42 U.S. Code § 1437f. Low-income housing assistance

(a) Authorization for assistance payments

For the purpose of aiding low-income families in obtaining a decent place to live and of promoting economically mixed housing, assistance payments may be made with respect to existing housing in accordance with the provisions of this section.

(b) Other existing housing programs
(1)In general.—
The Secretary is authorized to enter into annual contributions contracts with public housing agencies pursuant to which such agencies may enter into contracts to make assistance payments to owners of existing dwelling units in accordance with this section. In areas where no public housing agency has been organized or where the Secretary determines that a public housing agency is unable to implement the provisions of this section, the Secretary is authorized to enter into such contracts and to perform the other functions assigned to a public housing agency by this section.
(2)
The Secretary is authorized to enter into annual contributions contracts with public housing agencies for the purpose of replacing public housing transferred in accordance with subchapter II–A of this chapter. Each contract entered into under this subsection shall be for a term of not more than 60 months.
(c) Contents and purposes of contracts for assistance payments; amount and scope of monthly assistance payments
(1)
(A)
An assistance contract entered into pursuant to this section shall establish the maximum monthly rent (including utilities and all maintenance and management charges) which the owner is entitled to receive for each dwelling unit with respect to which such assistance payments are to be made. The maximum monthly rent shall not exceed by more than 10 per centum the fair market rental established by the Secretary periodically but not less than annually for existing or newly constructed rental dwelling units of various sizes and types in the market area suitable for occupancy by persons assisted under this section, except that the maximum monthly rent may exceed the fair market rental (A) by more than 10 but not more than 20 per centum where the Secretary determines that special circumstances warrant such higher maximum rent or that such higher rent is necessary to the implementation of a housing strategy as defined in section 12705 of this title, or (B) by such higher amount as may be requested by a tenant and approved by the public housing agency in accordance with paragraph (3)(B). In the case of newly constructed and substantially rehabilitated units, the exception in the preceding sentence shall not apply to more than 20 per centum of the total amount of authority to enter into annual contributions contracts for such units which is allocated to an area and obligated with respect to any fiscal year beginning on or after October 1, 1980. Each fair market rental in effect under this subsection shall be adjusted to be effective on October 1 of each year to reflect changes, based on the most recent available data trended so the rentals will be current for the year to which they apply, of rents for existing or newly constructed rental dwelling units, as the case may be, of various sizes and types in the market area suitable for occupancy by persons assisted under this section. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, after October 12, 1977, the Secretary shall prohibit high-rise elevator projects for families with children unless there is no practical alternative. If units assisted under this section are exempt from local rent control while they are so assisted or otherwise, the maximum monthly rent for such units shall be reasonable in comparison with other units in the market area that are exempt from local rent control.
(B)
Fair market rentals for an area shall be published not less than annually by the Secretary on the site of the Department on the World Wide Web and in any other manner specified by the Secretary. Notice that such fair market rentals are being published shall be published in the Federal Register, and such fair market rentals shall become effective no earlier than 30 days after the date of such publication. The Secretary shall establish a procedure for public housing agencies and other interested parties to comment on such fair market rentals and to request, within a time specified by the Secretary, reevaluation of the fair market rentals in a jurisdiction before such rentals become effective. The Secretary shall cause to be published for comment in the Federal Register notices of proposed material changes in the methodology for estimating fair market rentals and notices specifying the final decisions regarding such proposed substantial methodological changes and responses to public comments.
(2)
(A)
The assistance contract shall provide for adjustment annually or more frequently in the maximum monthly rents for units covered by the contract to reflect changes in the fair market rentals established in the housing area for similar types and sizes of dwelling units or, if the Secretary determines, on the basis of a reasonable formula. However, where the maximum monthly rent, for a unit in a new construction, substantial rehabilitation, or moderate rehabilitation project, to be adjusted using an annual adjustment factor exceeds the fair market rental for an existing dwelling unit in the market area, the Secretary shall adjust the rent only to the extent that the owner demonstrates that the adjusted rent would not exceed the rent for an unassisted unit of similar quality, type, and age in the same market area, as determined by the Secretary. The immediately foregoing sentence shall be effective only during fiscal year 1995, fiscal year 1996 prior to April 26, 1996, and fiscal years 1997 and 1998, and during fiscal year 1999 and thereafter. Except for assistance under the certificate program, for any unit occupied by the same family at the time of the last annual rental adjustment, where the assistance contract provides for the adjustment of the maximum monthly rent by applying an annual adjustment factor and where the rent for a unit is otherwise eligible for an adjustment based on the full amount of the factor, 0.01 shall be subtracted from the amount of the factor, except that the factor shall not be reduced to less than 1.0. In the case of assistance under the certificate program, 0.01 shall be subtracted from the amount of the annual adjustment factor (except that the factor shall not be reduced to less than 1.0), and the adjusted rent shall not exceed the rent for a comparable unassisted unit of similar quality, type, and age in the market area. The immediately foregoing two sentences shall be effective only during fiscal year 1995, fiscal year 1996 prior to April 26, 1996, and fiscal years 1997 and 1998, and during fiscal year 1999 and thereafter. In establishing annual adjustment factors for units in new construction and substantial rehabilitation projects, the Secretary shall take into account the fact that debt service is a fixed expense. The immediately foregoing sentence shall be effective only during fiscal year 1998.
(B)
The contract shall further provide for the Secretary to make additional adjustments in the maximum monthly rent for units under contract to the extent he determines such adjustments are necessary to reflect increases in the actual and necessary expenses of owning and maintaining the units which have resulted from substantial general increases in real property taxes, utility rates, or similar costs which are not adequately compensated for by the adjustment in the maximum monthly rent authorized by subparagraph (A). The Secretary shall make additional adjustments in the maximum monthly rent for units under contract (subject to the availability of appropriations for contract amendments) to the extent the Secretary determines such adjustments are necessary to reflect increases in the actual and necessary expenses of owning and maintaining the units that have resulted from the expiration of a real property tax exemption. Where the Secretary determines that a project assisted under this section is located in a community where drug-related criminal activity is generally prevalent and the project’s operating, maintenance, and capital repair expenses have been substantially increased primarily as a result of the prevalence of such drug-related activity, the Secretary may (at the discretion of the Secretary and subject to the availability of appropriations for contract amendments for this purpose), on a project by project basis, provide adjustments to the maximum monthly rents, to a level no greater than 120 percent of the project rents, to cover the costs of maintenance, security, capital repairs, and reserves required for the owner to carry out a strategy acceptable to the Secretary for addressing the problem of drug-related criminal activity. Any rent comparability standard required under this paragraph may be waived by the Secretary to so implement the preceding sentence. The Secretary may (at the discretion of the Secretary and subject to the availability of appropriations for contract amendments), on a project by project basis for projects receiving project-based assistance, provide adjustments to the maximum monthly rents to cover the costs of evaluating and reducing lead-based paint hazards, as defined in section 4851b of this title.
(C)
Adjustments in the maximum rents under subparagraphs (A) and (B) shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted units and unassisted units of similar quality, type, and age in the same market area, as determined by the Secretary. In implementing the limitation established under the preceding sentence, the Secretary shall establish regulations for conducting comparability studies for projects where the Secretary has reason to believe that the application of the formula adjustments under subparagraph (A) would result in such material differences. The Secretary shall conduct such studies upon the request of any owner of any project, or as the Secretary determines to be appropriate by establishing, to the extent practicable, a modified annual adjustment factor for such market area, as the Secretary shall designate, that is geographically smaller than the applicable housing area used for the establishment of the annual adjustment factor under subparagraph (A). The Secretary shall establish such modified annual adjustment factor on the basis of the results of a study conducted by the Secretary of the rents charged, and any change in such rents over the previous year, for assisted units and unassisted units of similar quality, type, and age in the smaller market area. Where the Secretary determines that such modified annual adjustment factor cannot be established or that such factor when applied to a particular project would result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted units and unassisted units of similar quality, type, and age in the same market area, the Secretary may apply an alternative methodology for conducting comparability studies in order to establish rents that are not materially different from rents charged for comparable unassisted units. If the Secretary or appropriate State agency does not complete and submit to the project owner a comparability study not later than 60 days before the anniversary date of the assistance contract under this section, the automatic annual adjustment factor shall be applied. The Secretary may not reduce the contract rents in effect on or after April 15, 1987, for newly constructed, substantially rehabilitated, or moderately rehabilitated projects assisted under this section (including projects assisted under this section as in effect prior to November 30, 1983), unless the project has been refinanced in a manner that reduces the periodic payments of the owner. Any maximum monthly rent that has been reduced by the Secretary after April 14, 1987, and prior to November 7, 1988, shall be restored to the maximum monthly rent in effect on April 15, 1987. For any project which has had its maximum monthly rents reduced after April 14, 1987, the Secretary shall make assistance payments (from amounts reserved for the original contract) to the owner of such project in an amount equal to the difference between the maximum monthly rents in effect on April 15, 1987, and the reduced maximum monthly rents, multiplied by the number of months that the reduced maximum monthly rents were in effect.
(3)
The amount of the monthly assistance payment with respect to any dwelling unit shall be the difference between the maximum monthly rent which the contract provides that the owner is to receive for the unit and the rent the family is required to pay under section 1437a(a) of this title. Reviews of family income shall be made no less frequently than annually.
