42 U.S. Code § 613 - Research, evaluations, and national studies

§ 613.
Research, evaluations, and national studies
(a) Research

The Secretary, directly or through grants, contracts, or interagency agreements, shall conduct research on the benefits, effects, and costs of operating different State programs funded under this part, including time limits relating to eligibility for assistance. The research shall include studies on the effects of different programs and the operation of such programs on welfare dependency, illegitimacy, teen pregnancy, employment rates, child well-being, and any other area the Secretary deems appropriate. The Secretary shall also conduct research on the costs and benefits of State activities under section 607 of this title.

(b) Development and evaluation of innovative approaches to reducing welfare dependency and increasing child well-being
(1) In general

The Secretary may assist States in developing, and shall evaluate, innovative approaches for reducing welfare dependency and increasing the well-being of minor children living at home with respect to recipients of assistance under programs funded under this part. The Secretary may provide funds for training and technical assistance to carry out the approaches developed pursuant to this paragraph.

(2) Evaluations

In performing the evaluations under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall, to the maximum extent feasible, use random assignment as an evaluation methodology.

(c) Dissemination of information

The Secretary shall develop innovative methods of disseminating information on any research, evaluations, and studies conducted under this section, including the facilitation of the sharing of information and best practices among States and localities through the use of computers and other technologies.

(d) Annual ranking of States and review of most and least successful work programs
(1) Annual ranking of States

The Secretary shall rank annually the States to which grants are paid under section 603 of this title in the order of their success in placing recipients of assistance under the State program funded under this part into long-term private sector jobs, reducing the overall welfare caseload, and, when a practicable method for calculating this information becomes available, diverting individuals from formally applying to the State program and receiving assistance. In ranking States under this subsection, the Secretary shall take into account the average number of minor children living at home in families in the State that have incomes below the poverty line and the amount of funding provided each State for such families.

(2) Annual review of most and least successful work programs

The Secretary shall review the programs of the 3 States most recently ranked highest under paragraph (1) and the 3 States most recently ranked lowest under paragraph (1) that provide parents with work experience, assistance in finding employment, and other work preparation activities and support services to enable the families of such parents to leave the program and become self-sufficient.

(e) Annual ranking of States and review of issues relating to out-of-wedlock births
(1) In generalThe Secretary shall annually rank States to which grants are made under section 603 of this title based on the following ranking factors:
(A) Absolute out-of-wedlock ratiosThe ratio represented by—
(i)
the total number of out-of-wedlock births in families receiving assistance under the State program under this part in the State for the most recent year for which information is available; over
(ii)
the total number of births in families receiving assistance under the State program under this part in the State for the year.
(B) Net changes in the out-of-wedlock ratio

The difference between the ratio described in subparagraph (A) with respect to a State for the most recent year for which such information is available and the ratio with respect to the State for the immediately preceding year.

(2) Annual review

The Secretary shall review the programs of the 5 States most recently ranked highest under paragraph (1) and the 5 States most recently ranked the lowest under paragraph (1).

(f) State-initiated evaluationsA State shall be eligible to receive funding to evaluate the State program funded under this part if—
(1)
the State submits a proposal to the Secretary for the evaluation;
(2)
the Secretary determines that the design and approach of the evaluation is rigorous and is likely to yield information that is credible and will be useful to other States; and
(3)
unless otherwise waived by the Secretary, the State contributes to the cost of the evaluation, from non-Federal sources, an amount equal to at least 10 percent of the cost of the evaluation.
(g) Report on circumstances of certain children and families
(1) In generalBeginning 3 years after August 22, 1996, the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall prepare and submit to the Committees on Ways and Means and on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives and to the Committees on Finance and on Labor and Resources of the Senate annual reports that examine in detail the matters described in paragraph (2) with respect to each of the following groups for the period after August 22, 1996:
(A)
Individuals who were children in families that have become ineligible for assistance under a State program funded under this part by reason of having reached a time limit on the provision of such assistance.
(B)
Children born after August 22, 1996, to parents who, at the time of such birth, had not attained 20 years of age.
(C)
Individuals who, after August 22, 1996, became parents before attaining 20 years of age.
(2) Matters describedThe matters described in this paragraph are the following:
(A)
The percentage of each group that has dropped out of secondary school (or the equivalent), and the percentage of each group at each level of educational attainment.
(B)
The percentage of each group that is employed.
(C)
The percentage of each group that has been convicted of a crime or has been adjudicated as a delinquent.
(D)
The rate at which the members of each group are born, or have children, out-of-wedlock, and the percentage of each group that is married.
(E)
The percentage of each group that continues to participate in State programs funded under this part.
(F)
The percentage of each group that has health insurance provided by a private entity (broken down by whether the insurance is provided through an employer or otherwise), the percentage that has health insurance provided by an agency of government, and the percentage that does not have health insurance.
(G)
The average income of the families of the members of each group.
(H)
Such other matters as the Secretary deems appropriate.
(h) Funding of studies and demonstrations
(1) In generalFunds made available to carry out this section for a fiscal year shall be used for the purpose of paying—
(A)
the cost of conducting the research described in subsection (a) of this section;
(B)
the cost of developing and evaluating innovative approaches for reducing welfare dependency and increasing the well-being of minor children under subsection (b) of this section;
(C)
the Federal share of any State-initiated study approved under subsection (f) of this section; and
(D)
an amount determined by the Secretary to be necessary to operate and evaluate demonstration projects, relating to this part, that are in effect or approved under section 1315 of this title as of August 22, 1996, and are continued after such date.
(2) AllocationOf the amount appropriated under paragraph (1) for a fiscal year—
(A)
50 percent shall be allocated for the purposes described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (1), and
(B)
50 percent shall be allocated for the purposes described in subparagraphs (C) and (D) of paragraph (1).
(3) Demonstrations of innovative strategiesThe Secretary may implement and evaluate demonstrations of innovative and promising strategies which—
(A)
provide one-time capital funds to establish, expand, or replicate programs;
(B)
test performance-based grant-to-loan financing in which programs meeting performance targets receive grants while programs not meeting such targets repay funding on a prorated basis; and
(C)
test strategies in multiple States and types of communities.
(i) Child poverty rates
(1) In general

