in aligning the tube to avoid yaw and pitch angles. Make sure that the entry port surrounding the tube is properly sealed.

10.1.3.4 Read Δpstd, and record its value in a data table similar to the one shown in Figure 2-9. Remove the standard pitot tube from the duct, and disconnect it from the manometer. Seal the standard entry port. Make no adjustment to the fan speed or other wind tunnel volumetric flow control device between this reading and the corresponding Type S pitot reading.

10.1.3.5 Connect the Type S pitot tube to the manometer and leak-check. Open the Type S tube entry port. Check the manometer level and zero. Insert and align the Type S pitot tube so that its A side impact opening is at the same point as was the standard pitot tube and is pointed directly into the flow. Make sure that the entry port surrounding the tube is properly sealed.

10.1.3.6 Read Δps, and enter its value in the data table. Remove the Type S pitot tube from the duct, and disconnect it from the manometer.

10.1.3.7 Repeat Steps 10.1.3.3 through 10.1.3.6 until three pairs of Δp readings have been obtained for the A side of the Type S pitot tube, with all the paired observations conducted at a constant fan speed (no changes to fan velocity between observed readings).

10.1.3.8 Repeat Steps 10.1.3.3 through 10.1.3.7 for the B side of the Type S pitot tube.

10.1.3.9 Perform calculations as described in section 12.4. Use the Type S pitot tube only if the values of σA and σB are less than or equal to 0.01 and if the absolute value of the difference between C

p(A) and C
p(B) is 0.01 or less.

10.1.4 Special Considerations.

10.1.4.1 Selection of Calibration Point.

10.1.4.1.1 When an isolated Type S pitot tube is calibrated, select a calibration point at or near the center of the duct, and follow the procedures outlined in section 10.1.3. The Type S pitot coefficients measured or calculated, (i.e., C

p(A) and C
p(B)) will be valid, so long as either: (1) the isolated pitot tube is used; or (2) the pitot tube is used with other components (nozzle, thermocouple, sample probe) in an arrangement that is free from aerodynamic interference effects (see Figures 2-4, 2-7, and 2-8).

10.1.4.1.2 For Type S pitot tube-thermocouple combinations (without probe assembly), select a calibration point at or near the center of the duct, and follow the procedures outlined in section 10.1.3. The coefficients so obtained will be valid so long as the pitot tube-thermocouple combination is used by itself or with other components in an interference-free arrangement (Figures 2-4, 2-7, and 2-8).

10.1.4.1.3 For Type S pitot tube combinations with complete probe assemblies, the calibration point should be located at or near the center of the duct; however, insertion of a probe sheath into a small duct may cause significant cross-sectional area interference and blockage and yield incorrect coefficient values (Reference 9 in section 17.0). Therefore, to minimize the blockage effect, the calibration point may be a few inches off-center if necessary, but no closer to the outer wall of the wind tunnel than 4 inches. The maximum allowable blockage, as determined by a projected-area model of the probe sheath, is 2 percent or less of the duct cross-sectional area (Figure 2-10a). If the pitot and/or probe assembly blocks more than 2 percent of the cross-sectional area at an insertion point only 4 inches inside the wind tunnel, the diameter of the wind tunnel must be increased.

10.1.4.2 For those probe assemblies in which pitot tube-nozzle interference is a factor (i.e., those in which the pitot-nozzle separation distance fails to meet the specifications illustrated in Figure 2-7A), the value of Cp(s) depends upon the amount of free space between the tube and nozzle and, therefore, is a function of nozzle size. In these instances, separate calibrations shall be performed with each of the commonly used nozzle sizes in place. Note that the single-velocity calibration technique is acceptable for this purpose, even though the larger nozzle sizes (>0.635 cm or 1/4 in.) are not ordinarily used for isokinetic sampling at velocities around 910 m/min (3,000 ft/min), which is the calibration velocity. Note also that it is not necessary to draw an isokinetic sample during calibration (see Reference 19 in section 17.0).

10.1.4.3 For a probe assembly constructed such that its pitot tube is always used in the same orientation, only one side of the pitot tube needs to be calibrated (the side which will face the flow). The pitot tube must still meet the alignment specifications of Figure 2-2 or 2-3, however, and must have an average deviation (σ) value of 0.01 or less (see section 12.4.4).

10.1.5 Field Use and Recalibration.

10.1.5.1 Field Use.

10.1.5.1.1 When a Type S pitot tube (isolated or in an assembly) is used in the field, the appropriate coefficient value (whether assigned or obtained by calibration) shall be used to perform velocity calculations. For calibrated Type S pitot tubes, the A side coefficient shall be used when the A side of the tube faces the flow, and the B side coefficient shall be used when the B side faces the flow. Alternatively, the arithmetic average of the A and B side coefficient values may be used, irrespective of which side faces the flow.

10.1.5.1.2 When a probe assembly is used to sample a small duct, 30.5 to 91.4 cm (12 to 36 in.) in diameter, the probe sheath sometimes blocks a significant part of the duct cross-section, causing a reduction in the effective value of Cp(s). Consult Reference 9 (see section 17.0) for details. Conventional pitot-sampling probe assemblies are not recommended for use in ducts having inside diameters smaller than 30.5 cm (12 in.) (see Reference 16 in section 17.0).

10.1.5.2 Recalibration.

10.1.5.2.1 Isolated Pitot Tubes. After each field use, the pitot tube shall be carefully reexamined in top, side, and end views. If the pitot face openings are still aligned within the specifications illustrated in Figure 2-2 and Figure 2-3, it can be assumed that the baseline coefficient of the pitot tube has not changed. If, however, the tube has been damaged to the extent that it no longer meets the specifications of Figure 2-2 and Figure 2-3, the damage shall either be repaired to restore proper alignment of the face openings, or the tube shall be discarded.

10.1.5.2.2 Pitot Tube Assemblies. After each field use, check the face opening alignment of the pitot tube, as in section 10.1.5.2.1. Also, remeasure the intercomponent spacings of the assembly. If the intercomponent spacings have not changed and the face opening alignment is acceptable, it can be assumed that the coefficient of the assembly has not changed. If the face opening alignment is no longer within the specifications of Figure 2-2 and Figure 2-3, either repair the damage or replace the pitot tube (calibrating the new assembly, if necessary). If the intercomponent spacings have changed, restore the original spacings, or recalibrate the assembly.

10.2 Standard Pitot Tube (if applicable). If a standard pitot tube is used for the velocity traverse, the tube shall be constructed according to the criteria of section 6.7 and shall be assigned a baseline coefficient value of 0.99. If the standard pitot tube is used as part of an assembly, the tube shall be in an interference-free arrangement (subject to the approval of the Administrator).

10.3 Temperature Sensors.

10.3.1 After each field use, calibrate dial thermometers, liquid-filled bulb thermometers, thermocouple-potentiometer systems, and other sensors at a temperature within 10 percent of the average absolute stack temperature. For temperatures up to 405 °C (761 °F), use an ASTM mercury-in-glass reference thermometer, or equivalent, as a reference. Alternatively, either a reference thermocouple and potentiometer (calibrated against NIST standards) or thermometric fixed points (e.g., ice bath and boiling water, corrected for barometric pressure) may be used. For temperatures above 405 °C (761 °F), use a reference thermocouple-potentiometer system calibrated against NIST standards or an alternative reference, subject to the approval of the Administrator.

10.3.2 The temperature data recorded in the field shall be considered valid. If, during calibration, the absolute temperature measured with the sensor being calibrated and the reference sensor agree within 1.5 percent, the temperature data taken in the field shall be considered valid. Otherwise, the pollutant emission test shall either be considered invalid or adjustments (if appropriate) of the test results shall be made, subject to the approval of the Administrator.

10.4 Barometer. Calibrate the barometer used against a mercury barometer or NIST-traceable barometer prior to each field test.

11.0 Analytical Procedure

Sample collection and analysis are concurrent for this method (see section 8.0).

12.0 Data Analysis and Calculations

Carry out calculations, retaining at least one extra significant figure beyond that of the acquired data. Round off figures after final calculation.

12.1 Nomenclature.

A = Cross-sectional area of stack, m 2 (ft 2).
Bws = Water vapor in the gas stream (from Method 4 (reference method) or Method 5), proportion by volume.
Cp = Pitot tube coefficient, dimensionless.
Cp(s) = Type S pitot tube coefficient, dimensionless.
Cp(std) = Standard pitot tube coefficient; use 0.99 if the coefficient is unknown and the tube is designed according to the criteria of sections 6.7.1 to 6.7.5 of this method.
De = Equivalent diameter.
K = 0.127 mm H2O (metric units). 0.005 in. H2O (English units).
Kp = Velocity equation constant.
L = Length.
Md = Molecular weight of stack gas, dry basis (see section 8.6), g/g-mole (lb/lb-mole).
Ms = Molecular weight of stack gas, wet basis, g/g-mole (lb/lb-mole).
n = Total number of traverse points.
Pbar = Barometric pressure at measurement site, mm Hg (in. Hg).
Pg = Stack static pressure, mm Hg (in. Hg).
Ps = Absolute stack pressure (Pbar + Pg), mm Hg (in. Hg),
Pstd = Standard absolute pressure, 760 mm Hg (29.92 in. Hg).
Qsd = Dry volumetric stack gas flow rate corrected to standard conditions, dscm/hr (dscf/hr).
T = Sensitivity factor for differential pressure gauges.
Ts(abavg) = Average absolute stack temperature, °K (°R).
= 273 + Ts for metric units,
= 460 + Ts for English units.
Ts = Stack temperature, °C (°F).
= 273 + Ts for metric units,
= 460 + Ts for English units.
Tstd = Standard absolute temperature, 293 °K (528 °R).
Vs = Average stack gas velocity, m/sec (ft/sec).
W = Width.
Δp = Velocity head of stack gas, mm H2O (in. H20).
Δpi = Individual velocity head reading at traverse point “i”, mm (in.) H2O.
Δpstd = Velocity head measured by the standard pitot tube, cm (in.) H2O.
Δps = Velocity head measured by the Type S pitot tube, cm (in.) H2O.
3600 = Conversion Factor, sec/hr.
18.0 = Molecular weight of water, g/g-mole (lb/lb-mole).

12.2 Calculate T as follows:



12.3 Calculate De as follows:


${D}_{e}=\frac{2\mathrm{LW}}{L+W}\phantom{\rule{4em}{0ex}}\text{Eq. 2-2}$

12.4 Calibration of Type S Pitot Tube.

12.4.1 For each of the six pairs of Δp readings (i.e., three from side A and three from side B) obtained in section 10.1.3, calculate the value of the Type S pitot tube coefficient according to Equation 2-3:



12.4.2 Calculate C

p(A), the mean A-side coefficient, and C
p(B), the mean B-side coefficient. Calculate the difference between these two average values.

12.4.3 Calculate the deviation of each of the three A-side values of Cp(s) from C

p(A), and the deviation of each of the three B-side values of Cp(s) from C
p(B), using Equation 2-4:



12.4.4 Calculate σ the average deviation from the mean, for both the A and B sides of the pitot tube. Use Equation 2-5:



12.5 Molecular Weight of Stack Gas.



12.6 Average Stack Gas Velocity.

12.7 Average Stack Gas Dry Volumetric Flow Rate.

13.0 Method Performance [Reserved]
14.0 Pollution Prevention [Reserved]
15.0 Waste Management [Reserved]
16.0 References

1. Mark, L.S. Mechanical Engineers' Handbook. New York. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. 1951.

2. Perry, J.H., ed. Chemical Engineers' Handbook. New York. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. 1960.

3. Shigehara, R.T., W.F. Todd, and W.S. Smith. Significance of Errors in Stack Sampling Measurements. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. (Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association, St. Louis, MO., June 14-19, 1970).

4. Standard Method for Sampling Stacks for Particulate Matter. In: 1971 Book of ASTM Standards, Part 23. Philadelphia, PA. 1971. ASTM Designation D 2928-71.

5. Vennard, J.K. Elementary Fluid Mechanics. New York. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1947.

6. Fluid Meters - Their Theory and Application. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, N.Y. 1959.

7. ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals. 1972. p. 208.

8. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 26. 1974. p. 648.

9. Vollaro, R.F. Guidelines for Type S Pitot Tube Calibration. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. (Presented at 1st Annual Meeting, Source Evaluation Society, Dayton, OH, September 18, 1975.)

10. Vollaro, R.F. A Type S Pitot Tube Calibration Study. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Emission Measurement Branch, Research Triangle Park, N.C. July 1974.

11. Vollaro, R.F. The Effects of Impact Opening Misalignment on the Value of the Type S Pitot Tube Coefficient. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Emission Measurement Branch, Research Triangle Park, NC. October 1976.

12. Vollaro, R.F. Establishment of a Baseline Coefficient Value for Properly Constructed Type S Pitot Tubes. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Emission Measurement Branch, Research Triangle Park, NC. November 1976.

13. Vollaro, R.F. An Evaluation of Single-Velocity Calibration Technique as a Means of Determining Type S Pitot Tube Coefficients. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Emission Measurement Branch, Research Triangle Park, NC. August 1975.

14. Vollaro, R.F. The Use of Type S Pitot Tubes for the Measurement of Low Velocities. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Emission Measurement Branch, Research Triangle Park, NC. November 1976.

15. Smith, Marvin L. Velocity Calibration of EPA Type Source Sampling Probe. United Technologies Corporation, Pratt and Whitney Aircraft Division, East Hartford, CT. 1975.

16. Vollaro, R.F. Recommended Procedure for Sample Traverses in Ducts Smaller than 12 Inches in Diameter. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Emission Measurement Branch, Research Triangle Park, NC. November 1976.

17. Ower, E. and R.C. Pankhurst. The Measurement of Air Flow, 4th Ed. London, Pergamon Press. 1966.

18. Vollaro, R.F. A Survey of Commercially Available Instrumentation for the Measurement of Low-Range Gas Velocities. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Emission Measurement Branch, Research Triangle Park, NC. November 1976. (Unpublished Paper).

19. Gnyp, A.W., et al. An Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Pitot Tube-Sampling Probe Configurations on the Magnitude of the S Type Pitot Tube Coefficient for Commercially Available Source Sampling Probes. Prepared by the University of Windsor for the Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, Canada. February 1975.

17.0 Tables, Diagrams, Flowcharts, and Validation Data
PLANT
DATE
RUN NO.
STACK DIA. OR DIMENSIONS, m (in.)
BAROMETRIC PRESS., mm Hg (in. Hg)
CROSS SECTIONAL AREA, m 2 (ft 2)
OPERATORS
PITOT TUBE I.D. NO.
AVG. COEFFICIENT, Cp =
LAST DATE CALIBRATED
SCHEMATIC OF STACK CROSS SECTION
Traverse
Pt. No.
Vel. Hd.,
Δp
mm (in.)
H2O
Stack
temperature
Pg
mm Hg
(in. Hg)
(Δp) 1/2
Ts,
°C ( °F)
Ts,
°K (°R)
Average(1)
Figure 2-6. Velocity Traverse Data
PITOT TUBE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER:
DATE:
CALIBRATED BY:

“A” Side Calibration

Run No. ΔPstd
cm H2O
(in H2O)
ΔP(s)
cm H2O
(in H2O)
Cp(s) Deviation
Cp(s) - Cp(A)
1
2
3
Cp, avg
(SIDE A)

“B” Side Calibration

Run No. ΔPstd
cm H2O
(in H2O)
ΔP(s)
cm H2O
(in H2O)
Cp(s) Deviation
Cp(s) - Cp(B)
1
2
3
Cp, avg
(SIDE B)
[Cp, avg (side A) - Cp, avg (side B)]*

*Must be less than or equal to 0.01

Figure 2-9. Pitot Tube Calibration Data
Method 2A - Direct Measurement of Gas Volume Through Pipes and Small Ducts
Note:

This method does not include all of the specifications (e.g., equipment and supplies) and procedures (e.g., sampling) essential to its performance. Some material is incorporated by reference from other methods in this part. Therefore, to obtain reliable results, persons using this method should have a thorough knowledge of at least the following additional test methods: Method 1, Method 2.

1.0 Scope and Application

1.1 This method is applicable for the determination of gas flow rates in pipes and small ducts, either in-line or at exhaust positions, within the temperature range of 0 to 50 °C (32 to 122 °F).

1.2 Data Quality Objectives. Adherence to the requirements of this method will enhance the quality of the data obtained from air pollutant sampling methods.

2.0 Summary of Method

2.1 A gas volume meter is used to measure gas volume directly. Temperature and pressure measurements are made to allow correction of the volume to standard conditions.

3.0 Definitions [Reserved]
4.0 Interferences [Reserved]
5.0 Safety

5.1 Disclaimer. This method may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This test method may not address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this test method to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to performing this test method.

6.0 Equipment and Supplies

Specifications for the apparatus are given below. Any other apparatus that has been demonstrated (subject to approval of the Administrator) to be capable of meeting the specifications will be considered acceptable.

6.1 Gas Volume Meter. A positive displacement meter, turbine meter, or other direct measuring device capable of measuring volume to within 2 percent. The meter shall be equipped with a temperature sensor (accurate to within ±2 percent of the minimum absolute temperature) and a pressure gauge (accurate to within ±2.5 mm Hg). The manufacturer's recommended capacity of the meter shall be sufficient for the expected maximum and minimum flow rates for the sampling conditions. Temperature, pressure, corrosive characteristics, and pipe size are factors necessary to consider in selecting a suitable gas meter.

6.2 Barometer. A mercury, aneroid, or other barometer capable of measuring atmospheric pressure to within ±2.5 mm Hg.

Note:

In many cases, the barometric reading may be obtained from a nearby National Weather Service station, in which case the station value (which is the absolute barometric pressure) shall be requested and an adjustment for elevation differences between the weather station and sampling point shall be applied at a rate of minus 2.5 mm (0.1 in.) Hg per 30 m (100 ft) elevation increase or vice versa for elevation decrease.

6.3 Stopwatch. Capable of measurement to within 1 second.

7.0 Reagents and Standards [Reserved]
8.0 Sample Collection and Analysis

8.1 Installation. As there are numerous types of pipes and small ducts that may be subject to volume measurement, it would be difficult to describe all possible installation schemes. In general, flange fittings should be used for all connections wherever possible. Gaskets or other seal materials should be used to assure leak-tight connections. The volume meter should be located so as to avoid severe vibrations and other factors that may affect the meter calibration.

8.2 Leak Test.

8.2.1 A volume meter installed at a location under positive pressure may be leak-checked at the meter connections by using a liquid leak detector solution containing a surfactant. Apply a small amount of the solution to the connections. If a leak exists, bubbles will form, and the leak must be corrected.

8.2.2 A volume meter installed at a location under negative pressure is very difficult to test for leaks without blocking flow at the inlet of the line and watching for meter movement. If this procedure is not possible, visually check all connections to assure leak-tight seals.

8.3 Volume Measurement.

8.3.1 For sources with continuous, steady emission flow rates, record the initial meter volume reading, meter temperature(s), meter pressure, and start the stopwatch. Throughout the test period, record the meter temperatures and pressures so that average values can be determined. At the end of the test, stop the timer, and record the elapsed time, the final volume reading, meter temperature, and pressure. Record the barometric pressure at the beginning and end of the test run. Record the data on a table similar to that shown in Figure 2A-1.

8.3.2 For sources with noncontinuous, non-steady emission flow rates, use the procedure in section 8.3.1 with the addition of the following: Record all the meter parameters and the start and stop times corresponding to each process cyclical or noncontinuous event.

