Equal Employment Opportunity Commission


The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (“EEOC”) enforces federal laws prohibiting workplace discrimination. The EEOC was created by the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The employment section of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, known as Title VII, prohibits discrimination based on race, color, national origin, sex, and religion, and also prohibits employers from retaliating against any employee who exercises his or her rights under Title VII. Today, the EEOC enforces federal anti-discrimination statutes, and provides oversight and coordination of all federal equal opportunity regulations, policies, and practices.

Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972

In 1972, Congress passed the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972, which amended Title VII to give the EEOC authority to conduct its own enforcement litigation. The EEOC strongly influenced the judicial interpretation of civil rights legislation

McDonnell Douglas Corp. v. Green

In 1973, EEOC advocates pursued litigation leading to the country's most often cited anti-discrimination U.S. Supreme Court opinion, McDonnell Douglas Corp. v. Green, 411 U.S. 792 (1973). In McDonnell, the Court held that a plaintiff could prove an individual case of intentional discrimination, or disparate treatment, under Title VII, by showing four factors. The plaintiff has the burden of proof to show that he was indirectly discriminated against in a hiring case by showing that:

  1. He was a member of a Title VII protected group;
  2. he applied and was qualified for the position sought;
  3. the employer rejected the plaintiff for the job; and
  4. the employer continued to seek applicants with similar qualifications after the rejection.

Once a plaintiff succeeds in proving these four points, the burden shifts to the employer to articulate a legitimate, nondiscriminatory reason for refusing to hire the plaintiff. Absent this showing, the employer is guilty of workplace discrimination. Courts and the EEOC apply this analytical framework to cases brought under all federal anti-discrimination statutes.

Anti-Discrimination Statutes 

Today, the EEOC conducts enforcement litigation under several federal statutes that prohibit job discrimination. The federal statutes prohibiting discrimination in employment are:

Civil Suits 

The Agency investigates charges of discrimination and, in some cases, brings civil suits based on charges of discrimination. Charges of discrimination are most often filed by private individuals (“complainants”) who believe that their employers have discriminated against them. The EEOC investigates those charges and issues findings based on its investigations. In some cases, if the EEOC finds that there is probable cause to believe discrimination has occurred, it may choose to bring an enforcement action against the employer. However, in the majority of the cases, the complainant will independently initiate and pursue any litigation based on Title VII.. Any individual who wishes to file suit under Title VII or the ADA is required to exhaust his or her administrative remedies prior to suing the employer in court. In other words, the complainant must first file a charge of discrimination with the EEOC before it may seek judicial remedy.

Further Reading

Fore more on the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, see this Hofstra Law Review article, this Fordham Law Review article, and this Penn State Law Review article