(4)
The assistance contract shall provide that assistance payments may be made only with respect to a dwelling unit under lease for occupancy by a family determined to be a lower income family at the time it initially occupied such dwelling unit, except that such payments may be made with respect to unoccupied units for a period not exceeding sixty days (A) in the event that a family vacates a dwelling unit before the expiration date of the lease for occupancy or (B) where a good faith effort is being made to fill an unoccupied unit, and, subject to the provisions of the following sentence, such payments may be made, in the case of a newly constructed or substantially rehabilitated proj­ect, after such sixty-day period in an amount equal to the debt service attributable to such an unoccupied dwelling unit for a period not to exceed one year, if a good faith effort is being made to fill the unit and the unit provides decent, safe, and sanitary housing. No such payment may be made after such sixty-day period if the Secretary determines that the dwelling unit is in a project which provides the owner with revenues exceeding the costs incurred by such owner with respect to such project.
(5)
The Secretary shall take such steps as may be necessary, including the making of contracts for assistance payments in amounts in excess of the amounts required at the time of the initial renting of dwelling units, the reservation of annual contributions authority for the purpose of amending housing assistance contracts, or the allocation of a portion of new authorizations for the purpose of amending housing assistance contracts, to assure that assistance payments are increased on a timely basis to cover increases in maximum monthly rents or decreases in family incomes.
(6)
Redesignated (5).
(8)
(A)
Not less than one year before termination of any contract under which assistance payments are received under this section, other than a contract for tenant-based assistance under this section, an owner shall provide written notice to the Secretary and the tenants involved of the proposed termination. The notice shall also include a statement that, if the Congress makes funds available, the owner and the Secretary may agree to a renewal of the contract, thus avoiding termination, and that in the event of termination the Department of Housing and Urban Development will provide tenant-based rental assistance to all eligible residents, enabling them to choose the place they wish to rent, which is likely to include the dwelling unit in which they currently reside. Any contract covered by this paragraph that is renewed may be renewed for a period of up to 1 year or any number or years, with payments subject to the availability of appropriations for any year.
(B)
In the event the owner does not provide the notice required, the owner may not evict the tenants or increase the tenants’ rent payment until such time as the owner has provided the notice and 1 year has elapsed. The Secretary may allow the owner to renew the terminating contract for a period of time sufficient to give tenants 1 year of advance notice under such terms and conditions as the Secretary may require.
(C)
Any notice under this paragraph shall also comply with any additional requirements established by the Secretary.
(D)
For purposes of this paragraph, the term “termination” means the expiration of the assistance contract or an owner’s refusal to renew the assistance contract, and such term shall include termination of the contract for business reasons.
(d) Required provisions and duration of contracts for assistance payments; waiver of limitation
(1)Contracts to make assistance payments entered into by a public housing agency with an owner of existing housing units shall provide (with respect to any unit) that—
(A)
the selection of tenants shall be the function of the owner, subject to the annual contributions contract between the Secretary and the agency, except that with respect to the certificate and moderate rehabilitation programs only, for the purpose of selecting families to be assisted, the public housing agency may establish local preferences, consistent with the public housing agency plan submitted under section 1437c–1 of this title by the public housing agency;
(B)
(i)
the lease between the tenant and the owner shall be for at least one year or the term of such contract, whichever is shorter, and shall contain other terms and conditions specified by the Secretary;
(ii)
during the term of the lease, the owner shall not terminate the tenancy except for serious or repeated violation of the terms and conditions of the lease, for violation of applicable Federal, State, or local law, or for other good cause;
(iii)
during the term of the lease, any criminal activity that threatens the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other tenants, any criminal activity that threatens the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of their residences by persons residing in the immediate vicinity of the premises, or any drug-related criminal activity on or near such premises, engaged in by a tenant of any unit, any member of the tenant’s household, or any guest or other person under the tenant’s control, shall be cause for termination of tenancy;
(iv)
any termination of tenancy shall be preceded by the owner’s provision of written notice to the tenant specifying the grounds for such action; and
(v) it shall be cause for termination of the tenancy of a tenant if such tenant—
(I)
is fleeing to avoid prosecution, or custody or confinement after conviction, under the laws of the place from which the individual flees, for a crime, or attempt to commit a crime, which is a felony under the laws of the place from which the individual flees, or which, in the case of the State of New Jersey, is a high misdemeanor under the laws of such State; or
(II)
is violating a condition of probation or parole imposed under Federal or State law;
(C)
maintenance and replacement (including redecoration) shall be in accordance with the standard practice for the building concerned as established by the owner and agreed to by the agency; and
(D)
the agency and the owner shall carry out such other appropriate terms and conditions as may be mutually agreed to by them.
(2)
(A)
Each contract for an existing structure entered into under this section shall be for a term of not less than one month nor more than one hundred and eighty months. The Secretary shall permit public housing agencies to enter into contracts for assistance payments of less than 12 months duration in order to avoid disruption in assistance to eligible families if the annual contributions contract is within 1 year of its expiration date.
(B)
(i)
In determining the amount of assistance provided under an assistance contract for project-based assistance under this paragraph or a contract for assistance for housing constructed or substantially rehabilitated pursuant to assistance provided under subsection (b)(2) of this section (as such subsection existed immediately before October 1, 1983), the Secretary may consider and annually adjust, with respect to such project, for the cost of employing or otherwise retaining the services of one or more service coordinators under section 661[1] of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 [42 U.S.C. 13631] to coordinate the provision of any services within the project for residents of the project who are elderly or disabled families.
(ii)
The budget authority available under section 1437c(c) of this title for assistance under this section is authorized to be increased by $15,000,000 on or after October 1, 1992, and by $15,000,000 on or after October 1, 1993. Amounts made available under this subparagraph shall be used to provide additional amounts under annual contributions contracts for assistance under this section which shall be made available through assistance contracts only for the purpose of providing service coordinators under clause (i) for projects receiving project-based assistance under this paragraph and to provide additional amounts under contracts for assistance for projects constructed or substantially rehabilitated pursuant to assistance provided under subsection (b)(2) of this section (as such subsection existed immediately before October 1, 1983) only for such purpose.
(C)
An assistance contract for project-based assistance under this paragraph shall provide that the owner shall ensure and maintain compliance with subtitle C of title VI of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 [42 U.S.C. 13601 et seq.] and any regulations issued under such subtitle.
(D)
An owner of a covered section 8 [42 U.S.C. 1437f] housing project (as such term is defined in section 659 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 [42 U.S.C. 13619]) may give preference for occupancy of dwelling units in the project, and reserve units for occupancy, in accordance with subtitle D of title VI of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 [42 U.S.C. 13611 et seq.].
(3)
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, with the approval of the Secretary the public housing agency administering a contract under this section with respect to existing housing units may exercise all management and maintenance responsibilities with respect to those units pursuant to a contract between such agency and the owner of such units.
(4)
Apublic housing agency that serves more than one unit of general local government may, at the discretion of the agency, in allocating assistance under this section, give priority to disabled families that are not elderly families.
(5)Calculation of limit.—
Any contract entered into under section 514 of the Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act of 1997 shall be excluded in computing the limit on project-based assistance under this subsection.
(6)Treatment of common areas.—
The Secretary may not provide any assistance amounts pursuant to an existing contract for project-based assistance under this section for a housing project and may not enter into a new or renewal contract for such assistance for a project unless the owner of the project provides consent, to such local law enforcement agencies as the Secretary determines appropriate, for law enforcement officers of such agencies to enter common areas of the project at any time and without advance notice upon a determination of probable cause by such officers that criminal activity is taking place in such areas.
(e) Restrictions on contracts for assistance payments
(1)
Nothing in this chapter shall be deemed to prohibit an owner from pledging, or offering as security for any loan or obligation, a contract for assistance payments entered into pursuant to this section: Provided, That such security is in connection with a project constructed or rehabilitated pursuant to authority granted in this section, and the terms of the financing or any refinancing have been approved by the Secretary.
(f) DefinitionsAs used in this section—
(1)
the term “owner” means any private person or entity, including a cooperative, an agency of the Federal Government, or a public housing agency, having the legal right to lease or sublease dwelling units;
(2)
the terms “rent” or “rental” mean, with respect to members of a cooperative, the charges under the occupancy agreements between such members and the cooperative;
(3)
the term “debt service” means the required payments for principal and interest made with respect to a mortgage secured by housing assisted under this chapter;
(4)
the term “participating jurisdiction” means a State or unit of general local government designated by the Secretary to be a participating jurisdiction under title II of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 12721 et seq.];
(5)
the term “drug-related criminal activity” means the illegal manufacture, sale, distribution, use, or possession with intent to manufacture, sell, distribute, or use, of a controlled substance (as defined in section 802 of title 21);
(6)
the term “project-based assistance” means rental assistance under subsection (b) that is attached to the structure pursuant to subsection (d)(2) or (o)(13); and
(7)
the term “tenant-based assistance” means rental assistance under subsection (o) that is not project-based assistance and that provides for the eligible family to select suitable housing and to move to other suitable housing.
(g) Regulations applicable for implementation of assistance payments

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, assistance payments under this section may be provided, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, with respect to some or all of the units in any project approved pursuant to section 1701q of title 12.