9.0 Quality Control
Section Quality control measure Effect
10.1-10.4 Sampling equipment calibration Ensure accurate measurement of stack gas flow rate, sample volume.
10.0 Calibration and Standardization

10.1 Volume Meter.

10.1.1 The volume meter is calibrated against a standard reference meter prior to its initial use in the field. The reference meter is a spirometer or liquid displacement meter with a capacity consistent with that of the test meter.

10.1.2 Alternatively, a calibrated, standard pitot may be used as the reference meter in conjunction with a wind tunnel assembly. Attach the test meter to the wind tunnel so that the total flow passes through the test meter. For each calibration run, conduct a 4-point traverse along one stack diameter at a position at least eight diameters of straight tunnel downstream and two diameters upstream of any bend, inlet, or air mover. Determine the traverse point locations as specified in Method 1. Calculate the reference volume using the velocity values following the procedure in Method 2, the wind tunnel cross-sectional area, and the run time.

10.1.3 Set up the test meter in a configuration similar to that used in the field installation (i.e., in relation to the flow moving device). Connect the temperature sensor and pressure gauge as they are to be used in the field. Connect the reference meter at the inlet of the flow line, if appropriate for the meter, and begin gas flow through the system to condition the meters. During this conditioning operation, check the system for leaks.

10.1.4 The calibration shall be performed during at least three different flow rates. The calibration flow rates shall be about 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 times the rated maximum flow rate of the test meter.

10.1.5 For each calibration run, the data to be collected include: reference meter initial and final volume readings, the test meter initial and final volume reading, meter average temperature and pressure, barometric pressure, and run time. Repeat the runs at each flow rate at least three times.

10.1.6 Calculate the test meter calibration coefficient as indicated in section 12.2.

10.1.7 Compare the three Ym values at each of the flow rates tested and determine the maximum and minimum values. The difference between the maximum and minimum values at each flow rate should be no greater than 0.030. Extra runs may be required to complete this requirement. If this specification cannot be met in six successive runs, the test meter is not suitable for use. In addition, the meter coefficients should be between 0.95 and 1.05. If these specifications are met at all the flow rates, average all the Ym values from runs meeting the specifications to obtain an average meter calibration coefficient, Ym.

10.1.8 The procedure above shall be performed at least once for each volume meter. Thereafter, an abbreviated calibration check shall be completed following each field test. The calibration of the volume meter shall be checked with the meter pressure set at the average value encountered during the field test. Three calibration checks (runs) shall be performed using this average flow rate value. Calculate the average value of the calibration factor. If the calibration has changed by more than 5 percent, recalibrate the meter over the full range of flow as described above.

Note:

If the volume meter calibration coefficient values obtained before and after a test series differ by more than 5 percent, the test series shall either be voided, or calculations for the test series shall be performed using whichever meter coefficient value (i.e., before or after) gives the greater value of pollutant emission rate.

10.2 Temperature Sensor. After each test series, check the temperature sensor at ambient temperature. Use an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) mercury-in-glass reference thermometer, or equivalent, as a reference. If the sensor being checked agrees within 2 percent (absolute temperature) of the reference, the temperature data collected in the field shall be considered valid. Otherwise, the test data shall be considered invalid or adjustments of the results shall be made, subject to the approval of the Administrator.

10.3 Barometer. Calibrate the barometer used against a mercury barometer or NIST-traceable barometer prior to the field test.

11.0 Analytical Procedure

Sample collection and analysis are concurrent for this method (see section 8.0).

12.0 Data Analysis and Calculations

Carry out calculations, retaining at least one extra decimal figure beyond that of the acquired data. Round off figures after final calculation.

12.1 Nomenclature.

Pbar = Barometric pressure, mm Hg.
Pg = Average static pressure in volume meter, mm Hg.
Qs = Gas flow rate, m 3/min, standard conditions.
s = Standard conditions, 20 °C and 760 mm Hg.
Tr = Reference meter average temperature, °K (°R).
Tm = Test meter average temperature, °K (°R).
Vr = Reference meter volume reading, m 3.
Vm = Test meter volume reading, m 3.
Ym = Test meter calibration coefficient, dimensionless.
θ = Elapsed test period time, min.

12.2 Test Meter Calibration Coefficient.

12.3 Volume.



12.4 Gas Flow Rate.


${Q}_{s}=\frac{{V}_{{m}_{s}}}{\theta }\phantom{\rule{4em}{0ex}}\text{Eq. 2A-3}$
13.0 Method Performance [Reserved]
14.0 Pollution Prevention [Reserved]
15.0 Waste Management [Reserved]
16.0 References

1. Rom, Jerome J. Maintenance, Calibration, and Operation of Isokinetic Source Sampling Equipment. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Publication No. APTD-0576. March 1972.

2. Wortman, Martin, R. Vollaro, and P.R. Westlin. Dry Gas Volume Meter Calibrations. Source Evaluation Society Newsletter. Vol. 2, No. 2. May 1977.

3. Westlin, P.R., and R.T. Shigehara. Procedure for Calibrating and Using Dry Gas Volume Meters as Calibration Standards. Source Evaluation Society Newsletter. Vol. 3, No. 1. February 1978.

17.0 Tables, Diagrams, Flowcharts, and Validation Data [Reserved]
Method 2B - Determination of Exhaust Gas Volume Flow Rate From Gasoline Vapor Incinerators
Note:

This method does not include all of the specifications (e.g., equipment and supplies) and procedures (e.g., sampling and analytical) essential to its performance. Some material is incorporated by reference from other methods in this part. Therefore, to obtain reliable results, persons using this method should also have a thorough knowledge of at least the following additional test methods: Method 1, Method 2, Method 2A, Method 10, Method 25A, Method 25B.

1.0 Scope and Application

1.1 This method is applicable for the determination of exhaust volume flow rate from incinerators that process gasoline vapors consisting primarily of alkanes, alkenes, and/or arenes (aromatic hydrocarbons). It is assumed that the amount of auxiliary fuel is negligible.

1.2 Data Quality Objectives. Adherence to the requirements of this method will enhance the quality of the data obtained from air pollutant sampling methods.

2.0 Summary of Method

2.1 Organic carbon concentration and volume flow rate are measured at the incinerator inlet using either Method 25A or Method 25B and Method 2A, respectively. Organic carbon, carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations are measured at the outlet using either Method 25A or Method 25B and Method 10, respectively. The ratio of total carbon at the incinerator inlet and outlet is multiplied by the inlet volume to determine the exhaust volume flow rate.

3.0 Definitions

Same as section 3.0 of Method 10 and Method 25A.

4.0 Interferences

Same as section 4.0 of Method 10.

5.0 Safety

5.1 This method may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This test method may not address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this test method to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to performing this test method.

6.0 Equipment and Supplies

Same as section 6.0 of Method 2A, Method 10, and Method 25A and/or Method 25B as applicable, with the addition of the following:

6.1 This analyzer must meet the specifications set forth in section 6.1.2 of Method 10, except that the span shall be 15 percent CO2 by volume.

7.0 Reagents and Standards

Same as section 7.0 of Method 10 and Method 25A, with the following addition and exceptions:

7.1 Carbon Dioxide Analyzer Calibration. CO2 gases meeting the specifications set forth in section 7 of Method 6C are required.

7.2 Hydrocarbon Analyzer Calibration. Methane shall not be used as a calibration gas when performing this method.

7.3 Fuel Gas. If Method 25B is used to measure the organic carbon concentrations at both the inlet and exhaust, no fuel gas is required.

8.0 Sample Collection and Analysis

8.1 Pre-test Procedures. Perform all pre-test procedures (e.g., system performance checks, leak checks) necessary to determine gas volume flow rate and organic carbon concentration in the vapor line to the incinerator inlet and to determine organic carbon, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide concentrations at the incinerator exhaust, as outlined in Method 2A, Method 10, and Method 25A and/or Method 25B as applicable.

8.2 Sampling. At the beginning of the test period, record the initial parameters for the inlet volume meter according to the procedures in Method 2A and mark all of the recorder strip charts to indicate the start of the test. Conduct sampling and analysis as outlined in Method 2A, Method 10, and Method 25A and/or Method 25B as applicable. Continue recording inlet organic and exhaust CO2, CO, and organic concentrations throughout the test. During periods of process interruption and halting of gas flow, stop the timer and mark the recorder strip charts so that data from this interruption are not included in the calculations. At the end of the test period, record the final parameters for the inlet volume meter and mark the end on all of the recorder strip charts.

8.3 Post-test Procedures. Perform all post-test procedures (e.g., drift tests, leak checks), as outlined in Method 2A, Method 10, and Method 25A and/or Method 25B as applicable.

9.0 Quality Control

Same as section 9.0 of Method 2A, Method 10, and Method 25A.

10.0 Calibration and Standardization

Same as section 10.0 of Method 2A, Method 10, and Method 25A.

Note:

If a manifold system is used for the exhaust analyzers, all the analyzers and sample pumps must be operating when the analyzer calibrations are performed.

10.1 If an analyzer output does not meet the specifications of the method, invalidate the test data for the period. Alternatively, calculate the exhaust volume results using initial calibration data and using final calibration data and report both resulting volumes. Then, for emissions calculations, use the volume measurement resulting in the greatest emission rate or concentration.

11.0 Analytical Procedure

Sample collection and analysis are concurrent for this method (see section 8.0).

12.0 Data Analysis and Calculations

Carry out the calculations, retaining at least one extra decimal figure beyond that of the acquired data. Round off figures after the final calculation.

12.1 Nomenclature.

COe = Mean carbon monoxide concentration in system exhaust, ppm.
(CO2)a = Ambient carbon dioxide concentration, ppm (if not measured during the test period, may be assumed to equal the global monthly mean CO2 concentration posted at http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/global.html#global_data).
(CO2)e = Mean carbon dioxide concentration in system exhaust, ppm.
HCe = Mean organic concentration in system exhaust as defined by the calibration gas, ppm.
Hci = Mean organic concentration in system inlet as defined by the calibration gas, ppm.
Ke = Hydrocarbon calibration gas factor for the exhaust hydrocarbon analyzer, unitless [equal to the number of carbon atoms per molecule of the gas used to calibrate the analyzer (2 for ethane, 3 for propane, etc.)].
Ki = Hydrocarbon calibration gas factor for the inlet hydrocarbon analyzer, unitless.
Ves = Exhaust gas volume, m 3.
Vis = Inlet gas volume, m 3.
Qes = Exhaust gas volume flow rate, m 3/min.
Qis = Inlet gas volume flow rate, m 3/min.

θ = Sample run time, min.

S = Standard conditions: 20 °C, 760 mm Hg.

12.2 Concentrations. Determine mean concentrations of inlet organics, outlet CO2, outlet CO, and outlet organics according to the procedures in the respective methods and the analyzers' calibration curves, and for the time intervals specified in the applicable regulations.

12.3 Exhaust Gas Volume. Calculate the exhaust gas volume as follows:



12.4 Exhaust Gas Volume Flow Rate. Calculate the exhaust gas volume flow rate as follows:


${Q}_{\mathrm{es}}=\frac{{V}_{\mathrm{es}}}{\Theta }\phantom{\rule{4em}{0ex}}\text{Eq. 2B-2}$
13.0 Method Performance [Reserved]
14.0 Pollution Prevention [Reserved]
15.0 Waste Management [Reserved]
16.0 References

Same as section 16.0 of Method 2A, Method 10, and Method 25A.

17.0 Tables, Diagrams, Flowcharts, and Validation Data [Reserved]
Method 2C - Determination of Gas Velocity and Volumetric Flow Rate in Small Stacks or Ducts (Standard Pitot Tube)
Note:

This method does not include all of the specifications (e.g., equipment and supplies) and procedures (e.g., sampling) essential to its performance. Some material is incorporated by reference from other methods in this part. Therefore, to obtain reliable results, persons using this method should also have a thorough knowledge of at least the following additional test methods: Method 1, Method 2.

1.0 Scope and Application

1.1 This method is applicable for the determination of average velocity and volumetric flow rate of gas streams in small stacks or ducts. Limits on the applicability of this method are identical to those set forth in Method 2, section 1.0, except that this method is limited to stationary source stacks or ducts less than about 0.30 meter (12 in.) in diameter, or 0.071 m 2 (113 in. 2) in cross-sectional area, but equal to or greater than about 0.10 meter (4 in.) in diameter, or 0.0081 m 2 (12.57 in. 2) in cross-sectional area.

1.2 Data Quality Objectives. Adherence to the requirements of this method will enhance the quality of the data obtained from air pollutant sampling methods.

2.0 Summary of Method

2.1 The average gas velocity in a stack or duct is determined from the gas density and from measurement of velocity heads with a standard pitot tube.

3.0 Definitions [Reserved]
4.0 Interferences [Reserved]
5.0 Safety

5.1 This method may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This test method may not address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this test method to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to performing this test method.

6.0 Equipment and Supplies

Same as Method 2, section 6.0, with the exception of the following:

6.1 Standard Pitot Tube (instead of Type S). A standard pitot tube which meets the specifications of section 6.7 of Method 2. Use a coefficient of 0.99 unless it is calibrated against another standard pitot tube with a NIST-traceable coefficient (see section 10.2 of Method 2).

6.2 Alternative Pitot Tube. A modified hemispherical-nosed pitot tube (see Figure 2C-1), which features a shortened stem and enlarged impact and static pressure holes. Use a coefficient of 0.99 unless it is calibrated as mentioned in section 6.1 above. This pitot tube is useful in particulate liquid droplet-laden gas streams when a “back purge” is ineffective.

7.0 Reagents and Standards [Reserved]
8.0 Sample Collection and Analysis

8.1 Follow the general procedures in section 8.0 of Method 2, except conduct the measurements at the traverse points specified in Method 1A. The static and impact pressure holes of standard pitot tubes are susceptible to plugging in particulate-laden gas streams. Therefore, adequate proof that the openings of the pitot tube have not plugged during the traverse period must be furnished; this can be done by taking the velocity head (Δp) heading at the final traverse point, cleaning out the impact and static holes of the standard pitot tube by “back-purging” with pressurized air, and then taking another Δp reading. If the Δp readings made before and after the air purge are the same (within ±5 percent) the traverse is acceptable. Otherwise, reject the run. Note that if the Δp at the final traverse point is unsuitably low, another point may be selected. If “back purging” at regular intervals is part of the procedure, then take comparative Δp readings, as above, for the last two back purges at which suitably high Δp readings are observed.

9.0 Quality Control
Section Quality control measure Effect
10.0 Sampling equipment calibration Ensure accurate measurement of stack gas velocity head.
10.0 Calibration and Standardization

Same as Method 2, sections 10.2 through 10.4.

11.0 Analytical Procedure

Sample collection and analysis are concurrent for this method (see section 8.0).

12.0 Calculations and Data Analysis

Same as Method 2, section 12.0.

13.0 Method Performance [Reserved]
14.0 Pollution Prevention [Reserved]
15.0 Waste Management [Reserved]
16.0 References

Same as Method 2, section 16.0.

17.0 Tables, Diagrams, Flowcharts, and Validation Data
Method 2D - Measurement of Gas Volume Flow Rates in Small Pipes and Ducts
Note:

This method does not include all of the specifications (e.g., equipment and supplies) and procedures (e.g., sampling) essential to its performance. Some material is incorporated by reference from other methods in this part. Therefore, to obtain reliable results, persons using this method should also have a thorough knowledge of at least the following additional test methods: Method 1, Method 2, and Method 2A.

1.0 Scope and Application

1.1 This method is applicable for the determination of the volumetric flow rates of gas streams in small pipes and ducts. It can be applied to intermittent or variable gas flows only with particular caution.

1.2 Data Quality Objectives. Adherence to the requirements of this method will enhance the quality of the data obtained from air pollutant sampling methods.

2.0 Summary of Method

2.1 All the gas flow in the pipe or duct is directed through a rotameter, orifice plate or similar device to measure flow rate or pressure drop. The device has been previously calibrated in a manner that insures its proper calibration for the gas being measured. Absolute temperature and pressure measurements are made to allow correction of volumetric flow rates to standard conditions.

3.0 Definitions [Reserved]
4.0 Interferences [Reserved]
5.0 Safety

5.1 This method may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This test method may not address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this test method to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to performing this test method.

6.0 Equipment and Supplies

Specifications for the apparatus are given below. Any other apparatus that has been demonstrated (subject to approval of the Administrator) to be capable of meeting the specifications will be considered acceptable.

6.1 Gas Metering Rate or Flow Element Device. A rotameter, orifice plate, or other volume rate or pressure drop measuring device capable of measuring the stack flow rate to within ±5 percent. The metering device shall be equipped with a temperature gauge accurate to within ±2 percent of the minimum absolute stack temperature and a pressure gauge (accurate to within ±5 mm Hg). The capacity of the metering device shall be sufficient for the expected maximum and minimum flow rates at the stack gas conditions. The magnitude and variability of stack gas flow rate, molecular weight, temperature, pressure, dewpoint, and corrosive characteristics, and pipe or duct size are factors to consider in choosing a suitable metering device.

6.2 Barometer. Same as Method 2, section 6.5.

6.3 Stopwatch. Capable of measurement to within 1 second.

7.0 Reagents and Standards [Reserved]
8.0 Sample Collection and Analysis

8.1 Installation and Leak Check. Same as Method 2A, sections 8.1 and 8.2, respectively.

8.2 Volume Rate Measurement.

8.2.1 Continuous, Steady Flow. At least once an hour, record the metering device flow rate or pressure drop reading, and the metering device temperature and pressure. Make a minimum of 12 equally spaced readings of each parameter during the test period. Record the barometric pressure at the beginning and end of the test period. Record the data on a table similar to that shown in Figure 2D-1.

8.2.2 Noncontinuous and Nonsteady Flow. Use volume rate devices with particular caution. Calibration will be affected by variation in stack gas temperature, pressure and molecular weight. Use the procedure in section 8.2.1 with the addition of the following: Record all the metering device parameters on a time interval frequency sufficient to adequately profile each process cyclical or noncontinuous event. A multichannel continuous recorder may be used.

9.0 Quality Control
Section Quality control measure Effect
10.0 Sampling equipment calibration Ensure accurate measurement of stack gas flow rate or sample volume.
10.0 Calibration and Standardization

Same as Method 2A, section 10.0, with the following exception:

10.1 Gas Metering Device. Same as Method 2A, section 10.1, except calibrate the metering device with the principle stack gas to be measured (examples: air, nitrogen) against a standard reference meter. A calibrated dry gas meter is an acceptable reference meter. Ideally, calibrate the metering device in the field with the actual gas to be metered. For metering devices that have a volume rate readout, calculate the test metering device calibration coefficient, Ym, for each run shown in Equation 2D-2 section 12.3.

10.2 For metering devices that do not have a volume rate readout, refer to the manufacturer's instructions to calculate the Vm2 corresponding to each Vr.

10.3 Temperature Gauge. Use the procedure and specifications in Method 2A, section 10.2. Perform the calibration at a temperature that approximates field test conditions.

10.4 Barometer. Calibrate the barometer used against a mercury barometer or NIST-traceable barometer prior to the field test.

11.0 Analytical Procedure.

Sample collection and analysis are concurrent for this method (see section 8.0).