Not later than May 31, 1998, and annually thereafter, the chief executive officer of each State shall submit to the Secretary a statement of the child poverty rate in the State as of August 22, 1996, or the date of the most recent prior statement under this paragraph.

(2) Submission of corrective action plan

Not later than 90 days after the date a State submits a statement under paragraph (1) which indicates that, as a result of the amendments made by section 103 of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, the child poverty rate of the State has increased by 5 percent or more since the most recent prior statement under paragraph (1), the State shall prepare and submit to the Secretary a corrective action plan in accordance with paragraph (3).

(3) Contents of plan

A corrective action plan submitted under paragraph (2) shall outline the manner in which the State will reduce the child poverty rate in the State. The plan shall include a description of the actions to be taken by the State under such plan.

(4) Compliance with plan

A State that submits a corrective action plan that the Secretary has found contains the information required by this subsection shall implement the corrective action plan until the State determines that the child poverty rate in the State is less than the lowest child poverty rate on the basis of which the State was required to submit the corrective action plan.

(5) Methodology

The Secretary shall prescribe regulations establishing the methodology by which a State shall determine the child poverty rate in the State. The methodology shall take into account factors including the number of children who receive free or reduced-price lunches, the number of supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits households, and, to the extent available, county-by-county estimates of children in poverty as determined by the Census Bureau.

(j) Evaluation of welfare-to-work programs
(1) EvaluationThe Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development—
(A)
shall develop a plan to evaluate how grants made under sections 603(a)(5) and 612(a)(3) of this title
(B)
may evaluate the use of such grants by such grantees as the Secretary deems appropriate, in accordance with an agreement entered into with the grantees after good-faith negotiations; and
(C) is urged to include the following outcome measures in the plan developed under subparagraph (A):
(i)
Placements in unsubsidized employment, and placements in unsubsidized employment that last for at least 6 months.
(ii)
Placements in the private and public sectors.
(iii)
Earnings of individuals who obtain employment.
(iv)
Average expenditures per placement.
(2) Reports to the Congress
(A) In general

Subject to subparagraphs (B) and (C), the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, shall submit to the Congress reports on the projects funded under section [1] 603(a)(5) and 612(a)(3) of this title and on the evaluations of the projects.

(B) Interim report

Not later than January 1, 1999, the Secretary shall submit an interim report on the matter described in subparagraph (A).

(C) Final report

Not later than January 1, 2001,[2] (or at a later date, if the Secretary informs the Committees of the Congress with jurisdiction over the subject matter of the report) the Secretary shall submit a final report on the matter described in subparagraph (A).

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, § 413, as added Pub. L. 104–193, title I, § 103(a)(1), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2153; amended Pub. L. 105–33, title V, §§ 5001(f), 5509, 5514(c), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 592, 618, 620; Pub. L. 105–200, title IV, § 410(a), July 16, 1998, 112 Stat. 673; Pub. L. 106–169, title IV, § 401(c), Dec. 14, 1999, 113 Stat. 1858; Pub. L. 110–234, title IV, § 4002(b)(1)(D), (2)(V), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1096, 1097; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title IV, § 4002(b)(1)(D), (2)(V), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1857, 1858; Pub. L. 112–96, title IV, § 4002(e), Feb. 22, 2012, 126 Stat. 195; Pub. L. 113–235, div. G, title II, § 228(e), Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2492.)


[1]  So in original. Probably should be “sections”.

[2]  So in original.
References in Text

Section 103 of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, referred to in subsec. (i)(2), is section 103 of Pub. L. 104–193, which enacted this part, amended sections 602, 603, and 1308 of this title, and repealed provisions formerly set out as this part. For complete classification of section 103 to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 613, act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, § 413, as added June 9, 1980, Pub. L. 96–265, title IV, § 406(c), 94 Stat. 467, related to technical assistance for developing management information systems, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–193, § 103(a)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 105–33, title V, § 5514(c), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 620.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 113–235 substituted “Funds made available to carry out this section for a fiscal year shall be used” for “Out of any money in the Treasury of the United States not otherwise appropriated, there are appropriated $15,000,000 for fiscal year 2012” in introductory provisions.