(h) Nonapplicability of inconsistent provisions to contracts for assistance payments

Sections 1437c(e) and 1437d of this title (except as provided in section 1437d(j)(3) of this title), and any other provisions of this chapter which are inconsistent with the provisions of this section shall not apply to contracts for assistance entered into under this section.

(i) Receipt of assistance by public housing agency under other law not to be considered

The Secretary may not consider the receipt by a public housing agency of assistance under section 811(b)(1) of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 8013(b)(1)], or the amount received, in approving assistance for the agency under this section or determining the amount of such assistance to be provided.

(k) Verification of income

The Secretary shall establish procedures which are appropriate and necessary to assure that income data provided to public housing agencies and owners by families applying for or receiving assistance under this section is complete and accurate. In establishing such procedures, the Secretary shall randomly, regularly, and periodically select a sample of families to authorize the Secretary to obtain information on these families for the purpose of income verification, or to allow those families to provide such information themselves. Such information may include, but is not limited to, data concerning unemployment compensation and Federal income taxation and data relating to benefits made available under the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.], the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 [7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.], or title 38. Any such information received pursuant to this subsection shall remain confidential and shall be used only for the purpose of verifying incomes in order to determine eligibility of families for benefits (and the amount of such benefits, if any) under this section.

(l), (m) Repealed. Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title II, § 209(a)(5)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1183
(o) Voucher program
(1) Authority
(A) In general

The Secretary may provide assistance to public housing agencies for tenant-based assistance using a payment standard established in accordance with subparagraph (B). The payment standard shall be used to determine the monthly assistance that may be paid for any family, as provided in paragraph (2).

(B) Establishment of payment standard

Except as provided under subparagraph (D), the payment standard for each size of dwelling unit in a market area shall not exceed 110 percent of the fair market rental established under subsection (c) for the same size of dwelling unit in the same market area and shall be not less than 90 percent of that fair market rental, except that no public housing agency shall be required as a result of a reduction in the fair market rental to reduce the payment standard applied to a family continuing to reside in a unit for which the family was receiving assistance under this section at the time the fair market rental was reduced. The Secretary shall allow public housing agencies to request exception payment standards within fair market rental areas subject to criteria and procedures established by the Secretary.

(C) Set-aside

The Secretary may set aside not more than 5 percent of the budget authority made available for assistance under this subsection as an adjustment pool. The Secretary shall use amounts in the adjustment pool to make adjusted payments to public housing agencies under subparagraph (A), to ensure continued affordability, if the Secretary determines that additional assistance for such purpose is necessary, based on documentation submitted by a public housing agency.

(D) Approval

The Secretary may require a public housing agency to submit the payment standard of the public housing agency to the Secretary for approval, if the payment standard is less than 90 percent of the fair market rental or exceeds 110 percent of the fair market rental, except that a public housing agency may establish a payment standard of not more than 120 percent of the fair market rent where necessary as a reasonable accommodation for a person with a disability, without approval of the Secretary. A public housing agency may use a payment standard that is greater than 120 percent of the fair market rent as a reasonable accommodation for a person with a disability, but only with the approval of the Secretary. In connection with the use of any increased payment standard established or approved pursuant to either of the preceding two sentences as a reasonable accommodation for a person with a disability, the Secretary may not establish additional requirements regarding the amount of adjusted income paid by such person for rent.

(E) ReviewThe Secretary
(i)
shall monitor rent burdens and review any payment standard that results in asignificant percentage of the families occupying units of any size paying more than 30 percent of adjusted income for rent; and
(ii)
may require apublic housing agency to modify the payment standard of the public housing agency based on the results of that review.
(2) Amount of monthly assistance paymentSubject to the requirement under section 1437a(a)(3) of this title(relating to minimum rental amount), the monthly assistance payment for a family receiving assistance under this subsection shall be determined as follows:
(A) Tenant-based assistance; rent not exceeding payment standardFor afamily receiving tenant-based assistance, if the rent for the family (including the amount allowed for tenant-paid utilities) does not exceed the applicable payment standard established under paragraph (1), the monthly assistance payment for the family shall be equal to the amount by which the rent (including the amount allowed for tenant-paid utilities) exceeds the greatest of the following amounts, rounded to the nearest dollar:
(i)
30 percent of the monthly adjusted income of the family.
(ii)
10 percent of the monthly income of the family.
(iii)
If the family is receiving payments for welfare assistance from a public agency and a part of those payments, adjusted in accordance with the actual housing costs of the family, is specifically designated by that agency to meet the housing costs of the family, the portion of those payments that is so designated.
(B) Tenant-based assistance; rent exceeding payment standard

For afamily receiving tenant-based assistance, if the rent for the family (including the amount allowed for tenant-paid utilities) exceeds the applicable payment standard established under paragraph (1), the monthly assistance payment for the family shall be equal to the amount by which the applicable payment standard exceeds the greatest of amounts under clauses (i), (ii), and (iii) of subparagraph (A).

(C) Families receiving project-based assistance

For afamily receiving project-based assistance, the rent that the family is required to pay shall be determined in accordance with section 1437a(a)(1) of this title, and the amount of the housing assistance payment shall be determined in accordance with subsection (c)(3) of this section.

(D) Utility allowance
(i) General

In determining the monthly assistance payment for afamily under subparagraphs (A) and (B), the amount allowed for tenant-paid utilities shall not exceed the appropriate utility allowance for the family unit size as determined by the public housing agency regardless of the size of the dwelling unit leased by the family.

(ii) Exception for families in including persons with disabilities

Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), upon request by afamily that includes a person with disabilities, the public housing agency shall approve a utility allowance that is higher than the applicable amount on the utility allowance schedule if a higher utility allowance is needed as a reasonable accommodation to make the program accessible to and usable by the family member with a disability.

(3) 40 percent limit

At the time afamily initially receives tenant-based assistance under this section with respect to any dwelling unit, the total amount that a family may be required to pay for rent may not exceed 40 percent of the monthly adjusted income of the family.

(4) Eligible familiesTo be eligible to receive assistance under this subsection, afamily shall, at the time a family initially receives assistance under this subsection, be a low-income family that is—
(A)
a very low-income family;
(B)
afamily previously assisted under this subchapter;
(C)
a low-income family that meets eligibility criteria specified by the public housing agency;
(D)
afamily that qualifies to receive a voucher in connection with a homeownership program approved under title IV of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act; or
(E)
afamily that qualifies to receive a voucher under section 223 or 226 of the Low-Income Housing Preservation and Resident Homeownership Act of 1990 [12 U.S.C. 4113, 4116].
(5) Reviews of family income
(A) In general

Reviews of familyincomes for purposes of this section shall be subject to paragraphs (1), (6), and (7) of section 1437a(a) of this title and to section 3544 of this title.

(B) Procedures

Each public housing agency administering assistance under this subsection shall establish procedures that are appropriate and necessary to ensure that income data provided to the agency and owners by families applying for or receiving assistance from the agency is complete and accurate.

(6) Selection of families and disapproval of owners
(A) Preferences
(i) Authority to establish

Each public housing agency may establish a system for making tenant-based assistance under this subsection available on behalf of eligible families that provides preference for such assistance to eligible families having certain characteristics, which may include a preference for families residing in public housing who are victims of a crime of violence (as such term is defined in section 16 of title 18) that has been reported to an appropriate law enforcement agency.

(ii) Content

Each system of preferences established pursuant to this subparagraph shall be based upon local housing needs and priorities, as determined by the public housing agency using generally accepted data sources, including any information obtained pursuant to an opportunity for public comment as provided under section 1437c–1(f) of this title and under the requirements applicable to the comprehensive housing affordability strategy for the relevant jurisdiction.

(B) Selection of tenants

Each housing assistance payment contract entered into by the public housing agency and the owner of a dwelling unit)[2] shall provide that the screening and selection of families for those units shall be the function of the owner. In addition, the public housing agency may elect to screen applicants for the program in accordance with such requirements as the Secretary may establish. That an applicant or participant is or has been a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking is not an appropriate basis for denial of program assistance or for denial of admission if the applicant otherwise qualifies for assistance or admission.