12.0 Data Analysis and Calculations

12.1 Nomenclature.

Pbar = Barometric pressure, mm Hg (in. Hg).
Pm = Test meter average static pressure, mm Hg (in. Hg).
Qr = Reference meter volume flow rate reading, m 3/min (ft 3/min).
Qm = Test meter volume flow rate reading, m 3/min (ft 3/min).
Tr = Absolute reference meter average temperature, °K (°R).
Tm = Absolute test meter average temperature, °K (°R).
Kl = 0.3855 °K/mm Hg for metric units, = 17.65 °R/in. Hg for English units.

12.2 Gas Flow Rate.



12.3 Test Meter Device Calibration Coefficient. Calculation for testing metering device calibration coefficient, Ym.


13.0 Method Performance [Reserved]
14.0 Pollution Prevention [Reserved]
15.0 Waste Management [Reserved]
16.0 References

1. Spink, L.K. Principles and Practice of Flowmeter Engineering. The Foxboro Company. Foxboro, MA. 1967.

2. Benedict, R.P. Fundamentals of Temperature, Pressure, and Flow Measurements. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, NY. 1969.

3. Orifice Metering of Natural Gas. American Gas Association. Arlington, VA. Report No. 3. March 1978. 88 pp.

17.0 Tables, Diagrams, Flowcharts, and Validation Data
Plant
Date
Run No.
Sample location
Barometric pressure (mm Hg):
Start
Finish
Operators
Metering device No.
Calibration coefficient
Calibration gas
Date to recalibrate
Time Flow rate
Static Pressure
[mm Hg (in. Hg)]
Temperature
°C (°F) °K (°R)
Average
Figure 2D-1. Volume Flow Rate Measurement Data
Method 2E - Determination of Landfill Gas Production Flow Rate
Note:

This method does not include all of the specifications (e.g., equipment and supplies) and procedures (e.g., sampling and analytical) essential to its performance. Some material is incorporated by reference from other methods in this part. Therefore, to obtain reliable results, persons using this method should also have a thorough knowledge of at least the following additional test methods: Methods 2 and 3C.

1.0 Scope and Application

1.1 Applicability. This method applies to the measurement of landfill gas (LFG) production flow rate from municipal solid waste landfills and is used to calculate the flow rate of nonmethane organic compounds (NMOC) from landfills.

1.2 Data Quality Objectives. Adherence to the requirements of this method will enhance the quality of the data obtained from air pollutant sampling methods.

2.0 Summary of Method

2.1 Extraction wells are installed either in a cluster of three or at five dispersed locations in the landfill. A blower is used to extract LFG from the landfill. LFG composition, landfill pressures, and orifice pressure differentials from the wells are measured and the landfill gas production flow rate is calculated.

3.0 Definitions [Reserved]
4.0 Interferences [Reserved]
5.0 Safety

5.1 Since this method is complex, only experienced personnel should perform the test. Landfill gas contains methane, therefore explosive mixtures may exist at or near the landfill. It is advisable to take appropriate safety precautions when testing landfills, such as refraining from smoking and installing explosion-proof equipment.

6.0 Equipment and Supplies

6.1 Well Drilling Rig. Capable of boring a 0.61 m (24 in.) diameter hole into the landfill to a minimum of 75 percent of the landfill depth. The depth of the well shall not extend to the bottom of the landfill or the liquid level.

6.2 Gravel. No fines. Gravel diameter should be appreciably larger than perforations stated in sections 6.10 and 8.2.

6.3 Bentonite.

6.4 Backfill Material. Clay, soil, and sandy loam have been found to be acceptable.

6.5 Extraction Well Pipe. Minimum diameter of 3 in., constructed of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), high density polyethylene (HDPE), fiberglass, stainless steel, or other suitable nonporous material capable of transporting landfill gas.

6.6 Above Ground Well Assembly. Valve capable of adjusting gas flow, such as a gate, ball, or butterfly valve; sampling ports at the well head and outlet; and a flow measuring device, such as an in-line orifice meter or pitot tube. A schematic of the aboveground well head assembly is shown in Figure 2E-1.

6.7 Cap. Constructed of PVC or HDPE.

6.8 Header Piping. Constructed of PVC or HDPE.

6.9 Auger. Capable of boring a 0.15-to 0.23-m (6-to 9-in.) diameter hole to a depth equal to the top of the perforated section of the extraction well, for pressure probe installation.

6.10 Pressure Probe. Constructed of PVC or stainless steel (316), 0.025-m (1-in.). Schedule 40 pipe. Perforate the bottom two-thirds. A minimum requirement for perforations is slots or holes with an open area equivalent to four 0.006-m ( 1/4-in.) diameter holes spaced 90° apart every 0.15 m (6 in.).

6.11 Blower and Flare Assembly. Explosion-proof blower, capable of extracting LFG at a flow rate of 8.5 m 3/min (300 ft 3/min), a water knockout, and flare or incinerator.

6.12 Standard Pitot Tube and Differential Pressure Gauge for Flow Rate Calibration with Standard Pitot. Same as Method 2, sections 6.7 and 6.8.

6.13 Orifice Meter. Orifice plate, pressure tabs, and pressure measuring device to measure the LFG flow rate.

6.14 Barometer. Same as Method 4, section 6.1.5.

6.15 Differential Pressure Gauge. Water-filled U-tube manometer or equivalent, capable of measuring within 0.02 mm Hg (0.01 in. H2O), for measuring the pressure of the pressure probes.

7.0 Reagents and Standards. Not Applicable
8.0 Sample Collection, Preservation, Storage, and Transport

8.1 Placement of Extraction Wells. The landfill owner or operator may install a single cluster of three extraction wells in a test area or space five equal-volume wells over the landfill. The cluster wells are recommended but may be used only if the composition, age of the refuse, and the landfill depth of the test area can be determined.

8.1.1 Cluster Wells. Consult landfill site records for the age of the refuse, depth, and composition of various sections of the landfill. Select an area near the perimeter of the landfill with a depth equal to or greater than the average depth of the landfill and with the average age of the refuse between 2 and 10 years old. Avoid areas known to contain nondecomposable materials, such as concrete and asbestos. Locate the cluster wells as shown in Figure 2E-2.

8.1.1.1 The age of the refuse in a test area will not be uniform, so calculate a weighted average age of the refuse as shown in section 12.2.

8.1.2 Equal Volume Wells. Divide the sections of the landfill that are at least 2 years old into five areas representing equal volumes. Locate an extraction well near the center of each area.

8.2 Installation of Extraction Wells. Use a well drilling rig to dig a 0.6 m (24 in.) diameter hole in the landfill to a minimum of 75 percent of the landfill depth, not to extend to the bottom of the landfill or the liquid level. Perforate the bottom two thirds of the extraction well pipe. A minimum requirement for perforations is holes or slots with an open area equivalent to 0.01-m (0.5-in.) diameter holes spaced 90° apart every 0.1 to 0.2 m (4 to 8 in.). Place the extraction well in the center of the hole and backfill with gravel to a level 0.30 m (1 ft) above the perforated section. Add a layer of backfill material 1.2 m (4 ft) thick. Add a layer of bentonite 0.9 m (3 ft) thick, and backfill the remainder of the hole with cover material or material equal in permeability to the existing cover material. The specifications for extraction well installation are shown in Figure 2E-3.

8.3 Pressure Probes. Shallow pressure probes are used in the check for infiltration of air into the landfill, and deep pressure probes are use to determine the radius of influence. Locate pressure probes along three radial arms approximately 120° apart at distances of 3, 15, 30, and 45 m (10, 50, 100, and 150 ft) from the extraction well. The tester has the option of locating additional pressure probes at distances every 15 m (50 feet) beyond 45 m (150 ft). Example placements of probes are shown in Figure 2E-4. The 15-, 30-, and 45-m, (50-, 100-, and 150-ft) probes from each well, and any additional probes located along the three radial arms (deep probes), shall extend to a depth equal to the top of the perforated section of the extraction wells. All other probes (shallow probes) shall extend to a depth equal to half the depth of the deep probes.

8.3.1 Use an auger to dig a hole, 0.15- to 0.23-m (6-to 9-in.) in diameter, for each pressure probe. Perforate the bottom two thirds of the pressure probe. A minimum requirement for perforations is holes or slots with an open area equivalent to four 0.006-m (0.25-in.) diameter holes spaced 90° apart every 0.15 m (6 in.). Place the pressure probe in the center of the hole and backfill with gravel to a level 0.30 m (1 ft) above the perforated section. Add a layer of backfill material at least 1.2 m (4 ft) thick. Add a layer of bentonite at least 0.3 m (1 ft) thick, and backfill the remainder of the hole with cover material or material equal in permeability to the existing cover material. The specifications for pressure probe installation are shown in Figure 2E-5.

8.4 LFG Flow Rate Measurement. Place the flow measurement device, such as an orifice meter, as shown in Figure 2E-1. Attach the wells to the blower and flare assembly. The individual wells may be ducted to a common header so that a single blower, flare assembly, and flow meter may be used. Use the procedures in section 10.1 to calibrate the flow meter.

8.5 Leak-Check. A leak-check of the above ground system is required for accurate flow rate measurements and for safety. Sample LFG at the well head sample port and at the outlet sample port. Use Method 3C to determine nitrogen (N2) concentrations. Determine the difference between the well head and outlet N2 concentrations using the formula in section 12.3. The system passes the leak-check if the difference is less than 10,000 ppmv.

8.6 Static Testing. Close the control valves on the well heads during static testing. Measure the gauge pressure (Pg) at each deep pressure probe and the barometric pressure (Pbar) every 8 hours (hr) for 3 days. Convert the gauge pressure of each deep pressure probe to absolute pressure using the equation in section 12.4. Record as Pi (initial absolute pressure).

8.6.1 For each probe, average all of the 8-hr deep pressure probe readings (Pi) and record as Pia (average absolute pressure). Pia is used in section 8.7.5 to determine the maximum radius of influence.

8.6.2 Measure the static flow rate of each well once during static testing.

8.7 Short-Term Testing. The purpose of short-term testing is to determine the maximum vacuum that can be applied to the wells without infiltration of ambient air into the landfill. The short-term testing is performed on one well at a time. Burn all LFG with a flare or incinerator.

8.7.1 Use the blower to extract LFG from a single well at a rate at least twice the static flow rate of the respective well measured in section 8.6.2. If using a single blower and flare assembly and a common header system, close the control valve on the wells not being measured. Allow 24 hr for the system to stabilize at this flow rate.

8.7.2 Test for infiltration of air into the landfill by measuring the gauge pressures of the shallow pressure probes and using Method 3C to determine the LFG N2 concentration. If the LFG N2 concentration is less than 5 percent and all of the shallow probes have a positive gauge pressure, increase the blower vacuum by 3.7 mm Hg (2 in. H2O), wait 24 hr, and repeat the tests for infiltration. Continue the above steps of increasing blower vacuum by 3.7 mm Hg (2 in. H2O), waiting 24 hr, and testing for infiltration until the concentration of N2 exceeds 5 percent or any of the shallow probes have a negative gauge pressure. When this occurs,reduce the blower vacuum to the maximum setting at which the N2 concentration was less than 5 percent and the gauge pressures of the shallow probes are positive.

8.7.3 At this blower vacuum, measure atmospheric pressure (Pbar) every 8 hr for 24 hr, and record the LFG flow rate (Qs) and the probe gauge pressures (Pf) for all of the probes. Convert the gauge pressures of the deep probes to absolute pressures for each 8-hr reading at Qs as shown in section 12.4.

8.7.4 For each probe, average the 8-hr deep pressure probe absolute pressure readings and record as Pfa (the final average absolute pressure).

8.7.5 For each probe, compare the initial average pressure (Pia) from section 8.6.1 to the final average pressure (Pfa). Determine the furthermost point from the well head along each radial arm where Pfa ≤Pia. This distance is the maximum radius of influence (Rm), which is the distance from the well affected by the vacuum. Average these values to determine the average maximum radius of influence (Rma).

8.7.6 Calculate the depth (Dst) affected by the extraction well during the short term test as shown in section 12.6. If the computed value of Dst exceeds the depth of the landfill, set Dst equal to the landfill depth.

8.7.7 Calculate the void volume (V) for the extraction well as shown in section 12.7.

8.7.8 Repeat the procedures in section 8.7 for each well.

8.8 Calculate the total void volume of the test wells (Vv) by summing the void volumes (V) of each well.

8.9 Long-Term Testing. The purpose of long-term testing is to extract two void volumes of LFG from the extraction wells. Use the blower to extract LFG from the wells. If a single Blower and flare assembly and common header system are used, open all control valves and set the blower vacuum equal to the highest stabilized blower vacuum demonstrated by any individual well in section 8.7. Every 8 hr, sample the LFG from the well head sample port, measure the gauge pressures of the shallow pressure probes, the blower vacuum, the LFG flow rate, and use the criteria for infiltration in section 8.7.2 and Method 3C to test for infiltration. If infiltration is detected, do not reduce the blower vacuum, instead reduce the LFG flow rate from the well by adjusting the control valve on the well head. Adjust each affected well individually. Continue until the equivalent of two total void volumes (Vv) have been extracted, or until Vt = 2Vv.

8.9.1 Calculate Vt, the total volume of LFG extracted from the wells, as shown in section 12.8.

8.9.2 Record the final stabilized flow rate as Qf and the gauge pressure for each deep probe. If, during the long term testing, the flow rate does not stabilize, calculate Qf by averaging the last 10 recorded flow rates.

8.9.3 For each deep probe, convert each gauge pressure to absolute pressure as in section 12.4. Average these values and record as Psa. For each probe, compare Pia to Psa. Determine the furthermost point from the well head along each radial arm where Psa ≤Pia. This distance is the stabilized radius of influence. Average these values to determine the average stabilized radius of influence (Rsa).

8.10 Determine the NMOC mass emission rate using the procedures in section 12.9 through 12.15.

9.0 Quality Control

9.1 Miscellaneous Quality Control Measures.

Section Quality control measure Effect
10.1 LFG flow rate meter calibration Ensures accurate measurement of LFG flow rate and sample volume
10.0 Calibration and Standardization

10.1 LFG Flow Rate Meter (Orifice) Calibration Procedure. Locate a standard pitot tube in line with an orifice meter. Use the procedures in section 8, 12.5, 12.6, and 12.7 of Method 2 to determine the average dry gas volumetric flow rate for at least five flow rates that bracket the expected LFG flow rates, except in section 8.1, use a standard pitot tube rather than a Type S pitot tube. Method 3C may be used to determine the dry molecular weight. It may be necessary to calibrate more than one orifice meter in order to bracket the LFG flow rates. Construct a calibration curve by plotting the pressure drops across the orifice meter for each flow rate versus the average dry gas volumetric flow rate in m 3/min of the gas.

11.0 Procedures [Reserved]
12.0 Data Analysis and Calculations

12.1 Nomenclature.

A = Age of landfill, yr.
Aavg = Average age of the refuse tested, yr.
Ai = Age of refuse in the ith fraction, yr.
Ar = Acceptance rate, Mg/yr.
CNMOC = NMOC concentration, ppmv as hexane (CNMOC = Ct/6).
Co = Concentration of N2 at the outlet, ppmv.
Ct = NMOC concentration, ppmv (carbon equivalent) from Method 25C.
Cw = Concentration of N2 at the wellhead, ppmv.
D = Depth affected by the test wells, m.
Dst = Depth affected by the test wells in the short-term test, m.
e = Base number for natural logarithms (2.718).
f = Fraction of decomposable refuse in the landfill.
fi = Fraction of the refuse in the ith section.
k = Landfill gas generation constant, yr−1.
Lo = Methane generation potential, m 3/Mg.
Lo′ = Revised methane generation potential to account for the amount of nondecomposable material in the landfill, m 3/Mg.
Mi = Mass of refuse in the ith section, Mg.
Mr = Mass of decomposable refuse affected by the test well, Mg.
Pbar = Atmospheric pressure, mm Hg.
Pf = Final absolute pressure of the deep pressure probes during short-term testing, mm Hg.
Pfa = Average final absolute pressure of the deep pressure probes during short-term testing, mm Hg.
Pgf = final gauge pressure of the deep pressure probes, mm Hg.
Pgi = Initial gauge pressure of the deep pressure probes, mm Hg.
Pi = Initial absolute pressure of the deep pressure probes during static testing, mm Hg.
Pia = Average initial absolute pressure of the deep pressure probes during static testing, mm Hg.
Ps = Final absolute pressure of the deep pressure probes during long-term testing, mm Hg.
Psa = Average final absolute pressure of the deep pressure probes during long-term testing, mm Hg.
Qf = Final stabilized flow rate, m 3/min.
Qi = LFG flow rate measured at orifice meter during the ith interval, m 3/min.
Qs = Maximum LFG flow rate at each well determined by short-term test, m 3/min.
Qt = NMOC mass emission rate, m 3/min.
Rm = Maximum radius of influence, m.
Rma = Average maximum radius of influence, m.
Rs = Stabilized radius of influence for an individual well, m.
Rsa = Average stabilized radius of influence, m.
ti = Age of section i, yr.
tt = Total time of long-term testing, yr.
tvi = Time of the ith interval (usually 8), hr.
V = Void volume of test well, m 3.
Vr = Volume of refuse affected by the test well, m 3.
Vt = Total volume of refuse affected by the long-term testing, m 3.
Vv = Total void volume affected by test wells, m 3.
WD = Well depth, m.
ρ = Refuse density, Mg/m 3 (Assume 0.64 Mg/m 3 if data are unavailable).

12.2 Use the following equation to calculate a weighted average age of landfill refuse.


${A}_{\mathrm{avg}}=\sum _{i=1}^{n}{f}_{i}{A}_{i}\phantom{\rule{4em}{0ex}}\text{Eq. 2E-1}$

12.3 Use the following equation to determine the difference in N2 concentrations (ppmv) at the well head and outlet location.


$\text{Difference}={C}_{o}-{C}_{w}\phantom{\rule{4em}{0ex}}\text{Eq. 2E-2}$

12.4 Use the following equation to convert the gauge pressure (Pg) of each initial deep pressure probe to absolute pressure (Pi).


${P}_{i}={P}_{\mathrm{bar}}+{P}_{\mathrm{gi}}\phantom{\rule{4em}{0ex}}\text{Eq. 2E-3}$

12.5 Use the following equation to convert the gauge pressures of the deep probes to absolute pressures for each 8-hr reading at Qs.


${P}_{f}={P}_{\mathrm{bar}}+{P}_{\mathrm{gf}}\phantom{\rule{4em}{0ex}}\text{Eq. 2E-4}$

12.6 Use the following equation to calculate the depth (Dst) affected by the extraction well during the short-term test.


${D}_{\mathrm{st}}=\mathrm{WD}+{R}_{\mathrm{ma}}\phantom{\rule{4em}{0ex}}\text{Eq. 2E-5}$

12.7 Use the following equation to calculate the void volume for the extraction well (V).



12.8 Use the following equation to calculate Vt, the total volume of LFG extracted from the wells.


${V}_{t}=\sum _{i=1}^{n}60{Q}_{i}{t}_{\mathrm{vi}}\phantom{\rule{4em}{0ex}}\text{Eq. 2E-7}$

12.9 Use the following equation to calculate the depth affected by the test well. If using cluster wells, use the average depth of the wells for WD. If the value of D is greater than the depth of the landfill, set D equal to the landfill depth.


