After the expiration of sixty days following December 31, 1973, no Federal officer or agency shall approve any financial assistance for acquisition or construction purposes for use in any area that has been identified by the Administrator as an area having special flood hazards and in which the sale of flood insurance has been made available under the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 [42 U.S.C. 4001 et seq.], unless the building or mobile home and any personal property to which such financial assistance relates is covered by flood insurance in an amount at least equal to its development or project cost (less estimated land cost) or to the maximum limit of coverage made available with respect to the particular type of property under the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968, whichever is less: Provided, That if the financial assistance provided is in the form of a loan or an insurance or guaranty of a loan, the amount of flood insurance required need not exceed the outstanding principal balance of the loan and need not be required beyond the term of the loan. The requirement of maintaining flood insurance shall apply during the life of the property, regardless of transfer of ownership of such property.
A Federal agency lender may not make, increase, extend, or renew any loan secured by improved real estate or a mobile home located or to be located in an area that has been identified by the Administrator as an area having special flood hazards and in which flood insurance has been made available under the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968, unless the building or mobile home and any personal property securing such loan is covered for the term of the loan by flood insurance in the amount provided in paragraph (1)(A). Each Federal agency lender shall accept private flood insurance as satisfaction of the flood insurance coverage requirement under the preceding sentence if the flood insurance coverage provided by such private flood insurance meets the requirements for coverage under such sentence. Each Federal agency lender shall issue any regulations necessary to carry out this paragraph. Such regulations shall be consistent with and substantially identical to the regulations issued under paragraph (1)(A).
Except as provided in subparagraph (B), paragraph (1) shall apply on September 23, 1994.
Paragraphs (2) and (3) shall apply only with respect to any loan made, increased, extended, or renewed after the expiration of the 1-year period beginning on September 23, 1994. Paragraph (1) shall apply with respect to any loan made, increased, extended, or renewed by any lender supervised by the Farm Credit Administration only after the expiration of the period under this subparagraph.
Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to supersede or limit the authority of a Federal entity for lending regulation, the Federal Housing Finance Agency, a Federal agency lender, the Federal National Mortgage Association, or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation to establish requirements relating to the financial solvency, strength, or claims-paying ability of private insurance companies from which the entity or agency will accept private flood insurance.
Notwithstanding the other provisions of this section, flood insurance shall not be required on any State-owned property that is covered under an adequate State policy of self-insurance satisfactory to the Administrator. The Administrator shall publish and periodically revise the list of States to which this subsection applies.
Each Federal entity for lending regulation (after consultation and coordination with the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council) shall, by regulation, direct that all premiums and fees for flood insurance under the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968, for residential improved real estate or a mobile home, shall be paid to the regulated lending institution or servicer for any loan secured by the residential improved real estate or mobile home, with the same frequency as payments on the loan are made, for the duration of the loan. Except as provided in subparagraph (B), upon receipt of any premiums or fees, the regulated lending institution or servicer shall deposit such premiums and fees in an escrow account on behalf of the borrower. Upon receipt of a notice from the Administrator or the provider of the flood insurance that insurance premiums are due, the premiums deposited in the escrow account shall be paid to the provider of the flood insurance.
Each Federal agency lender shall by regulation require and provide for escrow and payment of any flood insurance premiums and fees relating to residential improved real estate and mobile homes securing loans made by the Federal agency lender under the circumstances and in the manner provided under paragraph (1). Any regulations issued under this paragraph shall be consistent with and substantially identical to the regulations issued under paragraph (1).
If, at the time of origination or at any time during the term of a loan secured by improved real estate or by a mobile home located in an area that has been identified by the Administrator (at the time of the origination of the loan or at any time during the term of the loan) as an area having special flood hazards and in which flood insurance is available under the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 [42 U.S.C. 4001 et seq.], the lender or servicer for the loan determines that the building or mobile home and any personal property securing the loan is not covered by flood insurance or is covered by such insurance in an amount less than the amount required for the property pursuant to paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subsection (b), the lender or servicer shall notify the borrower under the loan that the borrower should obtain, at the borrower’s expense, an amount of flood insurance for the building or mobile home and such personal property that is not less than the amount under subsection (b)(1), for the term of the loan.
If the borrower fails to purchase such flood insurance within 45 days after notification under paragraph (1), the lender or servicer for the loan shall purchase the insurance on behalf of the borrower and may charge the borrower for the cost of premiums and fees incurred by the lender or servicer for the loan in purchasing the insurance, including premiums or fees incurred for coverage beginning on the date on which flood insurance coverage lapsed or did not provide a sufficient coverage amount.
For purposes of confirming a borrower’s existing flood insurance coverage, a lender or servicer for a loan shall accept from the borrower an insurance policy declarations page that includes the existing flood insurance policy number and the identity of, and contact information for, the insurance company or agent.
The borrower and lender for a loan secured by improved real estate or a mobile home may jointly request the Administrator to review a determination of whether the building or mobile home is located in an area having special flood hazards. Such request shall be supported by technical information relating to the improved real estate or mobile home. Not later than 45 days after the Administrator receives the request, the Administrator shall review the determination and provide to the borrower and the lender with a letter stating whether or not the building or mobile home is in an area having special flood hazards. The determination of the Administrator shall be final.
Any person to whom a borrower provides a letter issued by the Administrator pursuant to subparagraph (A), stating that the building or mobile home securing the loan of the borrower is not in an area having special flood hazards, shall have no obligation under this title  to require the purchase of flood insurance for such building or mobile home during the period determined by the Administrator, which shall be specified in the letter and shall begin on the date on which such letter is provided.
If a request under subparagraph (A) is made in connection with the origination of a loan and the Administrator fails to provide a letter under subparagraph (A) before the later of (i) the expiration of the 45-day period under such subparagraph, or (ii) the closing of the loan, no person shall have an obligation under this title 2 to require the purchase of flood insurance for the building or mobile home securing the loan until such letter is provided.
If the Federal National Mortgage Association or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation is found by the Director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency to have a pattern or practice of purchasing loans in violation of the procedures established pursuant to subsection (b)(3), the Director of such Office  shall assess a civil penalty against such enterprise in the amount provided under paragraph (5) of this subsection.
A penalty under this subsection may be issued only after notice and an opportunity for a hearing on the record.
A civil monetary penalty under this subsection may not exceed $2,000 for each violation under paragraph (2) or paragraph (3).
Notwithstanding any State or local law, for purposes of this subsection, any regulated lending institution that purchases flood insurance or renews a contract for flood insurance on behalf of or as an agent of a borrower of a loan for which flood insurance is required shall be considered to have complied with the regulations issued under subsection (b).
Any sale or other transfer of a loan by a regulated lending institution that has committed a violation under paragraph (1), that occurs subsequent to the violation, shall not affect the liability of the transferring lender with respect to any penalty under this subsection. A lender shall not be liable for any violations relating to a loan committed by another regulated lending institution that previously held the loan.
Any penalty under this subsection shall be in addition to any civil remedy or criminal penalty otherwise available.
A Federal entity for lending regulation may require a regulated lending institution to take such remedial actions as are necessary to ensure that the regulated lending institution complies with the requirements of the national flood insurance program if the Federal agency for lending regulation makes a determination under paragraph (2) regarding the regulated lending institution.
The purchaser or transferee of such a loan may be charged the fee in the case of sale or transfer of the loan.