(C) PHA disapproval of ownersIn addition to other grounds authorized by the Secretary, a public housing agency may elect not to enter into a housing assistance payments contract under this subsection with an owner who refuses, or has a history of refusing, to take action to terminate tenancy for activity engaged in by the tenant, any member of the tenant’s household, any guest, or any other person under the control of any member of the household that—
(i)
threatens the health or safety of, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by, other tenants or employees of the public housing agency, owner, or other manager of the housing;
(ii)
threatens the health or safety of, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the residences by, persons residing in the immediate vicinity of the premises; or
(iii)
is drug-related or violent criminal activity.
(7) Leases and tenancyEach housing assistance payment contract entered into by the public housing agency and the owner of a dwelling unit—
(A)
shall provide that the lease between the tenant and the owner shall be for a term of not less than 1 year, except that the public housing agency may approve a shorter term for an initial lease between the tenant and the dwelling unit owner if the public housing agency determines that such shorter term would improve housing opportunities for the tenant and if such shorter term is considered to be a prevailing local market practice;
(B) shall provide that the dwelling unitowner shall offer leases to tenants assisted under this subsection that—
(i)
are in a standard form used in the locality by the dwelling unitowner; and
(ii) contain terms and conditions that—
(I)
are consistent with State and local law; and
(II)
apply generally to tenants in the property who are not assisted under this section;
(C) shall provide that during the term of the lease, the owner shall not terminate the tenancy except for serious or repeated violation of the terms and conditions of the lease, for violation of applicable Federal, State, or local law, or for other good cause, and in the case of an owner who is an immediate successor in interest pursuant to foreclosure during the term of the lease vacating the property prior to sale shall not constitute other good cause, except that the owner may terminate the tenancy effective on the date of transfer of the unit to the owner if the owner
(i)
will occupy the unit as a primary residence; and
(ii)
has provided the tenant a notice to vacate at least 90 days before the effective date of such notice.; [3]
(D)
shall provide that during the term of the lease, any criminal activity that threatens the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other tenants, any criminal activity that threatens the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of their residences by persons residing in the immediate vicinity of the premises, or any violent or drug-related criminal activity on or near such premises, engaged in by a tenant of any unit, any member of the tenant’s household, or any guest or other person under the tenant’s control, shall be cause for termination of tenancy;
(E)
shall provide that any termination of tenancy under this subsection shall be preceded by the provision of written notice by the owner to the tenant specifying the grounds for that action, and any relief shall be consistent with applicable State and local law; and
(F)
may include any addenda required by the Secretary to set forth the provisions of this subsection. In the case of any foreclosure on any federally-related mortgage loan (as that term is defined in section 2602 of title 12) or on any residential real property in which a recipient of assistance under this subsection resides, the immediate successor in interest in such property pursuant to the foreclosure shall assume such interest subject to the lease between the prior owner and the tenant and to the housing assistance payments contract between the prior owner and the public housing agency for the occupied unit, except that this provision and the provisions related to foreclosure in subparagraph (C) shall not shall not 3 affect any State or local law that provides longer time periods or other additional protections for tenants.
(8) Inspection of units by PHAs
(A) Initial inspection
(i) In general

For each dwelling unit for which a housing assistance payment contract is established under this subsection, the public housing agency (or other entity pursuant to paragraph (11)) shall inspect the unit before any assistance payment is made to determine whether the dwelling unit meets the housing quality standards under subparagraph (B), except as provided in clause (ii) or (iii) of this subparagraph.

(ii) Correction of non-life-threatening conditions

In the case of any dwelling unit that is determined, pursuant to an inspection under clause (i), not to meet the housing quality standards under subparagraph (B), assistance payments may be made for the unit notwithstanding subparagraph (C) if failure to meet such standards is a result only of non-life-threatening conditions, as such conditions are established by the Secretary. A public housing agency making assistance payments pursuant to this clause for a dwelling unit shall, 30 days after the beginning of the period for which such payments are made, withhold any assistance payments for the unit if any deficiency resulting in noncompliance with the housing quality standards has not been corrected by such time. The public housing agency shall recommence assistance payments when such deficiency has been corrected, and may use any payments withheld to make assistance payments relating to the period during which payments were withheld.

(iii) Use of alternative inspection method for interim period

In the case of any property that within the previous 24 months has met the requirements of an inspection that qualifies as an alternative inspection method pursuant to subparagraph (E), a public housing agency may authorize occupancy before the inspection under clause (i) has been completed, and may make assistance payments retroactive to the beginning of the lease term after the unit has been determined pursuant to an inspection under clause (i) to meet the housing quality standards under subparagraph (B). This clause may not be construed to exempt any dwelling unit from compliance with the requirements of subparagraph (D).

(B) Housing quality standardsThe housing quality standards under this subparagraph are standards for safe and habitable housing established—
(i)
by the Secretary for purposes of this subsection; or
(ii) by local housing codes or by codes adopted by public housing agencies that—
(I)
meet or exceed housing quality standards, except that the Secretary may waive the requirement under this subclause to significantly increase access to affordable housing and to expand housing opportunities for families assisted under this subsection, except where such waiver could adversely affect the health or safety of families assisted under this subsection; and
(II)
do not severely restrict housing choice [4]
(C) Inspection

The determination required under subparagraph (A) shall be made by the public housing agency (or other entity, as provided in paragraph (11)) pursuant to an inspection of the dwelling unit conducted before any assistance payment is made for the unit. Inspections of dwelling units under this subparagraph shall be made before the expiration of the 15-day period beginning upon a request by the resident or landlord to the public housing agency or, in the case of any public housing agency that provides assistance under this subsection on behalf of more than 1250 families, before the expiration of a reasonable period beginning upon such request. The performance of the agency in meeting the 15-day inspection deadline shall be taken into consideration in assessing the performance of the agency.

(D) Biennial inspections
(i) Requirement

Each public housing agency providing assistance under this subsection (or other entity, as provided in paragraph (11)) shall, for each assisted dwelling unit, make inspections not less often than biennially during the term of the housing assistance payments contract for the unit to determine whether the unit is maintained in accordance with the requirements under subparagraph (A).

(ii) Use of alternative inspection method

The requirements under clause (i) may be complied with by use of inspections that qualify as an alternative inspection method pursuant to subparagraph (E).

(iii) Records

The public housing agency (or other entity) shall retain the records of the inspection for a reasonable time, as determined by the Secretary, and shall make the records available upon request to the Secretary, the Inspector General for the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and any auditor conducting an audit under section 1437c(h) of this title.

(iv) Mixed-finance properties

The Secretary may adjust the frequency of inspections for mixed-finance properties assisted with vouchers under paragraph (13) to facilitate the use of the alternative inspections in subparagraph (E).

(E) Alternative inspection methodAn inspection of a property shall qualify as an alternative inspection method for purposes of this subparagraph if—
(i)
the inspection was conducted pursuant to requirements under a Federal, State, or local housing program (including the Home investment partnership program under title II of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 12721 et seq.] and the low-income housing tax credit program under section 42 of title 26); and
(ii)
pursuant to such inspection, the property was determined to meet the standards or requirements regarding housing quality or safety applicable to properties assisted under such program, and, if a non-Federal standard or requirement was used, the public housing agency has certified to the Secretary that such standard or requirement provides the same (or greater) protection to occupants of dwelling units meeting such standard or requirement as would the housing quality standards under subparagraph (B).
(F) Interim inspectionsUpon notification to the public housing agency, by a family (on whose behalf tenant-based rental assistance is provided under this subsection) or by a government official, that the dwelling unit for which such assistance is provided does not comply with the housing quality standards under subparagraph (B), the public housing agency shall inspect the dwelling unit—
(i)
in the case of any condition that is life-threatening, within 24 hours after the agency’s receipt of such notification, unless waived by the Secretary in extraordinary circumstances; and
(ii)
in the case of any condition that is not life-threatening, within a reasonable time frame, as determined by the Secretary.
(G) Inspection guidelines

The Secretary shall establish procedural guidelines and performance standards to facilitate inspections of dwelling units and conform such inspections with practices utilized in the private housing market. Such guidelines and standards shall take into consideration variations in local laws and practices of public housing agencies and shall provide flexibility to authorities appropriate to facilitate efficient provision of assistance under this subsection.

(9) Vacated units

If an assisted family vacates a dwelling unit for which rental assistance is provided under a housing assistance payment contract before the expiration of the term of the lease for the unit, rental assistance pursuant to such contract may not be provided for the unit after the month during which the unit was vacated.

(10) Rent
(A) Reasonableness

The rent for dwelling units for which a housing assistance payment contract is established under this subsection shall be reasonable in comparison with rents charged for comparable dwelling units in the private, unassisted local market.

(B) Negotiations

A public housing agency (or other entity, as provided in paragraph (11)) shall, at the request of a family receiving tenant-based assistance under this subsection, assist that family in negotiating a reasonable rent with a dwelling unit owner. A public housing agency (or such other entity) shall review the rent for a unit under consideration by the family (and all rent increases for units under lease by the family) to determine whether the rent (or rent increase) requested by the owner is reasonable. If a public housing agency (or other such entity) determines that the rent (or rent increase) for a dwelling unit is not reasonable, the public housing agency (or other such entity) shall not make housing assistance payments to the owner under this subsection with respect to that unit.

(C) Units exempt from local rent control

If a dwelling unit for which a housing assistance payment contract is established under this subsection is exempt from local rent control provisions during the term of that contract, the rent for that unit shall be reasonable in comparison with other units in the market area that are exempt from local rent control provisions.

(D) Timely payments

Each public housing agency shall make timely payment of any amounts due to a dwelling unit owner under this subsection. The housing assistance payment contract between the owner and the public housing agency may provide for penalties for the late payment of amounts due under the contract, which shall be imposed on the public housing agency in accordance with generally accepted practices in the local housing market.

(E) Penalties

Unless otherwise authorized by the Secretary, each public housing agency shall pay any penalties from administrative fees collected by the public housing agency, except that no penalty shall be imposed if the late payment is due to factors that the Secretary determines are beyond the control of the public housing agency.