$D=\mathrm{WD}+{R}_{\mathrm{sa}}\phantom{\rule{4em}{0ex}}\text{Eq. 2E-8}$

12.10 Use the following equation to calculate the volume of refuse affected by the test well.


${V}_{r}={R}_{\mathrm{sa}}2\prod D\phantom{\rule{4em}{0ex}}\text{Eq. 2E-9}$

12.11 Use the following equation to calculate the mass affected by the test well.


${M}_{r}={V}_{r}\phantom{\rule{.2em}{0ex}}\rho \phantom{\rule{4em}{0ex}}\text{Eq. 2E-10}$

12.12 Modify Lo to account for the nondecomposable refuse in the landfill.


${L}_{o}=f{\phantom{\rule{.2em}{0ex}}L}_{o}\phantom{\rule{4em}{0ex}}\text{Eq. 2E-11}$

12.13 In the following equation, solve for k (landfill gas generation constant) by iteration. A suggested procedure is to select a value for k, calculate the left side of the equation, and if not equal to zero, select another value for k. Continue this process until the left hand side of the equation equals zero, ±0.001.



12.14 Use the following equation to determine landfill NMOC mass emission rate if the yearly acceptance rate of refuse has been consistent (10 percent) over the life of the landfill.



12.15 Use the following equation to determine landfill NMOC mass emission rate if the acceptance rate has not been consistent over the life of the landfill.


13.0 Method Performance [Reserved]
14.0 Pollution Prevention [Reserved]
15.0 Waste Management [Reserved]
16.0 References

1. Same as Method 2, Appendix A, 40 CFR Part 60.

2. Emcon Associates, Methane Generation and Recovery from Landfills. Ann Arbor Science, 1982.

3. The Johns Hopkins University, Brown Station Road Landfill Gas Resource Assessment, Volume 1: Field Testing and Gas Recovery Projections. Laurel, Maryland: October 1982.

4. Mandeville and Associates, Procedure Manual for Landfill Gases Emission Testing.

5. Letter and attachments from Briggum, S., Waste Management of North America, to Thorneloe, S., EPA. Response to July 28, 1988 request for additional information. August 18, 1988.

6. Letter and attachments from Briggum, S., Waste Management of North America, to Wyatt, S., EPA. Response to December 7, 1988 request for additional information. January 16, 1989.

17.0 Tables, Diagrams, Flowcharts, and Validation Data





Method 2F - Determination of Stack Gas Velocity And Volumetric Flow Rate With Three-Dimensional Probes
Note:

This method does not include all of the specifications (e.g., equipment and supplies) and procedures (e.g., sampling) essential to its performance. Some material has been incorporated from other methods in this part. Therefore, to obtain reliable results, those using this method should have a thorough knowledge of at least the following additional test methods: Methods 1, 2, 3 or 3A, and 4.

1.0 Scope and Application
1.1 This method is applicable for the determination of yaw angle, pitch angle, axial velocity and the volumetric flow rate of a gas stream in a stack or duct using a three-dimensional (3-D) probe. This method may be used only when the average stack or duct gas velocity is greater than or equal to 20 ft/sec. When the above condition cannot be met, alternative procedures, approved by the Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, shall be used to make accurate flow rate determinations.
2.0 Summary of Method

2.1 A 3-D probe is used to determine the velocity pressure and the yaw and pitch angles of the flow velocity vector in a stack or duct. The method determines the yaw angle directly by rotating the probe to null the pressure across a pair of symmetrically placed ports on the probe head. The pitch angle is calculated using probe-specific calibration curves. From these values and a determination of the stack gas density, the average axial velocity of the stack gas is calculated. The average gas volumetric flow rate in the stack or duct is then determined from the average axial velocity.

3.0 Definitions

3.1. Angle-measuring Device Rotational Offset (RADO). The rotational position of an angle-measuring device relative to the reference scribe line, as determined during the pre-test rotational position check described in section 8.3.

3.2 Axial Velocity. The velocity vector parallel to the axis of the stack or duct that accounts for the yaw and pitch angle components of gas flow. The term “axial” is used herein to indicate that the velocity and volumetric flow rate results account for the measured yaw and pitch components of flow at each measurement point.

3.3 Calibration Pitot Tube. The standard (Prandtl type) pitot tube used as a reference when calibrating a 3-D probe under this method.

3.4 Field Test. A set of measurements conducted at a specific unit or exhaust stack/duct to satisfy the applicable regulation (e.g., a three-run boiler performance test, a single-or multiple-load nine-run relative accuracy test).

3.5 Full Scale of Pressure-measuring Device. Full scale refers to the upper limit of the measurement range displayed by the device. For bi-directional pressure gauges, full scale includes the entire pressure range from the lowest negative value to the highest positive value on the pressure scale.

3.6 Main probe. Refers to the probe head and that section of probe sheath directly attached to the probe head. The main probe sheath is distinguished from probe extensions, which are sections of sheath added onto the main probe to extend its reach.

3.7 “May,” “Must,” “Shall,” “Should,” and the imperative form of verbs.

3.7.1 “May” is used to indicate that a provision of this method is optional.

3.7.2 “Must,” “Shall,” and the imperative form of verbs (such as “record” or “enter”) are used to indicate that a provision of this method is mandatory.

3.7.3 “Should” is used to indicate that a provision of this method is not mandatory, but is highly recommended as good practice.

3.8 Method 1. Refers to 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, “Method 1 - Sample and velocity traverses for stationary sources.”

3.9 Method 2. Refers to 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, “Method 2 - Determination of stack gas velocity and volumetric flow rate (Type S pitot tube).”

3.10 Method 2G. Refers to 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, “Method 2G - Determination of stack gas velocity and volumetric flow rate with two-dimensional probes.”

3.11 Nominal Velocity. Refers to a wind tunnel velocity setting that approximates the actual wind tunnel velocity to within ±1.5 m/sec (±5 ft/sec).

3.12 Pitch Angle. The angle between the axis of the stack or duct and the pitch component of flow, i.e., the component of the total velocity vector in a plane defined by the traverse line and the axis of the stack or duct. (Figure 2F-1 illustrates the “pitch plane.”) From the standpoint of a tester facing a test port in a vertical stack, the pitch component of flow is the vector of flow moving from the center of the stack toward or away from that test port. The pitch angle is the angle described by this pitch component of flow and the vertical axis of the stack.

3.13 Readability. For the purposes of this method, readability for an analog measurement device is one half of the smallest scale division. For a digital measurement device, it is the number of decimals displayed by the device.

3.14 Reference Scribe Line. A line permanently inscribed on the main probe sheath (in accordance with section 6.1.6.1) to serve as a reference mark for determining yaw angles.

3.15 Reference Scribe Line Rotational Offset (RSLO). The rotational position of a probe's reference scribe line relative to the probe's yaw-null position, as determined during the yaw angle calibration described in section 10.5.

3.16 Response Time. The time required for the measurement system to fully respond to a change from zero differential pressure and ambient temperature to the stable stack or duct pressure and temperature readings at a traverse point.

3.17 Tested Probe. A 3-D probe that is being calibrated.

3.18 Three-dimensional (3-D) Probe. A directional probe used to determine the velocity pressure and yaw and pitch angles in a flowing gas stream.

3.19 Traverse Line. A diameter or axis extending across a stack or duct on which measurements of differential pressure and flow angles are made.

3.20 Wind Tunnel Calibration Location. A point, line, area, or volume within the wind tunnel test section at, along, or within which probes are calibrated. At a particular wind tunnel velocity setting, the average velocity pressures at specified points at, along, or within the calibration location shall vary by no more than 2 percent or 0.3 mm H2O (0.01 in. H2O), whichever is less restrictive, from the average velocity pressure at the calibration pitot tube location. Air flow at this location shall be axial, i.e., yaw and pitch angles within ±3°. Compliance with these flow criteria shall be demonstrated by performing the procedures prescribed in sections 10.1.1 and 10.1.2. For circular tunnels, no part of the calibration location may be closer to the tunnel wall than 10.2 cm (4 in.) or 25 percent of the tunnel diameter, whichever is farther from the wall. For elliptical or rectangular tunnels, no part of the calibration location may be closer to the tunnel wall than 10.2 cm (4 in.) or 25 percent of the applicable cross-sectional axis, whichever is farther from the wall.

3.21 Wind Tunnel with Documented Axial Flow. A wind tunnel facility documented as meeting the provisions of sections 10.1.1 (velocity pressure cross-check) and 10.1.2 (axial flow verification) using the procedures described in these sections or alternative procedures determined to be technically equivalent.

3.22 Yaw Angle. The angle between the axis of the stack or duct and the yaw component of flow, i.e., the component of the total velocity vector in a plane perpendicular to the traverse line at a particular traverse point. (Figure 2F-1 illustrates the “yaw plane.”) From the standpoint of a tester facing a test port in a vertical stack, the yaw component of flow is the vector of flow moving to the left or right from the center of the stack as viewed by the tester. (This is sometimes referred to as “vortex flow,” i.e., flow around the centerline of a stack or duct.) The yaw angle is the angle described by this yaw component of flow and the vertical axis of the stack. The algebraic sign convention is illustrated in Figure 2F-2.

3.23 Yaw Nulling. A procedure in which a probe is rotated about its axis in a stack or duct until a zero differential pressure reading (“yaw null”) is obtained. When a 3-D probe is yaw-nulled, its impact pressure port (P1) faces directly into the direction of flow in the stack or duct and the differential pressure between pressure ports P2 and P3 is zero.

4.0 Interferences [Reserved]
5.0 Safety

5.1 This test method may involve hazardous operations and the use of hazardous materials or equipment. This method does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user to establish and implement appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations before using this test method.

6.0 Equipment and Supplies

6.1 Three-dimensional Probes. The 3-D probes as specified in subsections 6.1.1 through 6.1.3 below qualify for use based on comprehensive wind tunnel and field studies involving both inter-and intra-probe comparisons by multiple test teams. Other types of probes shall not be used unless approved by the Administrator. Each 3-D probe shall have a unique identification number or code permanently marked on the main probe sheath. The minimum recommended diameter of the sensing head of any probe used under this method is 2.5 cm (1 in.). Each probe shall be calibrated prior to use according to the procedures in section 10. Manufacturer-supplied calibration data shall be used as example information only, except when the manufacturer calibrates the 3-D probe as specified in section 10 and provides complete documentation.

6.1.1 Five-hole prism-shaped probe. This type of probe consists of five pressure taps in the flat facets of a prism-shaped sensing head. The pressure taps are numbered 1 through 5, with the pressures measured at each hole referred to as P1, P2, P3, P4, and P5, respectively. Figure 2F-3 is an illustration of the placement of pressure taps on a commonly available five-hole prism-shaped probe, the 2.5-cm (1-in.) DAT probe. (Note: Mention of trade names or specific products does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.) The numbering arrangement for the prism-shaped sensing head presented in Figure 2F-3 shall be followed for correct operation of the probe. A brief description of the probe measurements involved is as follows: the differential pressure P2-P3 is used to yaw null the probe and determine the yaw angle; the differential pressure P4-P5 is a function of pitch angle; and the differential pressure P1-P2 is a function of total velocity.

6.1.2 Five-hole spherical probe. This type of probe consists of five pressure taps in a spherical sensing head. As with the prism-shaped probe, the pressure taps are numbered 1 through 5, with the pressures measured at each hole referred to as P1, P2, P3, P4, and P5, respectively. However, the P4 and P5 pressure taps are in the reverse location from their respective positions on the prism-shaped probe head. The differential pressure P2-P3 is used to yaw null the probe and determine the yaw angle; the differential pressure P4-P5 is a function of pitch angle; and the differential pressure P1-P2 is a function of total velocity. A diagram of a typical spherical probe sensing head is presented in Figure 2F-4. Typical probe dimensions are indicated in the illustration.

6.1.3 A manual 3-D probe refers to a five-hole prism-shaped or spherical probe that is positioned at individual traverse points and yaw nulled manually by an operator. An automated 3-D probe refers to a system that uses a computer-controlled motorized mechanism to position the five-hole prism-shaped or spherical head at individual traverse points and perform yaw angle determinations.

6.1.4 Other three-dimensional probes. [Reserved]

6.1.5 Probe sheath. The probe shaft shall include an outer sheath to: (1) provide a surface for inscribing a permanent reference scribe line, (2) accommodate attachment of an angle-measuring device to the probe shaft, and (3) facilitate precise rotational movement of the probe for determining yaw angles. The sheath shall be rigidly attached to the probe assembly and shall enclose all pressure lines from the probe head to the farthest position away from the probe head where an angle-measuring device may be attached during use in the field. The sheath of the fully assembled probe shall be sufficiently rigid and straight at all rotational positions such that, when one end of the probe shaft is held in a horizontal position, the fully extended probe meets the horizontal straightness specifications indicated in section 8.2 below.

6.1.6 Scribe lines.

6.1.6.1 Reference scribe line. A permanent line, no greater than 1.6 mm (1/16 in.) in width, shall be inscribed on each manual probe that will be used to determine yaw angles of flow. This line shall be placed on the main probe sheath in accordance with the procedures described in section 10.4 and is used as a reference position for installation of the yaw angle-measuring device on the probe. At the discretion of the tester, the scribe line may be a single line segment placed at a particular position on the probe sheath (e.g., near the probe head), multiple line segments placed at various locations along the length of the probe sheath (e.g., at every position where a yaw angle-measuring device may be mounted), or a single continuous line extending along the full length of the probe sheath.

6.1.6.2 Scribe line on probe extensions. A permanent line may also be inscribed on any probe extension that will be attached to the main probe in performing field testing. This allows a yaw angle-measuring device mounted on the extension to be readily aligned with the reference scribe line on the main probe sheath.

6.1.6.3 Alignment specifications. This specification shall be met separately, using the procedures in section 10.4.1, on the main probe and on each probe extension. The rotational position of the scribe line or scribe line segments on the main probe or any probe extension must not vary by more than 2°. That is, the difference between the minimum and maximum of all of the rotational angles that are measured along the full length of the main probe or the probe extension must not exceed 2°.

6.1.7 Probe and system characteristics to ensure horizontal stability.

6.1.7.1 For manual probes, it is recommended that the effective length of the probe (coupled with a probe extension, if necessary) be at least 0.9 m (3 ft.) longer than the farthest traverse point mark on the probe shaft away from the probe head. The operator should maintain the probe's horizontal stability when it is fully inserted into the stack or duct. If a shorter probe is used, the probe should be inserted through a bushing sleeve, similar to the one shown in Figure 2F-5, that is installed on the test port; such a bushing shall fit snugly around the probe and be secured to the stack or duct entry port in such a manner as to maintain the probe's horizontal stability when fully inserted into the stack or duct.

6.1.7.2 An automated system that includes an external probe casing with a transport system shall have a mechanism for maintaining horizontal stability comparable to that obtained by manual probes following the provisions of this method. The automated probe assembly shall also be constructed to maintain the alignment and position of the pressure ports during sampling at each traverse point. The design of the probe casing and transport system shall allow the probe to be removed from the stack or duct and checked through direct physical measurement for angular position and insertion depth.

6.1.8 The tubing that is used to connect the probe and the pressure-measuring device should have an inside diameter of at least 3.2 mm (1/8 in.), to reduce the time required for pressure equilibration, and should be as short as practicable.

6.2 Yaw Angle-measuring Device. One of the following devices shall be used for measurement of the yaw angle of flow.

6.2.1 Digital inclinometer. This refers to a digital device capable of measuring and displaying the rotational position of the probe to within ±1°. The device shall be able to be locked into position on the probe sheath or probe extension, so that it indicates the probe's rotational position throughout the test. A rotational position collar block that can be attached to the probe sheath (similar to the collar shown in Figure 2F-6) may be required to lock the digital inclinometer into position on the probe sheath.

6.2.2 Protractor wheel and pointer assembly. This apparatus, similar to that shown in Figure 2F-7, consists of the following components.

6.2.2.1 A protractor wheel that can be attached to a port opening and set in a fixed rotational position to indicate the yaw angle position of the probe's scribe line relative to the longitudinal axis of the stack or duct. The protractor wheel must have a measurement ring on its face that is no less than 17.8 cm (7 in.) in diameter, shall be able to be rotated to any angle and then locked into position on the stack or duct port, and shall indicate angles to a resolution of 1°.

6.2.2.2 A pointer assembly that includes an indicator needle mounted on a collar that can slide over the probe sheath and be locked into a fixed rotational position on the probe sheath. The pointer needle shall be of sufficient length, rigidity, and sharpness to allow the tester to determine the probe's angular position to within 1° from the markings on the protractor wheel. Corresponding to the position of the pointer, the collar must have a scribe line to be used in aligning the pointer with the scribe line on the probe sheath.

6.2.3 Other yaw angle-measuring devices. Other angle-measuring devices with a manufacturer's specified precision of 1° or better may be used, if approved by the Administrator.

6.3 Probe Supports and Stabilization Devices. When probes are used for determining flow angles, the probe head should be kept in a stable horizontal position. For probes longer than 3.0 m (10 ft.), the section of the probe that extends outside the test port shall be secured. Three alternative devices are suggested for maintaining the horizontal position and stability of the probe shaft during flow angle determinations and velocity pressure measurements: (1) Monorails installed above each port, (2) probe stands on which the probe shaft may be rested, or (3) bushing sleeves of sufficient length secured to the test ports to maintain probes in a horizontal position. Comparable provisions shall be made to ensure that automated systems maintain the horizontal position of the probe in the stack or duct. The physical characteristics of each test platform may dictate the most suitable type of stabilization device. Thus, the choice of a specific stabilization device is left to the judgment of the testers.

6.4 Differential Pressure Gauges. The pressure (ΔP) measuring devices used during wind tunnel calibrations and field testing shall be either electronic manometers (e.g., pressure transducers), fluid manometers, or mechanical pressure gauges (e.g., MagnehelicΔ gauges). Use of electronic manometers is recommended. Under low velocity conditions, use of electronic manometers may be necessary to obtain acceptable measurements.

6.4.1 Differential pressure-measuring device. This refers to a device capable of measuring pressure differentials and having a readability of ±1 percent of full scale. The device shall be capable of accurately measuring the maximum expected pressure differential. Such devices are used to determine the following pressure measurements: velocity pressure, static pressure, yaw-null pressure, and pitch-angle pressure. For an inclined-vertical manometer, the readability specification of ±1 percent shall be met separately using the respective full-scale upper limits of the inclined and vertical portions of the scales. To the extent practicable, the device shall be selected such that most of the pressure readings are between 10 and 90 percent of the device's full-scale measurement range (as defined in section 3.5). Typical velocity pressure (P1-P2) ranges for both the prism-shaped probe and the spherical probe are 0 to 1.3 cm H2O (0 to 0.5 in. H2O), 0 to 5.1 cm H2O (0 to 2 in. H2O), and 0 to 12.7 cm H2O (0 to 5 in. H2O). The pitch angle (P4-P5) pressure range is typically −6.4 to + 6.4 mm H2O (−0.25 to + 0.25 in. H2O) or −12.7 to + 12.7 mm H2O (−0.5 to + 0.5 in. H2O) for the prism-shaped probe, and −12.7 to + 12.7 mm H2O (−0.5 to + 0.5 in. H2O) or −5.1 to + 5.1 cm H2O (−2 to + 2 in. H2O) for the spherical probe. The pressure range for the yaw null (P2-P3) readings is typically −12.7 to + 12.7 mm H2O (−0.5 to + 0.5 in. H2O) for both probe types. In addition, pressure-measuring devices should be selected such that the zero does not drift by more than 5 percent of the average expected pressure readings to be encountered during the field test. This is particularly important under low pressure conditions.

