PRIVACY

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Respondents (“Patel”) are the Los Angeles Lodging Association and “approximately forty hotel owners,” including Naranjibhai Patel, who operate their businesses in Los Angeles. Brief for Respondents, Patel et al., at 4. Patel challenged Los Angeles...

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The City of Ontario contracted with Arch Wireless to provide the City with alphanumeric two-way pagers and text messaging services. See Quon v. Arch Wireless Operating Co., Inc., 529 F.3d 892, 895 (9th Cir. 2008). The pagers were distributed to its...

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In June and July 2013, Albemarle County police officers twice recorded a distinctive black and orange motorcycle eluding police pursuit by traveling significantly over the speed limit. Collins v. Commonwealth, 790 S.E.2d 611, 612–13 (Va. 2016). The...

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Overview

Electronic surveillance is defined in federal law as the nonconsensual acquisition by an electronic, mechanical, or other surveillance device of the contents of any wire or electronic communication, under circumstances in which a party to the...

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Definition

Exigent circumstances - "circumstances that would cause a reasonable person to believe that entry (or other relevant prompt action) was necessary to prevent physical harm to the officers or other persons, the destruction of relevant evidence...

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Overview

The expectation of privacy test, originated from Katz v. United States is a key component of Fourth Amendment analysis. The Fourth Amendment protects people from warrantless searches of places or seizures of persons or objects, in which they...

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In 1985, Stanmore Cawthon Cooper, an airline pilot, was diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (“HIV”). See Cooper v. FAA, 596 F.3d 538, 541 (9th Cir. 2010). Per Federal Aviation Administration (“FAA”) regulations, Cooper was required to...

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Under the Freedom of Information Act (“FOIA”), 5 U.S.C. § 552, federal agencies must disclose records to anyone who requests them, subject to certain exemptions. See AT&T v. FCC, 582 F.3d 490, 492 (3d Cir. 2009). If an agency refuses to disclose...

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On March 3, 2005, police arrested Petitioner Albert Florence in New Jersey on an Essex County bench warrant while he was a passenger in his sport utility vehicle. See Florence v. Board of Chosen Freeholders, 595 F.Supp.2d 492, 496 (D.N.J. 2009). The...

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In 2006, a few consumers contacted a group of attorneys ("the Lawyers") claiming that various car dealerships had overcharged them for their vehicle purchases. See Maracich v. Spears, 675 F.3d 281, 283. As the Lawyers began to...

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