(F) Tax credit projectsIn the case of a dwelling unit receiving tax credits pursuant to section 42 of title 26 or for which assistance is provided under subtitle A of title II of the Cranston Gonzalez [5] National Affordable Housing Act of 1990 [42 U.S.C. 12741 et seq.], for which a housing assistance contract not subject to paragraph (13) of this subsection is established, rent reasonableness shall be determined as otherwise provided by this paragraph, except that—
(i)
comparison with rent for units in the private, unassisted local market shall not be required if the rent is equal to or less than the rent for other comparable units receiving such tax credits or assistance in the project that are not occupied by families assisted with tenant-based assistance under this subsection; and
(ii) the rent shall not be considered reasonable for purposes of this paragraph if it exceeds the greater of—
(I)
the rents charged for other comparable units receiving such tax credits or assistance in the project that are not occupied by families assisted with tenant-based assistance under this subsection; and
(II)
the payment standard established by the public housing agency for a unit of the size involved.
(11) Leasing of units owned by PHA
(A) Inspections and rent determinations

If an eligible family assisted under this subsection leases a dwelling unit (other than a public housing dwelling unit) that is owned by a public housing agency administering assistance under this subsection, the Secretary shall require the unit of general local government or another entity approved by the Secretary, to make inspections required under paragraph (8) and rent determinations required under paragraph (10). The agency shall be responsible for any expenses of such inspections and determinations.

(B) Units owned by PHA

For purposes of this subsection, the term “owned by apublic housing agency” means, with respect to a dwelling unit, that the dwelling unit is in a project that is owned by such agency, by an entity wholly controlled by such agency, or by a limited liability company or limited partnership in which such agency (or an entity wholly controlled by such agency) holds a controlling interest in the managing member or general partner. A dwelling unit shall not be deemed to be owned by a public housing agency for purposes of this subsection because the agency holds a fee interest as ground lessor in the property on which the unit is situated, holds a security interest under a mortgage or deed of trust on the unit, or holds a non-controlling interest in an entity which owns the unit or in the managing member or general partner of an entity which owns the unit.

(12) Assistance for rental of manufactured housing
(A) In general

A public housing agency may make assistance payments in accordance with this subsection on behalf of a family that utilizes a manufactured home as a principal place of residence. Such payments may be made only for the rental of the real property on which the manufactured home owned by any such family is located.

(B) Rent calculation
(i) Charges included

For assistance pursuant to this paragraph, the rent for the space on which a manufactured home is located and with respect to which assistance payments are to be made shall include maintenance and management charges and tenant-paid utilities.

(ii) Payment standard

The public housing agency shall establish a payment standard for the purpose of determining the monthly assistance that may be paid for any family under this paragraph. The payment standard may not exceed an amount approved or established by the Secretary.

(iii) Monthly assistance payment

The monthly assistance payment for afamily assisted under this paragraph shall be determined in accordance with paragraph (2).

(13) PHA project-based assistance
(A) In general

A public housing agency may use amounts provided under an annual contributions contract under this subsection to enter into a housing assistance payment contract with respect to an existing, newly constructed, or rehabilitated structure, that is attached to the structure, subject to the limitations and requirements of this paragraph.

(B) Percentage limitation

Not more than 20 percent of the funding available for tenant-based assistance under this section that is administered by the agency may be attached to structures pursuant to this paragraph.

(C) Consistency with PHA plan and other goalsA public housing agency may approve a housing assistance payment contract pursuant to this paragraph only if the contract is consistent with—
(ii)
the goal of deconcentrating poverty and expanding housing and economic opportunities.
(D) Income mixing requirement
(i) In general

Not more than 25 percent of the dwelling units in any project may be assisted under a housing assistance payment contract for project-based assistance pursuant to this paragraph. For purposes of this subparagraph, the term “project” means a single building, multiple contiguous buildings, or multiple buildings on contiguous parcels of land.

(ii) Exceptions

The limitation under clause (i) shall not apply in the case of assistance under acontract for housing consisting of single family properties or for dwelling units that are specifically made available for households comprised of elderly families, disabled families, and families receiving supportive services.

(E) Resident choice requirementA housing assistance payment contract pursuant to this paragraph shall provide as follows:
(i) Mobility

Each low-income family occupying a dwelling unit assisted under the contract may move from the housing at any time after the family has occupied the dwelling unit for 12 months.

(ii) Continued assistance

Upon such a move, the public housing agency shall provide the low-income family with tenant-based rental assistance under this section or such other tenant-based rental assistance that is subject to comparable income, assistance, rent contribution, affordability, and other requirements, as the Secretary shall provide by regulation. If such rental assistance is not immediately available to fulfill the requirement under the preceding sentence with respect to a low-income family, such requirement may be met by providing the family priority to receive the next voucher or other tenant-based rental assistance amounts that become available under the program used to fulfill such requirement.

(F) Contract term

A housing assistance payment contract pursuant to this paragraph between a public housing agency and the owner of a structure may have a term of up to 15 years, subject to the availability of sufficient appropriated funds for the purpose of renewing expiring contracts for assistance payments, as provided in appropriations Acts and in the agency’s annual contributions contract with the Secretary, and to annual compliance with the inspection requirements under paragraph (8), except that the agency shall not be required to make annual inspections of each assisted unit in the development. The contract may specify additional conditions for its continuation. If the units covered by the contract are owned by the agency, the term of the contract shall be agreed upon by the agency and the unit of general local government or other entity approved by the Secretary in the manner provided under paragraph (11).

(G) Extension of contract term

A public housing agency may enter into a contract with the owner of a structure assisted under a housing assistance payment contract pursuant to this paragraph to extend the term of the underlying housing assistance payment contract for such period as the agency determines to be appropriate to achieve long-term affordability of the housing or to expand housing opportunities. Such contract may, at the election of the public housing agency and the owner of the structure, specify that such contract shall be extended for renewal terms of up to 15 years each, if the agency makes the determination required by this subparagraph and the owner is in compliance with the terms of the contract. Such a contract shall provide that the extension of such term shall be contingent upon the future availability of appropriated funds for the purpose of renewing expiring contracts for assistance payments, as provided in appropriations Acts, and may obligate the owner to have such extensions of the underlying housing assistance payment contract accepted by the owner and the successors in interest of the owner. A public housing agency may agree to enter into such a contract at the time it enters into the initial agreement for a housing assistance payment contract or at any time thereafter that is before the expiration of the housing assistance payment contract.

(H) Rent calculation

A housing assistance payment contract pursuant to this paragraph shall establish rents for each unit assisted in an amount that does not exceed 110 percent of the applicable fair market rental (or any exception payment standard approved by the Secretary pursuant to paragraph (1)(D)), except that if a contract covers a dwelling unit that has been allocated low-income housing tax credits pursuant to section 42 of title 26 and is not located in a qualified census tract (as such term is defined in subsection (d) of such section 42), the rent for such unit may be established at any level that does not exceed the rent charged for comparable units in the building that also receive the low-income housing tax credit but do not have additional rental assistance, except that in the case of a contract unit that has been allocated low-income housing tax credits and for which the rent limitation pursuant to such section 42 is less than the amount that would otherwise be permitted under this subparagraph, the rent for such unit may, in the sole discretion of a public housing agency, be established at the higher section 8 [42 U.S.C. 1437f] rent, subject only to paragraph (10)(A). The rents established by housing assistance payment contracts pursuant to this paragraph may vary from the payment standards established by the public housing agency pursuant to paragraph (1)(B), but shall be subject to paragraph (10)(A).

(I) Rent adjustmentsA housing assistance payments contract pursuant to this paragraph shall provide for rent adjustments, except that—
(i)
the adjusted rent for any unit assisted shall be reasonable in comparison with rents charged for comparable dwelling units in the private, unassisted, local market and may not exceed the maximum rent permitted under subparagraph (H), except that the contract may provide that the maximum rent permitted for a dwelling unit shall not be less than the initial rent for the dwelling unit under the initial housing assistance payments contract covering the unit; and
(ii)
the provisions of subsection (c)(2)(C) shall not apply.
(J) Tenant selection

A public housing agency shall select families to receive project-based assistance pursuant to this paragraph from its waiting list for assistance under this subsection. Eligibility for such project-based assistance shall be subject to the provisions of section 1437n(b) of this title that apply to tenant-based assistance. The agency may establish preferences or criteria for selection for a unit assisted under this paragraph that are consistent with the public housing agency plan for the agency approved under section 1437c–1 of this title. Any family that rejects an offer of project-based assistance under this paragraph or that is rejected for admission to a structure by the owner or manager of a structure assisted under this paragraph shall retain its place on the waiting list as if the offer had not been made. The owner or manager of a structure assisted under this paragraph shall not admit any family to a dwelling unit assisted under a contract pursuant to this paragraph other than a family referred by the public housing agency from its waiting list. Subject to its waiting list policies and selection preferences, a public housing agency may place on its waiting list a family referred by the owner or manager of a structure and may maintain a separate waiting list for assistance under this paragraph, but only if all families on the agency’s waiting list for assistance under this subsection are permitted to place their names on the separate list.