6.4.2 Gauge used for yaw nulling. The differential pressure-measuring device chosen for yaw nulling the probe during the wind tunnel calibrations and field testing shall be bi-directional, i.e., capable of reading both positive and negative differential pressures. If a mechanical, bi-directional pressure gauge is chosen, it shall have a full-scale range no greater than 2.6 cm H2O (1 in. H2O) [i.e., −1.3 to + 1.3 cm H2O (−0.5 in. to + 0.5 in.)].

6.4.3 Devices for calibrating differential pressure-measuring devices. A precision manometer (e.g., a U-tube, inclined, or inclined-vertical manometer, or micromanometer) or NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) traceable pressure source shall be used for calibrating differential pressure-measuring devices. The device shall be maintained under laboratory conditions or in a similar protected environment (e.g., a climate-controlled trailer). It shall not be used in field tests. The precision manometer shall have a scale gradation of 0.3 mm H2O (0.01 in. H2O), or less, in the range of 0 to 5.1 cm H2O (0 to 2 in. H2O) and 2.5 mm H2O (0.1 in. H2O), or less, in the range of 5.1 to 25.4 cm H2O (2 to 10 in. H2O). The manometer shall have manufacturer's documentation that it meets an accuracy specification of at least 0.5 percent of full scale. The NIST-traceable pressure source shall be recertified annually.

6.4.4 Devices used for post-test calibration check. A precision manometer meeting the specifications in section 6.4.3, a pressure-measuring device or pressure source with a documented calibration traceable to NIST, or an equivalent device approved by the Administrator shall be used for the post-test calibration check. The pressure-measuring device shall have a readability equivalent to or greater than the tested device. The pressure source shall be capable of generating pressures between 50 and 90 percent of the range of the tested device and known to within ±1 percent of the full scale of the tested device. The pressure source shall be recertified annually.

6.5 Data Display and Capture Devices. Electronic manometers (if used) shall be coupled with a data display device (such as a digital panel meter, personal computer display, or strip chart) that allows the tester to observe and validate the pressure measurements taken during testing. They shall also be connected to a data recorder (such as a data logger or a personal computer with data capture software) that has the ability to compute and retain the appropriate average value at each traverse point, identified by collection time and traverse point.

6.6 Temperature Gauges. For field tests, a thermocouple or resistance temperature detector (RTD) capable of measuring temperature to within ±3 °C (±5 °F) of the stack or duct temperature shall be used. The thermocouple shall be attached to the probe such that the sensor tip does not touch any metal and is located on the opposite side of the probe head from the pressure ports so as not to interfere with the gas flow around the probe head. The position of the thermocouple relative to the pressure port face openings shall be in the same configuration as used for the probe calibrations in the wind tunnel. Temperature gauges used for wind tunnel calibrations shall be capable of measuring temperature to within ±0.6 °C (±1 °F) of the temperature of the flowing gas stream in the wind tunnel.

6.7 Stack or Duct Static Pressure Measurement. The pressure-measuring device used with the probe shall be as specified in section 6.4 of this method. The static tap of a standard (Prandtl type) pitot tube or one leg of a Type S pitot tube with the face opening planes positioned parallel to the gas flow may be used for this measurement. Also acceptable is the pressure differential reading of P1-Pbar from a five-hole prism-shaped probe (e.g., Type DA or DAT probe) with the P1 pressure port face opening positioned parallel to the gas flow in the same manner as the Type S probe. However, the spherical probe, as specified in section 6.1.2, is unable to provide this measurement and shall not be used to take static pressure measurements. Static pressure measurement is further described in section 8.11.

6.8 Barometer. Same as Method 2, section 2.5.

6.9 Gas Density Determination Equipment. Method 3 or 3A shall be used to determine the dry molecular weight of the stack gas. Method 4 shall be used for moisture content determination and computation of stack gas wet molecular weight. Other methods may be used, if approved by the Administrator.

6.10 Calibration Pitot Tube. Same as Method 2, section 2.7.

6.11 Wind Tunnel for Probe Calibration. Wind tunnels used to calibrate velocity probes must meet the following design specifications.

6.11.1 Test section cross-sectional area. The flowing gas stream shall be confined within a circular, rectangular, or elliptical duct. The cross-sectional area of the tunnel must be large enough to ensure fully developed flow in the presence of both the calibration pitot tube and the tested probe. The calibration site, or “test section,” of the wind tunnel shall have a minimum diameter of 30.5 cm (12 in.) for circular or elliptical duct cross-sections or a minimum width of 30.5 cm (12 in.) on the shorter side for rectangular cross-sections. Wind tunnels shall meet the probe blockage provisions of this section and the qualification requirements prescribed in section 10.1. The projected area of the portion of the probe head, shaft, and attached devices inside the wind tunnel during calibration shall represent no more than 4 percent of the cross-sectional area of the tunnel. The projected area shall include the combined area of the calibration pitot tube and the tested probe if both probes are placed simultaneously in the same cross-sectional plane in the wind tunnel, or the larger projected area of the two probes if they are placed alternately in the wind tunnel.

6.11.2 Velocity range and stability. The wind tunnel should be capable of maintaining velocities between 6.1 m/sec and 30.5 m/sec (20 ft/sec and 100 ft/sec). The wind tunnel shall produce fully developed flow patterns that are stable and parallel to the axis of the duct in the test section.

6.11.3 Flow profile at the calibration location. The wind tunnel shall provide axial flow within the test section calibration location (as defined in section 3.20). Yaw and pitch angles in the calibration location shall be within ±3° of 0°. The procedure for determining that this requirement has been met is described in section 10.1.2.

6.11.4 Entry ports in the wind tunnel test section.

6.11.4.1 Port for tested probe. A port shall be constructed for the tested probe. The port should have an elongated slot parallel to the axis of the duct at the test section. The elongated slot should be of sufficient length to allow attaining all the pitch angles at which the probe will be calibrated for use in the field. To facilitate alignment of the probe during calibration, the test section should include a window constructed of a transparent material to allow the tested probe to be viewed. This port shall be located to allow the head of the tested probe to be positioned within the calibration location (as defined in section 3.20) at all pitch angle settings.

6.11.4.2 Port for verification of axial flow. Depending on the equipment selected to conduct the axial flow verification prescribed in section 10.1.2, a second port, located 90° from the entry port for the tested probe, may be needed to allow verification that the gas flow is parallel to the central axis of the test section. This port should be located and constructed so as to allow one of the probes described in section 10.1.2.2 to access the same test point(s) that are accessible from the port described in section 6.11.4.1.

6.11.4.3 Port for calibration pitot tube. The calibration pitot tube shall be used in the port for the tested probe or a separate entry port. In either case, all measurements with the calibration pitot tube shall be made at the same point within the wind tunnel over the course of a probe calibration. The measurement point for the calibration pitot tube shall meet the same specifications for distance from the wall and for axial flow as described in section 3.20 for the wind tunnel calibration location.

6.11.5 Pitch angle protractor plate. A protractor plate shall be attached directly under the port used with the tested probe and set in a fixed position to indicate the pitch angle position of the probe relative to the longitudinal axis of the wind tunnel duct (similar to Figure 2F-8). The protractor plate shall indicate angles in 5° increments with a minimum resolution of ±2°. The tested probe shall be able to be locked into position at the desired pitch angle delineated on the protractor. The probe head position shall be maintained within the calibration location (as defined in section 3.20) in the test section of the wind tunnel during all tests across the range of pitch angles.

7.0 Reagents and Standards [Reserved]
8.0 Sample Collection and Analysis

8.1 Equipment Inspection and Set-Up

8.1.1 All probes, differential pressure-measuring devices, yaw angle-measuring devices, thermocouples, and barometers shall have a current, valid calibration before being used in a field test. (See sections 10.3.3, 10.3.4, and 10.5 through10.10 for the applicable calibration requirements.)

8.1.2 Before each field use of a 3-D probe, perform a visual inspection to verify the physical condition of the probe head according to the procedures in section 10.2. Record the inspection results on a form similar to Table 2F-1. If there is visible damage to the 3-D probe, the probe shall not be used until it is recalibrated.

8.1.3 After verifying that the physical condition of the probe head is acceptable, set up the apparatus using lengths of flexible tubing that are as short as practicable. Surge tanks installed between the probe and pressure-measuring device may be used to dampen pressure fluctuations provided that an adequate measurement response time (see section 8.8) is maintained.

8.2 Horizontal Straightness Check. A horizontal straightness check shall be performed before the start of each field test, except as otherwise specified in this section. Secure the fully assembled probe (including the probe head and all probe shaft extensions) in a horizontal position using a stationary support at a point along the probe shaft approximating the location of the stack or duct entry port when the probe is sampling at the farthest traverse point from the stack or duct wall. The probe shall be rotated to detect bends. Use an angle-measuring device or trigonometry to determine the bend or sag between the probe head and the secured end. (See Figure 2F-9.) Probes that are bent or sag by more than 5° shall not be used. Although this check does not apply when the probe is used for a vertical traverse, care should be taken to avoid the use of bent probes when conducting vertical traverses. If the probe is constructed of a rigid steel material and consists of a main probe without probe extensions, this check need only be performed before the initial field use of the probe, when the probe is recalibrated, when a change is made to the design or material of the probe assembly, and when the probe becomes bent. With such probes, a visual inspection shall be made of the fully assembled probe before each field test to determine if a bend is visible. The probe shall be rotated to detect bends. The inspection results shall be documented in the field test report. If a bend in the probe is visible, the horizontal straightness check shall be performed before the probe is used.

8.3 Rotational Position Check. Before each field test, and each time an extension is added to the probe during a field test, a rotational position check shall be performed on all manually operated probes (except as noted in section 8.3.5, below) to ensure that, throughout testing, the angle-measuring device is either: aligned to within ±1° of the rotational position of the reference scribe line; or is affixed to the probe such that the rotational offset of the device from the reference scribe line is known to within ±1°. This check shall consist of direct measurements of the rotational positions of the reference scribe line and angle-measuring device sufficient to verify that these specifications are met. Annex A in section 18 of this method gives recommended procedures for performing the rotational position check, and Table 2F-2 gives an example data form. Procedures other than those recommended in Annex A in section 18 may be used, provided they demonstrate whether the alignment specification is met and are explained in detail in the field test report.

8.3.1 Angle-measuring device rotational offset. The tester shall maintain a record of the angle-measuring device rotational offset, RADO, as defined in section 3.1. Note that RADO is assigned a value of 0° when the angle-measuring device is aligned to within ±1° of the rotational position of the reference scribe line. The RADO shall be used to determine the yaw angle of flow in accordance with section 8.9.4.

8.3.2 Sign of angle-measuring device rotational offset. The sign of RADO is positive when the angle-measuring device (as viewed from the “tail” end of the probe) is positioned in a clockwise direction from the reference scribe line and negative when the device is positioned in a counterclockwise direction from the reference scribe line.

8.3.3 Angle-measuring devices that can be independently adjusted (e.g., by means of a set screw), after being locked into position on the probe sheath, may be used. However, the RADO must also take into account this adjustment.

8.3.4 Post-test check. If probe extensions remain attached to the main probe throughout the field test, the rotational position check shall be repeated, at a minimum, at the completion of the field test to ensure that the angle-measuring device has remained within ±2° of its rotational position established prior to testing. At the discretion of the tester, additional checks may be conducted after completion of testing at any sample port or after any test run. If the ±2° specification is not met, all measurements made since the last successful rotational position check must be repeated. section 18.1.1.3 of Annex A provides an example procedure for performing the post-test check.

8.3.5 Exceptions.

8.3.5.1 A rotational position check need not be performed if, for measurements taken at all velocity traverse points, the yaw angle-measuring device is mounted and aligned directly on the reference scribe line specified in sections 6.1.6.1 and 6.1.6.3 and no independent adjustments, as described in section 8.3.3, are made to the device's rotational position.

8.3.5.2 If extensions are detached and re-attached to the probe during a field test, a rotational position check need only be performed the first time an extension is added to the probe, rather than each time the extension is re-attached, if the probe extension is designed to be locked into a mechanically fixed rotational position (e.g., through use of interlocking grooves) that can re-establish the initial rotational position to within ±1°.

8.4 Leak Checks. A pre-test leak check shall be conducted before each field test. A post-test check shall be performed at the end of the field test, but additional leak checks may be conducted after any test run or group of test runs. The post-test check may also serve as the pre-test check for the next group of test runs. If any leak check is failed, all runs since the last passed leak check are invalid. While performing the leak check procedures, also check each pressure device's responsiveness to the changes in pressure.

8.4.1 To perform the leak check, pressurize the probe's P1 pressure port until at least 7.6 cm H2O (3 in. H2O) pressure, or a pressure corresponding to approximately 75 percent of the pressure-measuring device's measurement scale, whichever is less, registers on the device; then, close off the pressure port. The pressure shall remain stable [±2.5 mm H2O (±0.10 in. H2O)] for at least 15 seconds. Check the P2, P3, P4, and P5 pressure ports in the same fashion. Other leak-check procedures may be used, if approved by the Administrator.

8.5 Zeroing the Differential Pressure-measuring Device. Zero each differential pressure-measuring device, including the device used for yaw nulling, before each field test. At a minimum, check the zero after each field test. A zero check may also be performed after any test run or group of test runs. For fluid manometers and mechanical pressure gauges (e.g., MagnehelicΔ gauges), the zero reading shall not deviate from zero by more than ±0.8 mm H2O (±0.03 in. H2O) or one minor scale division, whichever is greater, between checks. For electronic manometers, the zero reading shall not deviate from zero between checks by more than: ±0.3 mm H2O (±0.01 in. H2O), for full scales less than or equal to 5.1 cm H2O (2.0 in. H2O); or ±0.8 mm H2O (±0.03 in. H2O), for full scales greater than 5.1 cm H2O (2.0 in. H2O). (Note: If negative zero drift is not directly readable, estimate the reading based on the position of the gauge oil in the manometer or of the needle on the pressure gauge.) In addition, for all pressure-measuring devices except those used exclusively for yaw nulling, the zero reading shall not deviate from zero by more than 5 percent of the average measured differential pressure at any distinct process condition or load level. If any zero check is failed at a specific process condition or load level, all runs conducted at that process condition or load level since the last passed zero check are invalid.

8.6 Traverse Point Verification. The number and location of the traverse points shall be selected based on Method 1 guidelines. The stack or duct diameter and port nipple lengths, including any extension of the port nipples into stack or duct, shall be verified the first time the test is performed; retain and use this information for subsequent field tests, updating it as required. Physically measure the stack or duct dimensions or use a calibrated laser device; do not use engineering drawings of the stack or duct. The probe length necessary to reach each traverse point shall be recorded to within ±6.4 mm (±1/4 in.) and, for manual probes, marked on the probe sheath. In determining these lengths, the tester shall take into account both the distance that the port flange projects outside of the stack and the depth that any port nipple extends into the gas stream. The resulting point positions shall reflect the true distances from the inside wall of the stack or duct, so that when the tester aligns any of the markings with the outside face of the stack port, the probe's impact port shall be located at the appropriate distance from the inside wall for the respective Method 1 traverse point. Before beginning testing at a particular location, an out-of-stack or duct verification shall be performed on each probe that will be used to ensure that these position markings are correct. The distances measured during the verification must agree with the previously calculated distances to within ±1/4 in. For manual probes, the traverse point positions shall be verified by measuring the distance of each mark from the probe's P1 pressure port. A comparable out-of-stack test shall be performed on automated probe systems. The probe shall be extended to each of the prescribed traverse point positions. Then, the accuracy of the positioning for each traverse point shall be verified by measuring the distance between the port flange and the probe's P1 pressure port.

8.7 Probe Installation. Insert the probe into the test port. A solid material shall be used to seal the port.

8.8 System Response Time. Determine the response time of the probe measurement system. Insert and position the “cold” probe (at ambient temperature and pressure) at any Method 1 traverse point. Read and record the probe's P1-P2 differential pressure, temperature, and elapsed time at 15-second intervals until stable readings for both pressure and temperature are achieved. The response time is the longer of these two elapsed times. Record the response time.

8.9 Sampling.

8.9.1 Yaw angle measurement protocol. With manual probes, yaw angle measurements may be obtained in two alternative ways during the field test, either by using a yaw angle-measuring device (e.g., digital inclinometer) affixed to the probe, or using a protractor wheel and pointer assembly. For horizontal traversing, either approach may be used. For vertical traversing, i.e., when measuring from on top or into the bottom of a horizontal duct, only the protractor wheel and pointer assembly may be used. With automated probes, curve-fitting protocols may be used to obtain yaw-angle measurements.

8.9.1.1 If a yaw angle-measuring device affixed to the probe is to be used, lock the device on the probe sheath, aligning it either on the reference scribe line or in the rotational offset position established under section 8.3.1.

8.9.1.2 If a protractor wheel and pointer assembly is to be used, follow the procedures in Annex B of this method.

8.9.1.3 Other yaw angle-determination procedures. If approved by the Administrator, other procedures for determining yaw angle may be used, provided that they are verified in a wind tunnel to be able to perform the yaw angle calibration procedure as described in section 10.5.

8.9.2 Sampling strategy. At each traverse point, first yaw-null the probe, as described in section 8.9.3, below. Then, with the probe oriented into the direction of flow, measure and record the yaw angle, the differential pressures and the temperature at the traverse point, after stable readings are achieved, in accordance with sections 8.9.4 and 8.9.5. At the start of testing in each port (i.e., after a probe has been inserted into the flue gas stream), allow at least the response time to elapse before beginning to take measurements at the first traverse point accessed from that port. Provided that the probe is not removed from the flue gas stream, measurements may be taken at subsequent traverse points accessed from the same test port without waiting again for the response time to elapse.

8.9.3 Yaw-nulling procedure. In preparation for yaw angle determination, the probe must first be yaw nulled. After positioning the probe at the appropriate traverse point, perform the following procedures.

8.9.3.1 Rotate the probe until a null differential pressure reading (the difference in pressures across the P2 and P3 pressure ports is zero, i.e., P2 = P3) is indicated by the yaw angle pressure gauge. Read and record the angle displayed by the angle-measuring device.

8.9.3.2 Sign of the measured angle. The angle displayed on the angle-measuring device is considered positive when the probe's impact pressure port (as viewed from the “tail” end of the probe) is oriented in a clockwise rotational position relative to the stack or duct axis and is considered negative when the probe's impact pressure port is oriented in a counterclockwise rotational position (see Figure 2F-10).

8.9.4 Yaw angle determination. After performing the yaw-nulling procedure in section 8.9.3, determine the yaw angle of flow according to one of the following procedures. Special care must be observed to take into account the signs of the recorded angle and all offsets.

8.9.4.1 Direct-reading. If all rotational offsets are zero or if the angle-measuring device rotational offset (RADO) determined in section 8.3 exactly compensates for the scribe line rotational offset (RSLO) determined in section 10.5, then the magnitude of the yaw angle is equal to the displayed angle-measuring device reading from section 8.9.3.1. The algebraic sign of the yaw angle is determined in accordance with section 8.9.3.2.

Note:

Under certain circumstances (e.g., testing of horizontal ducts), a 90° adjustment to the angle-measuring device readings may be necessary to obtain the correct yaw angles.

8.9.4.2 Compensation for rotational offsets during data reduction. When the angle-measuring device rotational offset does not compensate for reference scribe line rotational offset, the following procedure shall be used to determine the yaw angle:

(a) Enter the reading indicated by the angle-measuring device from section 8.9.3.1.