2012—Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 112–96 substituted “fiscal year 2012” for “each of fiscal years 1997 through 2002” in introductory provisions.

2008—Subsec. (i)(5). Pub. L. 110–246, § 4002(b)(1)(D), (2)(V), substituted “supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits” for “food stamp”.

1999—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 106–169 made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to August 22, 1996.

1998—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 105–200 substituted “Education and the Workforce” for “Economic and Educational Opportunities”.

1997—Pub. L. 105–33, § 5514(c), made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 104–193, § 103(a)(1), which enacted this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–33, § 5509(a), inserted “, directly or through grants, contracts, or interagency agreements,” before “shall conduct” and substituted “section 607” for “section 609”.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 105–33, § 5509(b), amended heading and text of par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

“(A) In general.—The Secretary shall annually rank States to which grants are made under section 603 of this title based on the following ranking factors:

“(i) Absolute out-of-wedlock ratios.—The ratio represented by—

“(I) the total number of out-of-wedlock births in families receiving assistance under the State program under this part in the State for the most recent fiscal year for which information is available; over

“(II) the total number of births in families receiving assistance under the State program under this part in the State for such year.

“(ii) Net changes in the out-of-wedlock ratio.—The difference between the ratio described in subparagraph (A)(i) with respect to a State for the most recent fiscal year for which such information is available and the ratio with respect to the State for the immediately preceding year.”

Subsec. (h)(1)(D). Pub. L. 105–33, § 5509(c), substituted “August 22, 1996” for “September 30, 1995”.

Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 105–33, § 5509(d)(1), substituted “May 31, 1998” for “90 days after August 22, 1996”.

Subsec. (i)(5). Pub. L. 105–33, § 5509(d)(2), substituted “, to the extent available, county-by-county” for “the county-by-county”.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 105–33, § 5001(f), added subsec. (j).

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Amendment by section 4002(b)(1)(D), (2)(V) of Pub. L. 110–246 effective Oct. 1, 2008, see section 4407 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 1161 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–169 effective as if included in the enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104–193, see section 401(q) of Pub. L. 106–169, set out as a note under section 602 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by section 5509 of Pub. L. 105–33 effective as if included in section 103(a) of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104–193, at the time such section 103(a) became law, see section 5518(a) of Pub. L. 105–33, set out as a note under section 602 of this title.

Amendment by section 5514(c) of Pub. L. 105–33 effective as if included in the provision of Pub. L. 104–193 amended at the time the provision became law, see section 5518(d) of Pub. L. 105–33, set out as a note under section 862a of Title 21, Food and Drugs.

Effective Date

Section effective Aug. 22, 1996, with transition rules relating to State options to accelerate such date, rules relating to claims, actions, and proceedings commenced before such date, rules relating to closing out of accounts for terminated or substantially modified programs and continuance in office of Assistant Secretary for Family Support, and provisions relating to termination of entitlement under AFDC program, see section 116 of Pub. L. 104–193, as amended, set out as a note under section 601 of this title.

Funding of studies and demonstrations

Pub. L. 113–235, div. G, title II, § 228(c), Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2491, provided that:

“In the case of research, evaluations, and national studies funded under section 413(h)(1) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 613(h)(1)], no funds shall be appropriated under that section for fiscal year 2015 or any fiscal year thereafter.”

Coordination of Substance Abuse and Child Protection Services

Pub. L. 105–89, title IV, § 405, Nov. 19, 1997, 111 Stat. 2135, required the Secretary of Health and Human Services, based on information from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and the Administration for Children and Families in the Department of Health and Human Services, to submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report which described the extent and scope of the problem of substance abuse in the child welfare population, the types of services provided to such population, and the outcomes resulting from the provision of such services to such population, along with appropriate recommendations for legislative changes.

GAO Study of Effect of Family Violence on Need for Public Assistance

Pub. L. 105–33, title V, § 5001(i), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 593, directed the Comptroller General to conduct a study of the effect of family violence on the use of public assistance programs, and in particular the extent to which family violence prolongs or increases the need for public assistance, and to submit a report to the appropriate committees of Congress within 1 year after Aug. 5, 1997.

Study on Alternative Outcomes Measures

Pub. L. 104–193, title I, § 107, Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2164, as amended by Pub. L. 105–33, title V, § 5511, Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 619, directed the Secretary, in cooperation with the States, to study and analyze outcomes measures for evaluating the success of the States in moving individuals out of the welfare system through employment as an alternative to the minimum participation rates described in 42 U.S.C. 607, and to submit a report to the appropriate committees of Congress by Sept. 30, 1998.

This is a list of parts within the Code of Federal Regulations for which this US Code section provides rulemaking authority.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


45 CFR - Public Welfare

45 CFR Part 265 - DATA COLLECTION AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS

45 CFR Part 284 - METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING WHETHER AN INCREASE IN A STATE OR TERRITORY'S CHILD POVERTY RATE IS THE RESULT OF THE TANF PROGRAM

 

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