(K) Vacated unitsNotwithstanding paragraph (9), ahousing assistance payment contract pursuant to this paragraph may provide as follows:
(i) Payment for vacant units

That the public housing agency may, in its discretion, continue to provide assistance under the contract, for a reasonable period not exceeding 60 days, for a dwelling unit that becomes vacant, but only: (I) if the vacancy was not the fault of the owner of the dwelling unit; and (II) the agency and the owner take every reasonable action to minimize the likelihood and extent of any such vacancy. Rental assistance may not be provided for a vacant unit after the expiration of such period.

(ii) Reduction of contract

That, if despite reasonable efforts of the agency and the owner to fill a vacant unit, no eligible family has agreed to rent the unit within 120 days after the owner has notified the agency of the vacancy, the agency may reduce its housing assistance payments contract with the owner by the amount equivalent to the remaining months of subsidy attributable to the vacant unit. Amounts deobligated pursuant to such a contract provision shall be available to the agency to provide assistance under this subsection.

Eligible applicants for assistance under this subsection may enforce provisions authorized by this subparagraph.
(L) Use in cooperative housing and elevator buildingsA public housing agency may enter into a housing assistance payments contract under this paragraph with respect to—
(i)
dwelling units in cooperative housing; and
(ii)
notwithstanding subsection (c), dwelling units in a high-rise elevator project, including such a project that is occupied by families with children, without review and approval of the contract by the Secretary.
(M) Reviews
(i) Subsidy layering

A subsidy layering review in accordance with section 3545(d) of this title shall not be required for assistance under this paragraph in the case of a housing assistance payments contract for an existing structure, or if a subsidy layering review has been conducted by the applicable State or local agency.

(ii) Environmental review

A public housing agency shall not be required to undertake any environmental review before entering into a housing assistance payments contract under this paragraph for an existing structure, except to the extent such a review is otherwise required by law or regulation.

(14) Inapplicability to tenant-based assistance

Subsection (c) shall not apply to tenant-based assistance under this subsection.

(15) Homeownership option
(A) In general

A public housing agency providing assistance under this subsection may, at the option of the agency, provide assistance for homeownership under subsection (y).

(B) Alternative administration

A public housing agency may contract with a nonprofit organization to administer a homeownership program under subsection (y).

(16) Rental vouchers for relocation of witnesses and victims of crime
(A) Witnesses

Of amounts made available for assistance under this subsection in each fiscal year, the Secretary, in consultation with the Inspector General, shall make available such sums as may be necessary for the relocation of witnesses in connection with efforts to combat crime in public and assisted housing pursuant to requests from law enforcement or prosecution agencies.

(B) Victims of crime
(i) In general

Of amounts made available for assistance under this section in each fiscal year, the Secretary shall make available such sums as may be necessary for the relocation of families residing in public housing who are victims of a crime of violence (as that term is defined in section 16 of title 18) that has been reported to an appropriate law enforcement agency.

(ii) Notice

A public housing agency that receives amounts under this subparagraph shall establish procedures for providing notice of the availability of that assistance to families that may be eligible for that assistance.

(17) Deed restrictions

Assistance under this subsection may not be used in any manner that abrogates any local deed restriction that applies to any housing consisting of 1 to 4 dwelling units. This paragraph may not be construed to affect the provisions or applicability of the Fair Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 3601 et seq.].

(18) Rental assistance for assisted living facilities
(A) In general

A public housing agency may make assistance payments on behalf of a family that uses an assisted living facility as a principal place of residence and that uses such supportive services made available in the facility as the agency may require. Such payments may be made only for covering costs of rental of the dwelling unit in the assisted living facility and not for covering any portion of the cost of residing in such facility that is attributable to service relating to assisted living.

(B) Rent calculation
(i) Charges included

For assistance pursuant to this paragraph, the rent of the dwelling unit that is an assisted living facility with respect to which assistance payments are made shall include maintenance and management charges related to the dwelling unit and tenant-paid utilities. Such rent shall not include any charges attributable to services relating to assisted living.

(ii) Payment standard

In determining the monthly assistance that may be paid under this paragraph on behalf of any family residing in an assisted living facility, the public housing agency shall utilize the payment standard established under paragraph (1), for the market area in which the assisted living facility is located, for the applicable size dwelling unit.

(iii) Monthly assistance payment

The monthly assistance payment for afamily assisted under this paragraph shall be determined in accordance with paragraph (2) (using the rent and payment standard for the dwelling unit as determined in accordance with this subsection), except that a family may be required at the time the family initially receives such assistance to pay rent in an amount exceeding 40 percent of the monthly adjusted income of the family by such an amount or percentage that is reasonable given the services and amenities provided and as the Secretary deems appropriate..[6]

(C) Definition

For the purposes of this paragraph, the term “assisted living facility” has the meaning given that term in section 232(b) of the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 1715w(b)), except that such a facility may be contained within a portion of a larger multifamily housing project.

(19) Rental vouchers for Veterans Affairs supported housing program
(A) Set aside

Subject to subparagraph (C), the Secretary shall set aside, from amounts made available for rental assistance under this subsection, the amounts specified in subparagraph (B) for use only for providing such assistance through a supported housing program administered in conjunction with the Department of Veterans Affairs. Such program shall provide rental assistance on behalf of homeless veterans who have chronic mental illnesses or chronic substance use disorders, shall require agreement of the veteran to continued treatment for such mental illness or substance use disorder as a condition of receipt of such rental assistance, and shall ensure such treatment and appropriate case management for each veteran receiving such rental assistance.

(B) AmountThe amount specified in this subparagraph is—
(i)
for fiscal year 2007, the amount necessary to provide 500 vouchers for rental assistance under this subsection;
(ii)
for fiscal year 2008, the amount necessary to provide 1,000 vouchers for rental assistance under this subsection;
(iii)
for fiscal year 2009, the amount necessary to provide 1,500 vouchers for rental assistance under this subsection;
(iv)
for fiscal year 2010, the amount necessary to provide 2,000 vouchers for rental assistance under this subsection; and
(v)
for fiscal year 2011, the amount necessary to provide 2,500 vouchers for rental assistance under this subsection.
(C) Funding through incremental assistance

In any fiscal year, to the extent that this paragraph requires the Secretary to set aside rental assistance amounts for use under this paragraph in an amount that exceeds the amount set aside in the preceding fiscal year, such requirement shall be effective only to such extent or in such amounts as are or have been provided in appropriation Acts for such fiscal year for incremental rental assistance under this subsection.

(20) Collection of utility data
(A) Publication

The Secretary shall, to the extent that data can be collected cost effectively, regularly publish such data regarding utility consumption and costs in local areas as the Secretary determines will be useful for the establishment of allowances for tenant-paid utilities for families assisted under this subsection.

(B) Use of dataThe Secretary shall provide such data in a manner that—
(i)
avoids unnecessary administrative burdens for public housing agencies and owners; and
(ii)
protects families in various unit sizes and building types, and using various utilities, from high rent and utility cost burdens relative to income.
(p) Shared housing for elderly and handicapped

In order to assist elderly families(as defined in section 1437a(b)(3) of this title who elect to live in a shared housing arrangement in which they benefit as a result of sharing the facilities of a dwelling with others in a manner that effectively and efficiently meets their housing needs and thereby reduces their cost of housing, the Secretary shall permit assistance provided under the existing housing and moderate rehabilitation programs to be used by such families in such arrangements. In carrying out this subsection, the Secretary shall issue minimum habitability standards for the purpose of assuring decent, safe, and sanitary housing for such families while taking into account the special circumstances of shared housing.

(q) Administrative fees
(1) Fee for ongoing costs of administration
(A) In general

The Secretary shall establish fees for the costs of administering the tenant-based assistance, certificate, voucher, and moderate rehabilitation programs under this section.

(B) Fiscal year 1999
(i) CalculationFor fiscal year 1999, the fee for each month for which a dwelling unit is covered by an assistance contract shall be—
(I)
in the case of apublic housing agency that, on an annual basis, is administering a program for not more than 600 dwelling units, 7.65 percent of the base amount; and
(II)
in the case of an agency that, on an annual basis, is administering a program for more than 600 dwelling units (aa) for the first 600 units, 7.65 percent of the base amount, and (bb) for any additional dwelling units under the program, 7.0 percent of the base amount.
(ii) Base amountFor purposes of this subparagraph, the base amount shall be the higher of—
(I)
the fair market rental established under subsection (c) of this section (as in effect immediately before the effective date under section 503(a) of the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998) for fiscal year 1993 for a 2-bedroom existing rental dwelling unit in the market area of the agency, and
(II)
the amount that is the lesser of (aa) such fair market rental for fiscal year 1994, or (bb) 103.5 percent of the amount determined under clause (i),
 adjusted based on changes in wage data or other objectively measurable data that reflect the costs of administering the program, as determined by the Secretary. The Secretary may require that the base amount be not less than a minimum amount and not more than a maximum amount.
(C) Subsequent fiscal years

For subsequent fiscal years, the Secretary shall publish a notice in the Federal Register, for each geographic area, establishing the amount of the fee that would apply for public housing agencies administering the program, based on changes in wage data or other objectively measurable data that reflect the costs of administering the program, as determined by the Secretary.

(D) Increase

The Secretary may increase the fee if necessary to reflect the higher costs of administering small programs and programs operating over large geographic areas.

(E) Decrease

The Secretary may decrease the fee for units owned by a public housing agency to reflect reasonable costs of administration.