(b) Associate the proper algebraic sign from section 8.9.3.2 with the reading in step (a).

(c) Subtract the reference scribe line rotational offset, RSLO, from the reading in step (b).

(d) Subtract the angle-measuring device rotational offset, RADO, if any, from the result obtained in step (c).

(e) The final result obtained in step (d) is the yaw angle of flow.

Note:

It may be necessary to first apply a 90° adjustment to the reading in step (a), in order to obtain the correct yaw angle.

8.9.4.3 Record the yaw angle measurements on a form similar to Table 2F-3.

8.9.5 Velocity determination. Maintain the probe rotational position established during the yaw angle determination. Then, begin recording the pressure-measuring device readings for the impact pressure (P1-P2) and pitch angle pressure (P4-P5). These pressure measurements shall be taken over a sampling period of sufficiently long duration to ensure representative readings at each traverse point. If the pressure measurements are determined from visual readings of the pressure device or display, allow sufficient time to observe the pulsation in the readings to obtain a sight-weighted average, which is then recorded manually. If an automated data acquisition system (e.g., data logger, computer-based data recorder, strip chart recorder) is used to record the pressure measurements, obtain an integrated average of all pressure readings at the traverse point. Stack or duct gas temperature measurements shall be recorded, at a minimum, once at each traverse point. Record all necessary data as shown in the example field data form (Table 2F-3).

8.9.6 Alignment check. For manually operated probes, after the required yaw angle and differential pressure and temperature measurements have been made at each traverse point, verify (e.g., by visual inspection) that the yaw angle-measuring device has remained in proper alignment with the reference scribe line or with the rotational offset position established in section 8.3. If, for a particular traverse point, the angle-measuring device is found to be in proper alignment, proceed to the next traverse point; otherwise, re-align the device and repeat the angle and differential pressure measurements at the traverse point. In the course of a traverse, if a mark used to properly align the angle-measuring device (e.g., as described in section 18.1.1.1) cannot be located, re-establish the alignment mark before proceeding with the traverse.

8.10 Probe Plugging. Periodically check for plugging of the pressure ports by observing the responses on pressure differential readouts. Plugging causes erratic results or sluggish responses. Rotate the probe to determine whether the readouts respond in the expected direction. If plugging is detected, correct the problem and repeat the affected measurements.

8.11 Static Pressure. Measure the static pressure in the stack or duct using the equipment described in section 6.7.

8.11.1 If a Type DA or DAT probe is used for this measurement, position the probe at or between any traverse point(s) and rotate the probe until a null differential pressure reading is obtained at P2-P3. Rotate the probe 90°. Disconnect the P2 pressure side of the probe and read the pressure P1-Pbar and record as the static pressure. (Note: The spherical probe, specified in section 6.1.2, is unable to provide this measurement and shall not be used to take static pressure measurements.)

8.11.2 If a Type S probe is used for this measurement, position the probe at or between any traverse point(s) and rotate the probe until a null differential pressure reading is obtained. Disconnect the tubing from one of the pressure ports; read and record the ΔP. For pressure devices with one-directional scales, if a deflection in the positive direction is noted with the negative side disconnected, then the static pressure is positive. Likewise, if a deflection in the positive direction is noted with the positive side disconnected, then the static pressure is negative.

8.12 Atmospheric Pressure. Determine the atmospheric pressure at the sampling elevation during each test run following the procedure described in section 2.5 of Method 2.

8.13 Molecular Weight. Determine the stack gas dry molecular weight. For combustion processes or processes that emit essentially CO2, O2, CO, and N2, use Method 3 or 3A. For processes emitting essentially air, an analysis need not be conducted; use a dry molecular weight of 29.0. Other methods may be used, if approved by the Administrator.

8.14 Moisture. Determine the moisture content of the stack gas using Method 4 or equivalent.

8.15 Data Recording and Calculations. Record all required data on a form similar to Table 2F-3.

8.15.1 Selection of appropriate calibration curves. Choose the appropriate pair of F1 and F2 versus pitch angle calibration curves, created as described in section 10.6.

8.15.2 Pitch angle derivation. Use the appropriate calculation procedures in section 12.2 to find the pitch angle ratios that are applicable at each traverse point. Then, find the pitch angles corresponding to these pitch angle ratios on the “F1 versus pitch angle” curve for the probe.

8.15.3 Velocity calibration coefficient derivation. Use the pitch angle obtained following the procedures described in section 8.15.2 to find the corresponding velocity calibration coefficients from the “F2 versus pitch angle” calibration curve for the probe.

8.15.4 Calculations. Calculate the axial velocity at each traverse point using the equations presented in section 12.2 to account for the yaw and pitch angles of flow. Calculate the test run average stack gas velocity by finding the arithmetic average of the point velocity results in accordance with sections 12.3 and 12.4, and calculate the stack gas volumetric flow rate in accordance with section 12.5 or 12.6, as applicable.

9.0 Quality Control

9.1 Quality Control Activities. In conjunction with the yaw angle determination and the pressure and temperature measurements specified in section 8.9, the following quality control checks should be performed.

9.1.1 Range of the differential pressure gauge. In accordance with the specifications in section 6.4, ensure that the proper differential pressure gauge is being used for the range of ΔP values encountered. If it is necessary to change to a more sensitive gauge, replace the gauge with a gauge calibrated according to section 10.3.3, perform the leak check described in section 8.4 and the zero check described in section 8.5, and repeat the differential pressure and temperature readings at each traverse point.

9.1.2 Horizontal stability check. For horizontal traverses of a stack or duct, visually check that the probe shaft is maintained in a horizontal position prior to taking a pressure reading. Periodically, during a test run, the probe's horizontal stability should be verified by placing a carpenter's level, a digital inclinometer, or other angle-measuring device on the portion of the probe sheath that extends outside of the test port. A comparable check should be performed by automated systems.

10.0 Calibration

10.1 Wind Tunnel Qualification Checks. To qualify for use in calibrating probes, a wind tunnel shall have the design features specified in section 6.11 and satisfy the following qualification criteria. The velocity pressure cross-check in section 10.1.1 and axial flow verification in section 10.1.2 shall be performed before the initial use of the wind tunnel and repeated immediately after any alteration occurs in the wind tunnel's configuration, fans, interior surfaces, straightening vanes, controls, or other properties that could reasonably be expected to alter the flow pattern or velocity stability in the tunnel. The owner or operator of a wind tunnel used to calibrate probes according to this method shall maintain records documenting that the wind tunnel meets the requirements of sections 10.1.1 and 10.1.2 and shall provide these records to the Administrator upon request.

10.1.1 Velocity pressure cross-check. To verify that the wind tunnel produces the same velocity at the tested probe head as at the calibration pitot tube impact port, perform the following cross-check. Take three differential pressure measurements at the fixed calibration pitot tube location, using the calibration pitot tube specified in section 6.10, and take three measurements with the calibration pitot tube at the wind tunnel calibration location, as defined in section 3.20. Alternate the measurements between the two positions. Perform this procedure at the lowest and highest velocity settings at which the probes will be calibrated. Record the values on a form similar to Table 2F-4. At each velocity setting, the average velocity pressure obtained at the wind tunnel calibration location shall be within ±2 percent or 2.5 mm H2O (0.01 in. H2O), whichever is less restrictive, of the average velocity pressure obtained at the fixed calibration pitot tube location. This comparative check shall be performed at 2.5-cm (1-in.), or smaller, intervals across the full length, width, and depth (if applicable) of the wind tunnel calibration location. If the criteria are not met at every tested point, the wind tunnel calibration location must be redefined, so that acceptable results are obtained at every point. Include the results of the velocity pressure cross-check in the calibration data section of the field test report. (See section 16.1.4.)

10.1.2 Axial flow verification. The following procedures shall be performed to demonstrate that there is fully developed axial flow within the calibration location and at the calibration pitot tube location. Two testing options are available to conduct this check.

10.1.2.1 Using a calibrated 3-D probe. A 3-D probe that has been previously calibrated in a wind tunnel with documented axial flow (as defined in section 3.21) may be used to conduct this check. Insert the calibrated 3-D probe into the wind tunnel test section using the tested probe port. Following the procedures in sections 8.9 and 12.2 of this method, determine the yaw and pitch angles at all the point(s) in the test section where the velocity pressure cross-check, as specified in section 10.1.1, is performed. This includes all the points in the calibration location and the point where the calibration pitot tube will be located. Determine the yaw and pitch angles at each point. Repeat these measurements at the highest and lowest velocities at which the probes will be calibrated. Record the values on a form similar to Table 2F-5. Each measured yaw and pitch angle shall be within ±3° of 0°. Exceeding the limits indicates unacceptable flow in the test section. Until the problem is corrected and acceptable flow is verified by repetition of this procedure, the wind tunnel shall not be used for calibration of probes. Include the results of the axial flow verification in the calibration data section of the field test report. (See section 16.1.4.)

10.1.2.2 Using alternative probes. Axial flow verification may be performed using an uncalibrated prism-shaped 3-D probe (e.g., DA or DAT probe) or an uncalibrated wedge probe. (Figure 2F-11 illustrates a typical wedge probe.) This approach requires use of two ports: the tested probe port and a second port located 90° from the tested probe port. Each port shall provide access to all the points within the wind tunnel test section where the velocity pressure cross-check, as specified in section 10.1.1, is conducted. The probe setup shall include establishing a reference yaw-null position on the probe sheath to serve as the location for installing the angle-measuring device. Physical design features of the DA, DAT, and wedge probes are relied on to determine the reference position. For the DA or DAT probe, this reference position can be determined by setting a digital inclinometer on the flat facet where the P1 pressure port is located and then identifying the rotational position on the probe sheath where a second angle-measuring device would give the same angle reading. The reference position on a wedge probe shaft can be determined either geometrically or by placing a digital inclinometer on each side of the wedge and rotating the probe until equivalent readings are obtained. With the latter approach, the reference position is the rotational position on the probe sheath where an angle-measuring device would give a reading of 0°. After installing the angle-measuring device in the reference yaw-null position on the probe sheath, determine the yaw angle from the tested port. Repeat this measurement using the 90° offset port, which provides the pitch angle of flow. Determine the yaw and pitch angles at all the point(s) in the test section where the velocity pressure cross-check, as specified in section 10.1.1, is performed. This includes all the points in the wind tunnel calibration location and the point where the calibration pitot tube will be located. Perform this check at the highest and lowest velocities at which the probes will be calibrated. Record the values on a form similar to Table 2F-5. Each measured yaw and pitch angle shall be within ±3° of 0°. Exceeding the limits indicates unacceptable flow in the test section. Until the problem is corrected and acceptable flow is verified by repetition of this procedure, the wind tunnel shall not be used for calibration of probes. Include the results in the probe calibration report.

10.1.3 Wind tunnel audits.

10.1.3.1 Procedure. Upon the request of the Administrator, the owner or operator of a wind tunnel shall calibrate a 3-D audit probe in accordance with the procedures described in sections 10.3 through 10.6. The calibration shall be performed at two velocities and over a pitch angle range that encompasses the velocities and pitch angles typically used for this method at the facility. The resulting calibration data and curves shall be submitted to the Agency in an audit test report. These results shall be compared by the Agency to reference calibrations of the audit probe at the same velocity and pitch angle settings obtained at two different wind tunnels.

10.1.3.2 Acceptance criteria. The audited tunnel's calibration is acceptable if all of the following conditions are satisfied at each velocity and pitch setting for the reference calibration obtained from at least one of the wind tunnels. For pitch angle settings between −15° and + 15°, no velocity calibration coefficient (i.e., F2) may differ from the corresponding reference value by more than 3 percent. For pitch angle settings outside of this range (i.e., less than −15° and greater than + 15°), no velocity calibration coefficient may differ by more than 5 percent from the corresponding reference value. If the acceptance criteria are not met, the audited wind tunnel shall not be used to calibrate probes for use under this method until the problems are resolved and acceptable results are obtained upon completion of a subsequent audit.

10.2 Probe Inspection. Before each calibration of a 3-D probe, carefully examine the physical condition of the probe head. Particular attention shall be paid to the edges of the pressure ports and the surfaces surrounding these ports. Any dents, scratches, or asymmetries on the edges of the pressure ports and any scratches or indentations on the surfaces surrounding the pressure ports shall be noted because of the potential effect on the probe's pressure readings. If the probe has been previously calibrated, compare the current condition of the probe's pressure ports and surfaces to the results of the inspection performed during the probe's most recent wind tunnel calibration. Record the results of this inspection on a form and in diagrams similar to Table 2F-1. The information in Table 2F-1 will be used as the basis for comparison during the probe head inspections performed before each subsequent field use.

10.3 Pre-Calibration Procedures. Prior to calibration, a scribe line shall have been placed on the probe in accordance with section 10.4. The yaw angle and velocity calibration procedures shall not begin until the pre-test requirements in sections 10.3.1 through 10.3.4 have been met.

10.3.1 Perform the horizontal straightness check described in section 8.2 on the probe assembly that will be calibrated in the wind tunnel.

10.3.2 Perform a leak check in accordance with section 8.4.

10.3.3 Except as noted in section 10.3.3.3, calibrate all differential pressure-measuring devices to be used in the probe calibrations, using the following procedures. At a minimum, calibrate these devices on each day that probe calibrations are performed.

10.3.3.1 Procedure. Before each wind tunnel use, all differential pressure-measuring devices shall be calibrated against the reference device specified in section 6.4.3 using a common pressure source. Perform the calibration at three reference pressures representing 30, 60, and 90 percent of the full-scale range of the pressure-measuring device being calibrated. For an inclined-vertical manometer, perform separate calibrations on the inclined and vertical portions of the measurement scale, considering each portion of the scale to be a separate full-scale range. [For example, for a manometer with a 0- to 2.5-cm H2O (0- to 1-in. H2O) inclined scale and a 2.5- to 12.7-cm H2O (1- to 5-in. H2O) vertical scale, calibrate the inclined portion at 7.6, 15.2, and 22.9 mm H2O (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 in. H2O), and calibrate the vertical portion at 3.8, 7.6, and 11.4 cm H2O (1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 in. H2O).] Alternatively, for the vertical portion of the scale, use three evenly spaced reference pressures, one of which is equal to or higher than the highest differential pressure expected in field applications.

10.3.3.2 Acceptance criteria. At each pressure setting, the two pressure readings made using the reference device and the pressure-measuring device being calibrated shall agree to within ±2 percent of full scale of the device being calibrated or 0.5 mm H2O (0.02 in. H2O), whichever is less restrictive. For an inclined-vertical manometer, these requirements shall be met separately using the respective full-scale upper limits of the inclined and vertical portions of the scale. Differential pressure-measuring devices not meeting the #2 percent of full scale or 0.5 mm H2O (0.02 in. H2O) calibration requirement shall not be used.

10.3.3.3 Exceptions. Any precision manometer that meets the specifications for a reference device in section 6.4.3 and that is not used for field testing does not require calibration, but must be leveled and zeroed before each wind tunnel use. Any pressure device used exclusively for yaw nulling does not require calibration, but shall be checked for responsiveness to rotation of the probe prior to each wind tunnel use.

10.3.4 Calibrate digital inclinometers on each day of wind tunnel or field testing (prior to beginning testing) using the following procedures. Calibrate the inclinometer according to the manufacturer's calibration procedures. In addition, use a triangular block (illustrated in Figure 2F-12) with a known angle, θ independently determined using a protractor or equivalent device, between two adjacent sides to verify the inclinometer readings.

Note:

If other angle-measuring devices meeting the provisions of section 6.2.3 are used in place of a digital inclinometer, comparable calibration procedures shall be performed on such devices.)

Secure the triangular block in a fixed position. Place the inclinometer on one side of the block (side A) to measure the angle of inclination (R1). Repeat this measurement on the adjacent side of the block (side B) using the inclinometer to obtain a second angle reading (R2). The difference of the sum of the two readings from 180° (i.e., 180° −R1 −R2) shall be within ±2° of the known angle, Θ

10.4 Placement of Reference Scribe Line. Prior to the first calibration of a probe, a line shall be permanently inscribed on the main probe sheath to serve as a reference mark for determining yaw angles. Annex C in section 18 of this method gives a guideline for placement of the reference scribe line.

10.4.1 This reference scribe line shall meet the specifications in sections 6.1.6.1 and 6.1.6.3 of this method. To verify that the alignment specification in section 6.1.6.3 is met, secure the probe in a horizontal position and measure the rotational angle of each scribe line and scribe line segment using an angle-measuring device that meets the specifications in section 6.2.1 or 6.2.3. For any scribe line that is longer than 30.5 cm (12 in.), check the line's rotational position at 30.5-cm (12-in.) intervals. For each line segment that is 30.5 cm (12 in.) or less in length, check the rotational position at the two endpoints of the segment. To meet the alignment specification in section 6.1.6.3, the minimum and maximum of all of the rotational angles that are measured along the full length of the main probe must not differ by more than 2°.

Note:

A short reference scribe line segment [e.g., 15.2 cm (6 in.) or less in length] meeting the alignment specifications in section 6.1.6.3 is fully acceptable under this method. See section 18.1.1.1 of Annex A for an example of a probe marking procedure, suitable for use with a short reference scribe line.

10.4.2 The scribe line should be placed on the probe first and then its offset from the yaw-null position established (as specified in section 10.5). The rotational position of the reference scribe line relative to the yaw-null position of the probe, as determined by the yaw angle calibration procedure in section 10.5, is defined as the reference scribe line rotational offset, RSLO. The reference scribe line rotational offset shall be recorded and retained as part of the probe's calibration record.

10.4.3 Scribe line for automated probes. A scribe line may not be necessary for an automated probe system if a reference rotational position of the probe is built into the probe system design. For such systems, a “flat” (or comparable, clearly identifiable physical characteristic) should be provided on the probe casing or flange plate to ensure that the reference position of the probe assembly remains in a vertical or horizontal position. The rotational offset of the flat (or comparable, clearly identifiable physical characteristic) needed to orient the reference position of the probe assembly shall be recorded and maintained as part of the automated probe system's specifications.

10.5 Yaw Angle Calibration Procedure. For each probe used to measure yaw angles with this method, a calibration procedure shall be performed in a wind tunnel meeting the specifications in section 10.1 to determine the rotational position of the reference scribe line relative to the probe's yaw-null position. This procedure shall be performed on the main probe with all devices that will be attached to the main probe in the field [such as thermocouples or resistance temperature detectors (RTDs)] that may affect the flow around the probe head. Probe shaft extensions that do not affect flow around the probe head need not be attached during calibration. At a minimum, this procedure shall include the following steps.

10.5.1 Align and lock the angle-measuring device on the reference scribe line. If a marking procedure (such as that described in section 18.1.1.1) is used, align the angle-measuring device on a mark within ±1° of the rotational position of the reference scribe line. Lock the angle-measuring device onto the probe sheath at this position.

10.5.2 Zero the pressure-measuring device used for yaw nulling.

10.5.3 Insert the probe assembly into the wind tunnel through the entry port, positioning the probe's impact port at the calibration location. Check the responsiveness of the pressure-measurement device to probe rotation, taking corrective action if the response is unacceptable.