(2) Fee for preliminary expensesThe Secretary shall also establish reasonable fees (as determined by the Secretary) for—
(A)
the costs of preliminary expenses, in the amount of $500, for a public housing agency, except that such fee shall apply to an agency only in the first year that the agency administers a tenant-based assistance program under this section, and only if, immediately before the effective date under section 503(a) of the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998, the agency was not administering a tenant-based assistance program under this chapter (as in effect immediately before such effective date), in connection with its initial increment of assistance received;
(B)
the costs incurred in assisting families who experience difficulty (as determined by the Secretary) in obtaining appropriate housing under the programs; and
(C)
extraordinary costs approved by the Secretary.
(3) Transfer of fees in cases of concurrent geographical jurisdiction

In each fiscal year, if any public housing agency provides tenant-based assistance under this section on behalf of a family who uses such assistance for a dwelling unit that is located within the jurisdiction of such agency but is also within the jurisdiction of another public housing agency, the Secretary shall take such steps as may be necessary to ensure that the public housing agency that provides the services for a family receives all or part of the administrative fee under this section (as appropriate).

(4) Applicability

This subsection shall apply to fiscal year 1999 and fiscal years thereafter.

(r) Portability
(1)In general.—
(A)
Any family receiving tenant-based assistance under subsection (o) may receive such assistance to rent an eligible dwelling unit if the dwelling unit to which the family moves is within any area in which a program is being administered under this section.
(B)
(i)
Notwithstanding subparagraph (A) and subject to any exceptions established under clause (ii) of this subparagraph, apublic housing agency may require that any family not living within the jurisdiction of the public housing agency at the time the family applies for assistance from the agency shall, during the 12-month period beginning on the date of initial receipt of housing assistance made available on behalf of the family from such agency, lease and occupy an eligible dwelling unit located within the jurisdiction served by the agency.
(ii)
The Secretary may establish such exceptions to the authority of public housing agencies established under clause (i).
(2)
The public housing agency having authority with respect to the dwelling unit to which a family moves under this subsection shall have the responsibility of carrying out the provisions of this subsection with respect to the family.
(3)
In providing assistance under subsection (o) for any fiscal year, the Secretary shall give consideration to any reduction in the number of resident families incurred by a public housing agency in the preceding fiscal year as a result of the provisions of this subsection. The Secretary shall establish procedures for the compensation of public housing agencies that issue vouchers to families that move into or out of the jurisdiction of the public housing agency under portability procedures. The Secretary may reserve amounts available for assistance under subsection (o) to compensate those public housing agencies.
(4)
The provisions of this subsection may not be construed to restrict any authority of the Secretary under any other provision of law to provide for the portability of assistance under this section.
(5)Lease violations.—
A family may not receive a voucher from a public housing agency and move to another jurisdiction under the tenant-based assistance program if the family has moved out of the assisted dwelling unit of the family in violation of a lease, except that a family may receive a voucher from a public housing agency and move to another jurisdiction under the tenant-based assistance program if the family has complied with all other obligations of the section 8 [42 U.S.C. 1437f] program and has moved out of the assisted dwelling unit in order to protect the health or safety of an individual who is or has been the victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking and who reasonably believed he or she was imminently threatened by harm from further violence if he or she remained in the assisted dwelling unit.
(s) Prohibition of denial of certificates and vouchers to residents of public housing

In selecting families for the provision of assistance under this section (including subsection (o)), a public housing agency may not exclude or penalize a family solely because the family resides in a public housing project.

(t) Enhanced vouchers
(1) In generalEnhanced voucher assistance under this subsection for afamily shall be voucher assistance under subsection (o), except that under such enhanced voucher assistance—
(A)
subject only to subparagraph (D), the assisted family shall pay as rent no less than the amount the family was paying on the date of the eligibility event for the project in which the family was residing on such date;
(B)
the assisted family may elect to remain in the same project in which the family was residing on the date of the eligibility event for the project, and if, during any period the family makes such an election and continues to so reside, the rent for the dwelling unit of the family in such project exceeds the applicable payment standard established pursuant to subsection (o) for the unit, the amount of rental assistance provided on behalf of the family shall be determined using a payment standard that is equal to the rent for the dwelling unit (as such rent may be increased from time-to-time), subject to paragraph (10)(A) of subsection (o) and any other reasonable limit prescribed by the Secretary, except that a limit shall not be considered reasonable for purposes of this subparagraph if it adversely affects such assisted families;
(C) subparagraph (B) of this paragraph shall not apply and the payment standard for the dwelling unit occupied by the family shall be determined in accordance with subsection (o) if—
(i)
the assisted family moves, at any time, from such project; or
(ii)
the voucher is made available for use by any family other than the original family on behalf of whom the voucher was provided; and
(D)
if the income of the assisted family declines to a significant extent, the percentage of income paid by the family for rent shall not exceed the greater of 30 percent or the percentage of income paid at the time of the eligibility event for the project.
(2) Eligibility event

For purposes of this subsection, the term “eligibility event” means, with respect to a multifamily housing project, the prepayment of the mortgage on such housing project, the voluntary termination of the insurance contract for the mortgage for such housing project (including any such mortgage prepayment during fiscal year 1996 or a fiscal year thereafter or any insurance contract voluntary termination during fiscal year 1996 or a fiscal year thereafter), the termination or expiration of the contract for rental assistance under this section for such housing project (including any such termination or expiration during fiscal years after fiscal year 1994 prior to the effective date of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 2001), or the transaction under which the project is preserved as affordable housing, that, under paragraphs (3) and (4) of section 515(c), section 524(d) of the Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act of 1997 (42 U.S.C. 1437f note), section 4113(f) of title 12, or section 1715z–1a(p) of title 12, results in tenants in such housing project being eligible for enhanced voucher assistance under this subsection.

(3) Treatment of enhanced vouchers provided under other authority
(A) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any enhanced voucher assistance provided under any authority specified in subparagraph (B) shall (regardless of the date that the amounts for providing such assistance were made available) be treated, and subject to the same requirements, as enhanced voucher assistance under this subsection.

(B) Identification of other authorityThe authority specified in this subparagraph is the authority under—
(i)
the 10th, 11th, and 12th provisos under the “Preserving Existing Housing Investment” account in title II of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104–204; 110 Stat. 2884), pursuant to such provisos, the first proviso under the “Housing Certificate Fund” account in title II of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105–65; 111 Stat. 1351), or the first proviso under the “Housing Certificate Fund” account in title II of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1999 (Public Law 105–276; 112 Stat. 2469); and
(ii)
paragraphs (3) and (4) of section 515(c) of the Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act of 1997 (42 U.S.C. 1437f note), as in effect before October 20, 1999.
(4) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated for each of fiscal years 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, and 2004 such sums as may be necessary for enhanced voucher assistance under this subsection.

(u) Assistance for residents of rental rehabilitation projectsIn the case of low-income families living in rental projects rehabilitated under section 1437o[7] of this title or section 1490m of this title before rehabilitation—
(1)
vouchers under this section shall be made for families who are required to move out of their units because of the physical rehabilitation activities or because of overcrowding;
(2)
at the discretion of each public housing agency or other agency administering the allocation of assistance or vouchers under this section may be made for families who would have to pay more than 30 percent of their adjusted income for rent after rehabilitation whether they choose to remain in, or to move from, the project; and
(3)
the Secretary shall allocate assistance for vouchers under this section to ensure that sufficient resources are available to address the physical or economic displacement, or potential economic displacement, of existing tenants pursuant to paragraphs (1) and (2).
(v) Extension of expiring contracts

The Secretary may extend expiring contracts entered into under this section for project-based loan management assistance to the extent necessary to prevent displacement of low-income families receiving such assistance as of September 30, 1996.

(x) Family unification
(1) Increase in budget authority

The budget authority available under section 1437c(c) of this title for assistance under subsection (b) is authorized to be increased by $100,000,000 on or after October 1, 1992, and by $104,200,000 on or after October 1, 1993.

(2) Use of funds

The amounts made available under this subsection shall be used only in connection with tenant-based assistance under this section on behalf of (A) any family (i) who is otherwise eligible for such assistance, and (ii) who the public child welfare agency for the jurisdiction has certified is a family for whom the lack of adequate housing is a primary factor in the imminent placement of the family’s child or children in out-of-home care or the delayed discharge of a child or children to the family from out-of-home care and (B) for a period not to exceed 36 months, otherwise eligible youths who have attained at least 18 years of age and not more than 24 years of age and who have left foster care, or will leave foster care within 90 days, in accordance with a transition plan described in section 475(5)(H) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 675(5)(H)], and is homeless or is at risk of becoming homeless at age 16 or older.

(3) Allocation

The amounts made available under this subsection shall be allocated by the Secretary through a national competition among applicants based on demonstrated need for the assistance under this subsection. To be considered for assistance, an applicant shall submit to the Secretary a written proposal containing a report from the public child welfare agency serving the jurisdiction of the applicant that describes how a lack of adequate housing in the jurisdiction is resulting in the initial or prolonged separation of children from their families, and how the applicant will coordinate with the public child welfare agency to identify eligible families and provide the families with assistance under this subsection.