10.5.4 Ensure that the probe is in a horizontal position, using a carpenter's level.

10.5.5 Rotate the probe either clockwise or counterclockwise until a yaw null (P2 = P3) is obtained.

10.5.6 Use the reading displayed by the angle-measuring device at the yaw-null position to determine the magnitude of the reference scribe line rotational offset, RSLO, as defined in section 3.15. Annex D in section 18 of this method provides a recommended procedure for determining the magnitude of RSLO with a digital inclinometer and a second procedure for determining the magnitude of RSLO with a protractor wheel and pointer device. Table 2F-6 presents an example data form and Table 2F-7 is a look-up table with the recommended procedure. Procedures other than those recommended in Annex D in section 18 may be used, if they can determine RSLO to within ±1° and are explained in detail in the field test report. The algebraic sign of RSLO will either be positive, if the rotational position of the reference scribe line (as viewed from the “tail” end of the probe) is clockwise, or negative, if counterclockwise with respect to the probe's yaw-null position. (This is illustrated in Figure 2F-13.)

10.5.7 The steps in sections 10.5.3 through 10.5.6 shall be performed twice at each of the velocities at which the probe will be calibrated (in accordance with section 10.6). Record the values of RSLO.

10.5.8 The average of all of the RSLO values shall be documented as the reference scribe line rotational offset for the probe.

10.5.9 Use of reference scribe line offset. The reference scribe line rotational offset shall be used to determine the yaw angle of flow in accordance with section 8.9.4.

10.6 Pitch Angle and Velocity Pressure Calibrations. Use the procedures in sections 10.6.1 through 10.6.16 to generate an appropriate set (or sets) of pitch angle and velocity pressure calibration curves for each probe. The calibration procedure shall be performed on the main probe and all devices that will be attached to the main probe in the field (e.g., thermocouple or RTDs) that may affect the flow around the probe head. Probe shaft extensions that do not affect flow around the probe head need not be attached during calibration. (Note: If a sampling nozzle is part of the assembly, a wind tunnel demonstration shall be performed that shows the probe's ability to measure velocity and yaw null is not impaired when the nozzle is drawing a sample.) The calibration procedure involves generating two calibration curves, F1 versus pitch angle and F2 versus pitch angle. To generate these two curves, F1 and F2 shall be derived using Equations 2F-1 and 2F-2, below. Table 2F-8 provides an example wind tunnel calibration data sheet, used to log the measurements needed to derive these two calibration curves.

10.6.1 Calibration velocities. The tester may calibrate the probe at two nominal wind tunnel velocity settings of 18.3 m/sec and 27.4 m/sec (60 ft/sec and 90 ft/sec) and average the results of these calibrations, as described in section 10.6.16.1, in order to generate a set of calibration curves. If this option is selected, this single set of calibration curves may be used for all field applications over the entire velocity range allowed by the method. Alternatively, the tester may customize the probe calibration for a particular field test application (or for a series of applications), based on the expected average velocity(ies) at the test site(s). If this option is selected, generate each set of calibration curves by calibrating the probe at two nominal wind tunnel velocity settings, at least one of which is greater than or equal to the expected average velocity(ies) for the field application(s), and average the results as described in section 10.6.16.1. Whichever calibration option is selected, the probe calibration coefficients (F2 values) obtained at the two nominal calibration velocities shall, for the same pitch angle setting, meet the conditions specified in section 10.6.16.

10.6.2 Pitch angle calibration curve (F1 versus pitch angle). The pitch angle calibration involves generating a calibration curve of calculated F1 values versus tested pitch angles, where F1 is the ratio of the pitch pressure to the velocity pressure, i.e.,

${F}_{1}=\frac{\left({P}_{4}-{P}_{5}\right)}{\left({P}_{1}-{P}_{2}\right)}\phantom{\rule{4em}{0ex}}\text{Eq. 2F-1}$
See Figure 2F-14 for an example F1 versus pitch angle calibration curve.

10.6.3 Velocity calibration curve (F2 versus pitch angle). The velocity calibration involves generating a calibration curve of the 3-D probe's F2 coefficient against the tested pitch angles, where

${F}_{2}={C}_{p}\sqrt{\frac{\Delta {P}_{\mathrm{std}}}{\left({P}_{1}-{P}_{2}\right)}}\phantom{\rule{4em}{0ex}}\text{Eq. 2F-2}$
and
Cp = calibration pitot tube coefficient, and
ΔPstd = velocity pressure from the calibration pitot tube.
See Figure 2F-15 for an example F2 versus pitch angle calibration curve.

10.6.4 Connect the tested probe and calibration pitot probe to their respective pressure-measuring devices. Zero the pressure-measuring devices. Inspect and leak-check all pitot lines; repair or replace, if necessary. Turn on the fan, and allow the wind tunnel air flow to stabilize at the first of the two selected nominal velocity settings.

10.6.5 Position the calibration pitot tube at its measurement location (determined as outlined in section 6.11.4.3), and align the tube so that its tip is pointed directly into the flow. Ensure that the entry port surrounding the tube is properly sealed. The calibration pitot tube may either remain in the wind tunnel throughout the calibration, or be removed from the wind tunnel while measurements are taken with the probe being calibrated.

10.6.6 Set up the pitch protractor plate on the tested probe's entry port to establish the pitch angle positions of the probe to within ±2°.

10.6.7 Check the zero setting of each pressure-measuring device.

10.6.8 Insert the tested probe into the wind tunnel and align it so that its P1 pressure port is pointed directly into the flow and is positioned within the calibration location (as defined in section 3.20). Secure the probe at the 0° pitch angle position. Ensure that the entry port surrounding the probe is properly sealed.

10.6.9 Read the differential pressure from the calibration pitot tube (ΔPstd), and record its value. Read the barometric pressure to within ±2.5 mm Hg (±0.1 in. Hg) and the temperature in the wind tunnel to within 0.6 °C (1 °F). Record these values on a data form similar to Table 2F-8.

10.6.10 After the tested probe's differential pressure gauges have had sufficient time to stabilize, yaw null the probe, then obtain differential pressure readings for (P1-P2) and (P4-P5). Record the yaw angle and differential pressure readings. After taking these readings, ensure that the tested probe has remained at the yaw-null position.

10.6.11 Either take paired differential pressure measurements with both the calibration pitot tube and tested probe (according to sections 10.6.9 and 10.6.10) or take readings only with the tested probe (according to section 10.6.10) in 5° increments over the pitch-angle range for which the probe is to be calibrated. The calibration pitch-angle range shall be symmetric around 0° and shall exceed the largest pitch angle expected in the field by 5°. At a minimum, probes shall be calibrated over the range of −15° to + 15°. If paired calibration pitot tube and tested probe measurements are not taken at each pitch angle setting, the differential pressure from the calibration pitot tube shall be read, at a minimum, before taking the tested probe's differential pressure reading at the first pitch angle setting and after taking the tested probe's differential pressure readings at the last pitch angle setting in each replicate.

10.6.12 Perform a second replicate of the procedures in sections 10.6.5 through 10.6.11 at the same nominal velocity setting.

10.6.13 For each replicate, calculate the F1 and F2 values at each pitch angle. At each pitch angle, calculate the percent difference between the two F2 values using Equation 2F-3.

If the percent difference is less than or equal to 2 percent, calculate an average F1 value and an average F2 value at that pitch angle. If the percent difference is greater than 2 percent and less than or equal to 5 percent, perform a third repetition at that angle and calculate an average F1 value and an average F2 value using all three repetitions. If the percent difference is greater than 5 percent, perform four additional repetitions at that angle and calculate an average F1 value and an average F2 value using all six repetitions. When additional repetitions are required at any pitch angle, move the probe by at least 5° and then return to the specified pitch angle before taking the next measurement. Record the average values on a form similar to Table 2F-9.

10.6.14 Repeat the calibration procedures in sections 10.6.5 through 10.6.13 at the second selected nominal wind tunnel velocity setting.

10.6.15 Velocity drift check. The following check shall be performed, except when paired calibration pitot tube and tested probe pressure measurements are taken at each pitch angle setting. At each velocity setting, calculate the percent difference between consecutive differential pressure measurements made with the calibration pitot tube. If a measurement differs from the previous measurement by more than 2 percent or 0.25 mm H2O (0.01 in. H2O), whichever is less restrictive, the calibration data collected between these calibration pitot tube measurements may not be used, and the measurements shall be repeated.

10.6.16 Compare the averaged F2 coefficients obtained from the calibrations at the two selected nominal velocities, as follows. At each pitch angle setting, use Equation 2F-3 to calculate the difference between the corresponding average F2 values at the two calibration velocities. At each pitch angle in the −15° to + 15° range, the percent difference between the average F2 values shall not exceed 3.0 percent. For pitch angles outside this range (i.e., less than −15°0 and greater than + 15°), the percent difference shall not exceed 5.0 percent.

10.6.16.1 If the applicable specification in section 10.6.16 is met at each pitch angle setting, average the results obtained at the two nominal calibration velocities to produce a calibration record of F1 and F2 at each pitch angle tested. Record these values on a form similar to Table 2F-9. From these values, generate one calibration curve representing F1 versus pitch angle and a second curve representing F2 versus pitch angle. Computer spreadsheet programs may be used to graph the calibration data and to develop polynomial equations that can be used to calculate pitch angles and axial velocities.

10.6.16.2 If the applicable specification in section 10.6.16 is exceeded at any pitch angle setting, the probe shall not be used unless: (1) the calibration is repeated at that pitch angle and acceptable results are obtained or (2) values of F1 and F2 are obtained at two nominal velocities for which the specifications in section 10.6.16 are met across the entire pitch angle range.

10.7 Recalibration. Recalibrate the probe using the procedures in section 10 either within 12 months of its first field use after its most recent calibration or after 10 field tests (as defined in section 3.4), whichever occurs later. In addition, whenever there is visible damage to the 3-D head, the probe shall be recalibrated before it is used again.

10.8 Calibration of pressure-measuring devices used in field tests. Before its initial use in a field test, calibrate each pressure-measuring device (except those used exclusively for yaw nulling) using the three-point calibration procedure described in section 10.3.3. The device shall be recalibrated according to the procedure in section 10.3.3 no later than 90 days after its first field use following its most recent calibration. At the discretion of the tester, more frequent calibrations (e.g., after a field test) may be performed. No adjustments, other than adjustments to the zero setting, shall be made to the device between calibrations.

10.8.1 Post-test calibration check. A single-point calibration check shall be performed on each pressure-measuring device after completion of each field test. At the discretion of the tester, more frequent single-point calibration checks (e.g., after one or more field test runs) may be performed. It is recommended that the post-test check be performed before leaving the field test site. The check shall be performed at a pressure between 50 and 90 percent of full scale by taking a common pressure reading with the tested device and a reference pressure-measuring device (as described in section 6.4.4) or by challenging the tested device with a reference pressure source (as described in section 6.4.4) or by performing an equivalent check using a reference device approved by the Administrator.

10.8.2 Acceptance criterion. At the selected pressure setting, the pressure readings made using the reference device and the tested device shall agree to within 3 percent of full scale of the tested device or 0.8 mm H2O (0.03 in. H2O), whichever is less restrictive. If this specification is met, the test data collected during the field test are valid. If the specification is not met, all test data collected since the last successful calibration or calibration check are invalid and shall be repeated using a pressure-measuring device with a current, valid calibration. Any device that fails the calibration check shall not be used in a field test until a successful recalibration is performed according to the procedures in section 10.3.3.

10.9 Temperature Gauges. Same as Method 2, section 4.3. The alternative thermocouple calibration procedures outlined in Emission Measurement Center (EMC) Approved Alternative Method (ALT-011) “Alternative Method 2 Thermocouple Calibration Procedure” may be performed. Temperature gauges shall be calibrated no more than 30 days prior to the start of a field test or series of field tests and recalibrated no more than 30 days after completion of a field test or series of field tests.

10.10 Barometer. Same as Method 2, section 4.4. The barometer shall be calibrated no more than 30 days prior to the start of a field test or series of field tests.

11.0 Analytical Procedure

Sample collection and analysis are concurrent for this method (see section 8.0).

12.0 Data Analysis and Calculations

These calculations use the measured yaw angle, derived pitch angle, and the differential pressure and temperature measurements at individual traverse points to derive the axial flue gas velocity (va(i)) at each of those points. The axial velocity values at all traverse points that comprise a full stack or duct traverse are then averaged to obtain the average axial flue gas velocity (va (avg)). Round off figures only in the final calculation of reported values.

12.1 Nomenclature

A = Cross-sectional area of stack or duct, m 2 (ft 2).
Bws = Water vapor in the gas stream (from Method 4 or alternative), proportion by volume.
Kp Conversion factor (a constant),
$34.97\frac{m}{\mathrm{sec}}{\left[\frac{\left(g/g-\mathrm{mole}\right)\left(\mathrm{mm}\phantom{\rule{.2em}{0ex}}\mathrm{Hg}\right)}{\left(°K\right)\left(\mathrm{mm}{\phantom{\rule{.2em}{0ex}}H}_{2}O\right)}\right]}^{1/2}$
for the metric system, and
$35.49\frac{\mathrm{ft}}{\mathrm{sec}}{\left[\frac{\left(\mathrm{lb}/\mathrm{lb}-\mathrm{mole}\right)\left(\mathrm{in}.\phantom{\rule{.2em}{0ex}}\mathrm{Hg}\right)}{\left(°R\right)\left(\mathrm{in}.{\phantom{\rule{.2em}{0ex}}H}_{2}O\right)}\right]}^{1/2}$
for the English system.
Md = Molecular weight of stack or duct gas, dry basis (see section 8.13), g/g-mole (lb/lb-mole).
Ms = Molecular weight of stack or duct gas, wet basis, g/g-mole (lb/lb-mole).
${M}_{s}={M}_{d}\left(1-{B}_{\mathrm{ws}}\right)+18.0{B}_{\mathrm{ws}}\phantom{\rule{4em}{0ex}}\text{Eq. 2F-4}$
Pbar = Barometric pressure at measurement site, mm Hg (in. Hg).
Pg = Stack or duct static pressure, mm H2O (in. H2O).
Ps = Absolute stack or duct pressure, mm Hg (in. Hg),
${P}_{s}={P}_{\mathrm{bar}}+\frac{{P}_{g}}{13.6}\phantom{\rule{4em}{0ex}}\text{Eq. 2F-S}$
Pstd = Standard absolute pressure, 760 mm Hg (29.92 in. Hg).
13.6 = Conversion from mm H2O (in. H2O) to mm Hg (in. Hg).
Qsd = Average dry-basis volumetric stack or duct gas flow rate corrected to standard conditions, dscm/hr (dscf/hr).
Qsw = Average wet-basis volumetric stack or duct gas flow rate corrected to standard conditions, wscm/hr (wscf/hr).
Ts(avg) = Average absolute stack or duct gas temperature across all traverse points.
ts(i) = Stack or duct gas temperature, C (F), at traverse point i.
Ts(i) = Absolute stack or duct gas temperature, K (R), at traverse point i,
${T}_{s\left(i\right)}=273+{t}_{s\left(i\right)}\phantom{\rule{4em}{0ex}}\text{Eq. 2F-6}$
for the metric system, and
${T}_{s\left(i\right)}=460+{t}_{s\left(i\right)}\phantom{\rule{4em}{0ex}}\text{Eq. 2F-7}$
for the English system.
Tstd = Standard absolute temperature, 293 °K (528 °R).
F1(i) = Pitch angle ratio, applicable at traverse point i, dimensionless.
F2(i) = 3-D probe velocity calibration coefficient, applicable at traverse point i, dimensionless.
(P4-P5)i = Pitch differential pressure of stack or duct gas flow, mm H2O (in. H2O), at traverse point i.
(P1-P2)i = Velocity head (differential pressure) of stack or duct gas flow, mm H2O (in. H2O), at traverse point i.
va(i) = Reported stack or duct gas axial velocity, m/sec (ft/sec), at traverse point i.
va(avg) = Average stack or duct gas axial velocity, m/sec (ft/sec), across all traverse points.
3,600 = Conversion factor, sec/hr.
18.0 = Molecular weight of water, g/g-mole (lb/lb-mole).
θy(i) = Yaw angle, degrees, at traverse point i.
θp(i) = Pitch angle, degrees, at traverse point i.
n = Number of traverse points.

12.2 Traverse Point Velocity Calculations. Perform the following calculations from the measurements obtained at each traverse point.

12.2.1 Selection of calibration curves. Select calibration curves as described in section 10.6.1.

12.2.2 Traverse point pitch angle ratio. Use Equation 2F-1, as described in section 10.6.2, to calculate the pitch angle ratio, F1(i), at each traverse point.

12.2.3 Pitch angle. Use the pitch angle ratio, F1(i), to derive the pitch angle, θp(i), at traverse point i from the F1 versus pitch angle calibration curve generated under section 10.6.16.1.

12.2.4 Velocity calibration coefficient. Use the pitch angle, θp(i), to obtain the probe velocity calibration coefficient, F2(i), at traverse point i from the “velocity pressure calibration curve,” i.e., the F2 versus pitch angle calibration curve generated under section 10.6.16.1.

12.2.5 Axial velocity. Use the following equation to calculate the axial velocity, va(i), from the differential pressure (P1-P2)i and yaw angle, θy(i), measured at traverse point i and the previously calculated values for the velocity calibration coefficient, F2(i), absolute stack or duct standard temperature, Ts(i), absolute stack or duct pressure, Ps, molecular weight, Ms, and pitch angle, “θp(i).

12.2.6 Handling multiple measurements at a traverse point. For pressure or temperature devices that take multiple measurements at a traverse point, the multiple measurements (or where applicable, their square roots) may first be averaged and the resulting average values used in the equations above. Alternatively, the individual measurements may be used in the equations above and the resulting multiple calculated values may then be averaged to obtain a single traverse point value. With either approach, all of the individual measurements recorded at a traverse point must be used in calculating the applicable traverse point value.

12.3 Average Axial Velocity in Stack or Duct. Use the reported traverse point axial velocity in the following equation.

${v}_{a\left(\mathrm{avg}\right)}=\frac{\sum _{i=1}^{n}{v}_{a\left(i\right)}}{n}\phantom{\rule{4em}{0ex}}\text{Eq. 2F-9}$

12.4 Acceptability of Results. The test results are acceptable and the calculated value of va(avg) may be reported as the average axial velocity for the test run if the conditions in either section 12.4.1 or 12.4.2 are met.

12.4.1 The calibration curves were generated at nominal velocities of 18.3 m/sec and 27.4 m/sec (60 ft/sec and 90 ft/sec).

12.4.2 The calibration curves were generated at nominal velocities other than 18.3 m/sec and 27.4 m/sec (60 ft/sec and 90 ft/sec), and the value of va(avg) obtained using Equation 2F-9 is less than or equal to at least one of the nominal velocities used to derive the F1 and F2 calibration curves.

12.4.3 If the conditions in neither section 12.4.1 nor section 12.4.2 are met, the test results obtained in Equation 2F-9 are not acceptable, and the steps in sections 12.2 and 12.3 must be repeated using a set of F1 and F2 calibration curves that satisfies the conditions specified in section 12.4.1 or 12.4.2.

12.5 Average Gas Wet Volumetric Flow Rate in Stack or Duct. Use the following equation to compute the average volumetric flow rate on a wet basis.

12.6 Average Gas Dry Volumetric Flow Rate in Stack or Duct. Use the following equation to compute the average volumetric flow rate on a dry basis.

13.0 Method Performance [Reserved]
14.0 Pollution Prevention [Reserved]
15.0 Waste Management [Reserved]
16.0 Reporting

16.1 Field Test Reports. Field test reports shall be submitted to the Agency according to applicable regulatory requirements. Field test reports should, at a minimum, include the following elements.

16.1.1 Description of the source. This should include the name and location of the test site, descriptions of the process tested, a description of the combustion source, an accurate diagram of stack or duct cross-sectional area at the test site showing the dimensions of the stack or duct, the location of the test ports, and traverse point locations and identification numbers or codes. It should also include a description and diagram of the stack or duct layout, showing the distance of the test location from the nearest upstream and downstream disturbances and all structural elements (including breachings, baffles, fans, straighteners, etc.) affecting the flow pattern. If the source and test location descriptions have been previously submitted to the Agency in a document (e.g., a monitoring plan or test plan), referencing the document in lieu of including this information in the field test report is acceptable.

16.1.2 Field test procedures. These should include a description of test equipment and test procedures. Testing conventions, such as traverse point numbering and measurement sequence (e.g., sampling from center to wall, or wall to center), should be clearly stated. Test port identification and directional reference for each test port should be included on the appropriate field test data sheets.

16.1.3 Field test data.

16.1.3.1 Summary of results. This summary should include the dates and times of testing and the average axial gas velocity and the average flue gas volumetric flow results for each run and tested condition.

16.1.3.2 Test data. The following values for each traverse point should be recorded and reported:

(a) P1-P2 and P4-P5 differential pressures

(b) Stack or duct gas temperature at traverse point i (ts(i))

(c) Absolute stack or duct gas temperature at traverse point i (Ts(i))

(d) Yaw angle at each traverse point i (θy(i))

(e) Pitch angle at each traverse point i (θp(i))

(f) Stack or duct gas axial velocity at traverse point i (va(i))

16.1.3.3 The following values should be reported once per run:

(a) Water vapor in the gas stream (from Method 4 or alternative), proportion by volume (Bws), measured at the frequency specified in the applicable regulation

(b) Molecular weight of stack or duct gas, dry basis (Md)

(c) Molecular weight of stack or duct gas, wet basis (Ms)

(d) Stack or duct static pressure (Pg)

(e) Absolute stack or duct pressure (Ps)

(f) Carbon dioxide concentration in the flue gas, dry basis ( 0/0d CO2)

(g) Oxygen concentration in the flue gas, dry basis ( 0/0d O2)

(h) Average axial stack or duct gas velocity (va(avg)) across all traverse points

(i) Gas volumetric flow rate corrected to standard conditions, dry or wet basis as required by the applicable regulation (Qsd or Qsw)

16.1.3.4 The following should be reported once per complete set of test runs:

(a) Cross-sectional area of stack or duct at the test location (A)

(b) Measurement system response time (sec)

(c) Barometric pressure at measurement site (Pbar)

16.1.4 Calibration data. The field test report should include calibration data for all probes and test equipment used in the field test. At a minimum, the probe calibration data reported to the Agency should include the following:

(a) Date of calibration

(b) Probe type

(c) Probe identification number(s) or code(s)

(d) Probe inspection sheets

(e) Pressure measurements and intermediate calculations of F1 and F2 at each pitch angle used to obtain calibration curves in accordance with section 10.6 of this method

(f) Calibration curves (in graphic or equation format) obtained in accordance with sections 10.6.11 of this method

(g) Description and diagram of wind tunnel used for the calibration, including dimensions of cross-sectional area and position and size of the test section

(h) Documentation of wind tunnel qualification tests performed in accordance with section 10.1 of this method

16.1.5 Quality Assurance. Specific quality assurance and quality control procedures used during the test should be described.

17.0 Bibliography

(1)40 CFR Part 60, Appendix A, Method 1 - Sample and velocity traverses for stationary sources.

(2)40 CFR Part 60, Appendix A, Method 2H - Determination of stack gas velocity taking into account velocity decay near the stack wall.

(3)40 CFR Part 60, Appendix A, Method 2 - Determination of stack gas velocity and volumetric flow rate (Type S pitot tube).

(4)40 CFR Part 60, Appendix A, Method 3 - Gas analysis for carbon dioxide, oxygen, excess air, and dry molecular weight.

(5)40 CFR Part 60, Appendix A, Method 3A - Determination of oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in emissions from stationary sources (instrumental analyzer procedure).

(6)40 CFR Part 60, Appendix A, Method 4 - Determination of moisture content in stack gases.

(7) Emission Measurement Center (EMC) Approved Alternative Method (ALT-011) “Alternative Method 2 Thermocouple Calibration Procedure.”

(8) Electric Power Research Institute, Interim Report EPRI TR-106698, “Flue Gas Flow Rate Measurement Errors,” June 1996.

(9) Electric Power Research Institute, Final Report EPRI TR-108110, “Evaluation of Heat Rate Discrepancy from Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems,” August 1997.

(10)Fossil Energy Research Corporation, Final Report, “Velocity Probe Tests in Non-axial Flow Fields,” November 1998, Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

(11)Fossil Energy Research Corporation, “Additional Swirl Tunnel Tests: E-DAT and T-DAT Probes,” February 24, 1999, Technical Memorandum Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, P.O. No. 7W-1193-NALX.

(12) Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Report WBWT-TR-1317, “Calibration of Eight Wind Speed Probes Over a Reynolds Number Range of 46,000 to 725,000 Per Foot, Text and Summary Plots,” Plus appendices, October 15, 1998, Prepared for The Cadmus Group, Inc.

(13)National Institute of Standards and Technology, Special Publication 250, “NIST Calibration Services Users Guide 1991,” Revised October 1991, U.S. Department of Commerce, p. 2.

(14)National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1998, “Report of Special Test of Air Speed Instrumentation, Four Prandtl Probes, Four S-Type Probes, Four French Probes, Four Modified Kiel Probes,” Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under IAG #DW13938432-01-0.

(15)National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1998, “Report of Special Test of Air Speed Instrumentation, Five Autoprobes,” Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under IAG #DW13938432-01-0.

(16)National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1998, “Report of Special Test of Air Speed Instrumentation, Eight Spherical Probes,” Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under IAG #DW13938432-01-0.

(17)National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1998, “Report of Special Test of Air Speed Instrumentation, Four DAT Probes,” Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under IAG #DW13938432-01-0.

(18) Norfleet, S.K., “An Evaluation of Wall Effects on Stack Flow Velocities and Related Overestimation Bias in EPA's Stack Flow Reference Methods,” EPRI CEMS User's Group Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, May 13-15, 1998.

(19) Page, J.J., E.A. Potts, and R.T. Shigehara, “3-D Pitot Tube Calibration Study,” EPA Contract No. 68-D1-0009, Work Assignment No. I-121, March 11, 1993.

(20) Shigehara, R.T., W.F. Todd, and W.S. Smith, “Significance of Errors in Stack Sampling Measurements,” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association, St. Louis, Missouri, June 14-19, 1970.

(21) The Cadmus Group, Inc., May 1999, “EPA Flow Reference Method Testing and Analysis: Findings Report,” EPA/430-R-99-009.

(22) The Cadmus Group, Inc., 1998, “EPA Flow Reference Method Testing and Analysis: Data Report, Texas Utilities, DeCordova Steam Electric Station, Volume I: Test Description and Appendix A (Data Distribution Package),” EPA/430-R-98-015a.

(23) The Cadmus Group, Inc., 1998, “EPA Flow Reference Method Testing and Analysis: Data Report, Texas Utilities, Lake Hubbard Steam Electric Station, Volume I: Test Description and Appendix A (Data Distribution Package),” EPA/430-R-98-017a.

(24) The Cadmus Group, Inc., 1998, “EPA Flow Reference Method Testing and Analysis: Data Report, Pennsylvania Electric Co., G.P.U. Genco Homer City Station: Unit 1, Volume I: Test Description and Appendix A (Data Distribution Package),” EPA/430-R-98-018a.

(25) The Cadmus Group, Inc., 1997, “EPA Flow Reference Method Testing and Analysis: Wind Tunnel Experimental Results,” EPA/430-R-97-013.

18.0 Annexes

Annex A, C, and D describe recommended procedures for meeting certain provisions in sections 8.3, 10.4, and 10.5 of this method. Annex B describes procedures to be followed when using the protractor wheel and pointer assembly to measure yaw angles, as provided under section 8.9.1.

18.1 Annex A - Rotational Position Check. The following are recommended procedures that may be used to satisfy the rotational position check requirements of section 8.3 of this method and to determine the angle-measuring device rotational offset RADO.

18.1.1 Rotational position check with probe outside stack. Where physical constraints at the sampling location allow full assembly of the probe outside the stack and insertion into the test port, the following procedures should be performed before the start of testing. Two angle-measuring devices that meet the specifications in section 6.2.1 or 6.2.3 are required for the rotational position check. An angle measuring device whose position can be independently adjusted (e.g., by means of a set screw) after being locked into position on the probe sheath shall not be used for this check unless the independent adjustment is set so that the device performs exactly like a device without the capability for independent adjustment. That is, when aligned on the probe such a device must give the same reading as a device that does not have the capability of being independently adjusted. With the fully assembled probe (including probe shaft extensions, if any) secured in a horizontal position, affix one yaw angle-measuring device to the probe sheath and lock it into position on the reference scribe line specified in section 6.1.6.1. Position the second angle-measuring device using the procedure in section 18.1.1.1 or 18.1.1.2.

18.1.1.1 Marking procedure. The procedures in this section should be performed at each location on the fully assembled probe where the yaw angle-measuring device will be mounted during the velocity traverse. Place the second yaw angle-measuring device on the main probe sheath (or extension) at the position where a yaw angle will be measured during the velocity traverse. Adjust the position of the second angle-measuring device until it indicates the same angle (±1°) as the reference device, and affix the second device to the probe sheath (or extension). Record the angles indicated by the two angle-measuring devices on a form similar to Table 2F-2. In this position, the second angle-measuring device is considered to be properly positioned for yaw angle measurement. Make a mark, no wider than 1.6 mm (1/16 in.), on the probe sheath (or extension), such that the yaw angle-measuring device can be re-affixed at this same properly aligned position during the velocity traverse.

18.1.1.2 Procedure for probe extensions with scribe lines. If, during a velocity traverse the angle-measuring device will be affixed to a probe extension having a scribe line as specified in section 6.1.6.2, the following procedure may be used to align the extension's scribe line with the reference scribe line instead of marking the extension as described in section 18.1.1.1. Attach the probe extension to the main probe. Align and lock the second angle-measuring device on the probe extension's scribe line. Then, rotate the extension until both measuring devices indicate the same angle (±1°). Lock the extension at this rotational position. Record the angles indicated by the two angle-measuring devices on a form similar to Table 2F-2. An angle-measuring device may be aligned at any position on this scribe line during the velocity traverse, if the scribe line meets the alignment specification in section 6.1.6.3.

18.1.1.3 Post-test rotational position check. If the fully assembled probe includes one or more extensions, the following check should be performed immediately after the completion of a velocity traverse. At the discretion of the tester, additional checks may be conducted after completion of testing at any sample port. Without altering the alignment of any of the components of the probe assembly used in the velocity traverse, secure the fully assembled probe in a horizontal position. Affix an angle-measuring device at the reference scribe line specified in section 6.1.6.1. Use the other angle-measuring device to check the angle at each location where the device was checked prior to testing. Record the readings from the two angle-measuring devices.

18.1.2 Rotational position check with probe in stack. This section applies only to probes that, due to physical constraints, cannot be inserted into the test port as fully assembled with all necessary extensions needed to reach the inner-most traverse point(s).

18.1.2.1 Perform the out-of-stack procedure in section 18.1.1 on the main probe and any attached extensions that will be initially inserted into the test port.

18.1.2.2 Use the following procedures to perform additional rotational position check(s) with the probe in the stack, each time a probe extension is added. Two angle-measuring devices are required. The first of these is the device that was used to measure yaw angles at the preceding traverse point, left in its properly aligned measurement position. The second angle-measuring device is positioned on the added probe extension. Use the applicable procedures in section 18.1.1.1 or 18.1.1.2 to align, adjust, lock, and mark (if necessary) the position of the second angle-measuring device to within ±1° of the first device. Record the readings of the two devices on a form similar to Table 2F-2.

18.1.2.3 The procedure in section 18.1.2.2 should be performed at the first port where measurements are taken. The procedure should be repeated each time a probe extension is re-attached at a subsequent port, unless the probe extensions are designed to be locked into a mechanically fixed rotational position (e.g., through use of interlocking grooves), which can be reproduced from port to port as specified in section 8.3.5.2.

18.2 Annex B - Angle Measurement Protocol for Protractor Wheel and Pointer Device. The following procedure shall be used when a protractor wheel and pointer assembly, such as the one described in section 6.2.2 and illustrated in Figure 2F-7 is used to measure the yaw angle of flow. With each move to a new traverse point, unlock, re-align, and re-lock the probe, angle-pointer collar, and protractor wheel to each other. At each such move, particular attention is required to ensure that the scribe line on the angle pointer collar is either aligned with the reference scribe line on the main probe sheath or is at the rotational offset position established under section 8.3.1. The procedure consists of the following steps:

18.2.1 Affix a protractor wheel to the entry port for the test probe in the stack or duct.

18.2.2 Orient the protractor wheel so that the 0° mark corresponds to the longitudinal axis of the stack or duct. For stacks, vertical ducts, or ports on the side of horizontal ducts, use a digital inclinometer meeting the specifications in section 6.2.1 to locate the 0° orientation. For ports on the top or bottom of horizontal ducts, identify the longitudinal axis at each test port and permanently mark the duct to indicate the 0° orientation. Once the protractor wheel is properly aligned, lock it into position on the test port.

18.2.3 Move the pointer assembly along the probe sheath to the position needed to take measurements at the first traverse point. Align the scribe line on the pointer collar with the reference scribe line or at the rotational offset position established under section 8.3.1. Maintaining this rotational alignment, lock the pointer device onto the probe sheath. Insert the probe into the entry port to the depth needed to take measurements at the first traverse point.

18.2.4 Perform the yaw angle determination as specified in sections 8.9.3 and 8.9.4 and record the angle as shown by the pointer on the protractor wheel. Then, take velocity pressure and temperature measurements in accordance with the procedure in section 8.9.5. Perform the alignment check described in section 8.9.6.

18.2.5 After taking velocity pressure measurements at that traverse point, unlock the probe from the collar and slide the probe through the collar to the depth needed to reach the next traverse point.

18.2.6 Align the scribe line on the pointer collar with the reference scribe line on the main probe or at the rotational offset position established under section 8.3.1. Lock the collar onto the probe.

18.2.7 Repeat the steps in sections 18.2.4 through 18.2.6 at the remaining traverse points accessed from the current stack or duct entry port.

18.2.8 After completing the measurement at the last traverse point accessed from a port, verify that the orientation of the protractor wheel on the test port has not changed over the course of the traverse at that port. For stacks, vertical ducts, or ports on the side of horizontal ducts, use a digital inclinometer meeting the specifications in section 6.2.1 to check the rotational position of the 0° mark on the protractor wheel. For ports on the top or bottom of horizontal ducts, observe the alignment of the angle wheel 0° mark relative to the permanent 0° mark on the duct at that test port. If these observed comparisons exceed ±2° of 0°, all angle and pressure measurements taken at that port since the protractor wheel was last locked into position on the port shall be repeated.

18.2.9 Move to the next stack or duct entry port and repeat the steps in sections 18.2.1 through 18.2.8.

18.3 Annex C - Guideline for Reference Scribe Line Placement. Use of the following guideline is recommended to satisfy the requirements of section 10.4 of this method. The rotational position of the reference scribe line should be either 90° or 180° from the probe's impact pressure port.

18.4 Annex D - Determination of Reference Scribe Line Rotational Offset. The following procedures are recommended for determining the magnitude and sign of a probe's reference scribe line rotational offset, RSLO. Separate procedures are provided for two types of angle-measuring devices: digital inclinometers and protractor wheel and pointer assemblies.

18.4.1 Perform the following procedures on the main probe with all devices that will be attached to the main probe in the field [such as thermocouples or resistance temperature detectors (RTDs)] that may affect the flow around the probe head. Probe shaft extensions that do not affect flow around the probe head need not be attached during calibration.

18.4.2 The procedures below assume that the wind tunnel duct used for probe calibration is horizontal and that the flow in the calibration wind tunnel is axial as determined by the axial flow verification check described in section 10.1.2. Angle-measuring devices are assumed to display angles in alternating 0° to 90° and 90° to 0° intervals. If angle-measuring devices with other readout conventions are used or if other calibration wind tunnel duct configurations are used, make the appropriate calculational corrections.

18.4.2.1 Position the angle-measuring device in accordance with one of the following procedures.

18.4.2.1.1 If using a digital inclinometer, affix the calibrated digital inclinometer to the probe. If the digital inclinometer can be independently adjusted after being locked into position on the probe sheath (e.g., by means of a set screw), the independent adjustment must be set so that the device performs exactly like a device without the capability for independent adjustment. That is, when aligned on the probe the device must give the same readings as a device that does not have the capability of being independently adjusted. Either align it directly on the reference scribe line or on a mark aligned with the scribe line determined according to the procedures in section 18.1.1.1. Maintaining this rotational alignment, lock the digital inclinometer onto the probe sheath.

18.4.2.1.2 If using a protractor wheel and pointer device, orient the protractor wheel on the test port so that the 0° mark is aligned with the longitudinal axis of the wind tunnel duct. Maintaining this alignment, lock the wheel into place on the wind tunnel test port. Align the scribe line on the pointer collar with the reference scribe line or with a mark aligned with the reference scribe line, as determined under section 18.1.1.1. Maintaining this rotational alignment, lock the pointer device onto the probe sheath.

18.4.2.2 Zero the pressure-measuring device used for yaw nulling.

18.4.2.3 Insert the probe assembly into the wind tunnel through the entry port, positioning the probe's impact port at the calibration location. Check the responsiveness of the pressure-measuring device to probe rotation, taking corrective action if the response is unacceptable.

18.4.2.4 Ensure that the probe is in a horizontal position using a carpenter's level.

18.4.2.5 Rotate the probe either clockwise or counterclockwise until a yaw null (P2 = P3) is obtained.

18.4.2.6 Read and record the value of θnull, the angle indicated by the angle-measuring device at the yaw-null position. Record the angle reading on a form similar to Table 2F-6. Do not associate an algebraic sign with this reading.

18.4.2.7 Determine the magnitude and algebraic sign of the reference scribe line rotational offset, RSLO. The magnitude of RSLO will be equal to either θnull or (90°−θnull), depending on the angle-measuring device used. (See Table 2F-7 for a summary.) The algebraic sign of RSLO will either be positive, if the rotational position of the reference scribe line is clockwise, or negative, if counterclockwise with respect to the probe's yaw-null position. Figure 2F-13 illustrates how the magnitude and sign of RSLO are determined.

18.4.2.8 Perform the steps in sections 18.4.2.3 through 18.4.2.7 twice at each of the two calibration velocities selected for the probe under section 10.6. Record the values of RSLO in a form similar to Table 2F-6.

18.4.2.9 The average of all RSLO values is the reference scribe line rotational offset for the probe.

[36 FR 24877, Dec. 23, 1971]
Editorial Note:
For Federal Register citations affecting appendix A-1 to part 60, see the List of CFR sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.govinfo.gov.
Editorial Note:
At 79 FR 11257, Feb. 27, 2014, Figure 1-2 was added to part 60, appendix A-1, method 1, section 17. However, this amendment could not be performed because Figure 1-2 already existed.