(4) Coordination between public housing agencies and public child welfare agenciesThe Secretary shall, not later than the expiration of the 180-day period beginning on July 29, 2016, and after consultation with other appropriate Federal agencies, issue guidance to improve coordination between public housing agencies and public child welfare agencies in carrying out the program under this subsection, which shall provide guidance on—
(A)
identifying eligible recipients for assistance under this subsection;
(B)
coordinating with other local youth and familyproviders in the community and participating in the Continuum of Care program established under subtitle C of title IV of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11381 et seq.);
(C)
implementing housing strategies to assist eligible families and youth;
(D)
aligning system goals to improve outcomes for families and youth and reducing lapses in housing for families and youth; and
(E)
identifying resources that are available to eligible families and youth to provide supportive services available through parts B and E of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 621 et seq.; 670 et seq.) or that the head of household of a family or youth may be entitled to receive under section 477 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 677).
(5) DefinitionsFor purposes of this subsection:
(A) Applicant

The term “applicant” means a public housing agency or any other agency responsible for administering assistance under this section.

(B) Public child welfare agency

The term “public child welfare agency” means the public agency responsible under applicable State law for determining that a child is at imminent risk of placement in out-of-home care or that a child in out-of-home care under the supervision of the public agency may be returned to his or her family.

(y) Homeownership option
(1) Use of assistance for homeownershipA public housing agency providing tenant-based assistance on behalf of an eligible family under this section may provide assistance for an eligible family that purchases a dwelling unit (including a unit under a lease-purchase agreement) that will be owned by 1 or more members of the family, and will be occupied by the family, if the family—
(A)
is afirst-time homeowner, or owns or is acquiring shares in a cooperative;
(B)
demonstrates that the family has income from employment or other sources (other than public assistance, except that the Secretary may provide for the consideration of public assistance in the case of an elderly family or a disabled family), as determined in accordance with requirements of the Secretary, that is not less than twice the payment standard established by the public housing agency (or such other amount as may be established by the Secretary);
(C)
except as provided by the Secretary, demonstrates at the time the family initially receives tenant-based assistance under this subsection that one or more adult members of the family have achieved employment for the period as the Secretary shall require;
(D)
participates in a homeownership and housing counseling program provided by the agency; and
(E)
meets any other initial or continuing requirements established by the public housing agency in accordance with requirements established by the Secretary.
(2) Determination of amount of assistance
(A) Monthly expenses not exceeding payment standardIf the monthly homeownership expenses, as determined in accordance with requirements established by the Secretary, do not exceed the payment standard, the monthly assistance payment shall be the amount by which the homeownership expenses exceed the highest of the following amounts, rounded to the nearest dollar:
(i)
30 percent of the monthly adjusted income of the family.
(ii)
10 percent of the monthly income of the family.
(iii)
If the family is receiving payments for welfare assistance from a public agency, and a portion of those payments, adjusted in accordance with the actual housing costs of the family, is specifically designated by that agency to meet the housing costs of the family, the portion of those payments that is so designated.
(B) Monthly expenses exceed payment standard

If the monthly homeownership expenses, as determined in accordance with requirements established by the Secretary, exceed the payment standard, the monthly assistance payment shall be the amount by which the applicable payment standard exceeds the highest of the amounts under clauses (i), (ii), and (iii) of subparagraph (A).

(3) Inspections and contract conditions
(A) In generalEach contract for the purchase of a unit to be assisted under this section shall—
(i)
provide for pre-purchase inspection of the unit by an independent professional; and
(ii)
require that any cost of necessary repairs be paid by the seller.
(B) Annual inspections not required

The requirement under subsection (o)(8)(A)(ii) 7 for annual inspections shall not apply to units assisted under this section.

(4) Other authority of the SecretaryThe Secretary may—
(A)
limit the term of assistance for afamily assisted under this subsection; and
(B)
modify the requirements of this subsection as the Secretary determines to be necessary to make appropriate adaptations for lease-purchase agreements.
(5) Inapplicability of certain provisionsAssistance under this subsection shall not be subject to the requirements of the following provisions:
(A)
Subsection (c)(3)(B) 7 of this section.
(B)
Subsection (d)(1)(B)(i) of this section.
(C)
Any other provisions of this section governing maximum amounts payable to owners and amounts payable by assisted families.
(D)
Any other provisions of this section concerning contracts between public housing agencies and owners.
(E)
Any other provisions of this chapter that are inconsistent with the provisions of this subsection.
(6) Reversion to rental status
(A) FHA-insured mortgages

If afamily receiving assistance under this subsection for occupancy of a dwelling defaults under a mortgage for the dwelling insured by the Secretary under the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.], the family may not continue to receive rental assistance under this section unless the family (i) transfers to the Secretary marketable title to the dwelling, (ii) moves from the dwelling within the period established or approved by the Secretary, and (iii) agrees that any amounts the family is required to pay to reimburse the escrow account under section 1437u(d)(3) 7 of this title may be deducted by the public housing agency from the assistance payment otherwise payable on behalf of the family.

(B) Other mortgages

If afamily receiving assistance under this subsection defaults under a mortgage not insured under the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.], the family may not continue to receive rental assistance under this section unless it complies with requirements established by the Secretary.

(C) All mortgages

A family receiving assistance under this subsection that defaults under a mortgage may not receive assistance under this subsection for occupancy of another dwelling owned by one or more members of the family.

(7) Downpayment assistance
(A) Authority

A public housing agency may, in lieu of providing monthly assistance payments under this subsection on behalf of a family eligible for such assistance and at the discretion of the public housing agency, provide assistance for the family in the form of a single grant to be used only as a contribution toward the downpayment required in connection with the purchase of a dwelling for fiscal year 2000 and each fiscal year thereafter to the extent provided in advance in appropriations Acts.

(B) Amount

The amount of a downpayment grant on behalf of an assisted family may not exceed the amount that is equal to the sum of the assistance payments that would be made during the first year of assistance on behalf of the family, based upon the income of the family at the time the grant is to be made.

(8) “First-time homeowner” definedFor purposes of this subsection, the term “first-time homeowner” means—
(A)
afamily, no member of which has had a present ownership interest in a principal residence during the 3 years preceding the date on which the family initially receives assistance for homeownership under this subsection; and
(B)
any other family, as the Secretary may prescribe.
(z) Termination of section 1437f contracts and reuse of recaptured budget authority
(1) General authorityThe Secretary may reuse any budget authority, in whole or part, that is recaptured on account of expiration or termination of a housing assistance payments contract only for one or more of the following:
(A) Tenant-based assistance

Pursuant to acontract with a public housing agency, to provide tenant-based assistance under this section to families occupying units formerly assisted under the terminated contract.

(B) Project-based assistance

Pursuant to acontract with an owner, to attach assistance to one or more structures under this section, for relocation of families occupying units formerly assisted under the terminated contract.

(2) Families occupying units formerly assisted under terminated contract

Pursuant to paragraph (1), the Secretary shall first make available tenant- or project-based assistance to families occupying units formerly assisted under the terminated contract. The Secretary shall provide project-based assistance in instances only where the use of tenant-based assistance is determined to be infeasible by the Secretary.

(aa) Omitted
(bb) Transfer, reuse, and rescission of budget authority
(1) Transfer of budget authority

If an assistance contract under this section, other than a contract for tenant-based assistance, is terminated or is not renewed, or if the contract expires, the Secretary shall, in order to provide continued assistance to eligible families, including eligible families receiving the benefit of the project-based assistance at the time of the termination, transfer any budget authority remaining in the contract to another contract. The transfer shall be under such terms as the Secretary may prescribe.

(2) Reuse and rescission of certain recaptured budget authority

Notwithstanding paragraph (1), if aproject-based assistance contract for an eligible multifamily housing project subject to actions authorized under this subchapter is terminated or amended as part of restructuring under section 517 of the Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act of 1997, the Secretary shall recapture the budget authority not required for the terminated or amended contract and use such amounts as are necessary to provide housing assistance for the same number of families covered by such contract for the remaining term of such contract, under a contract providing for project-based or tenant-based assistance. The amount of budget authority saved as a result of the shift to project-based or tenant-based assistance shall be rescinded.

(cc) Law enforcement and security personnel
(1) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, in the case of assistance attached to a structure, for the purpose of increasing security for the residents of a project, an owner may admit, and assistance under this section may be provided to, police officers and other security personnel who are not otherwise eligible for assistance under the chapter.

(2) Rent requirementsWith respect to any assistance provided by an owner under this subsection, the Secretary may—
(A)
permit the owner to establish such rent requirements and other terms and conditions of occupancy that the Secretary considers to be appropriate; and
(B)
require the owner to submit an application for those rent requirements, which application shall include such information as the Secretary, in the discretion of the Secretary, determines to be necessary.
(3) Applicability

This subsection shall apply to fiscal year 1999 and fiscal years thereafter.

(dd) Tenant-based contract renewals

Subject to amounts provided in appropriation Acts, starting in fiscal year 1999, the Secretary shall renew all expiring tenant-based annual contribution contracts under this section by applying an inflation factor based on local or regional factors to an allocation baseline. The allocation baseline shall be calculated by including, at a minimum, amounts sufficient to ensure continued assistance for the actual number of families assisted as of October 1, 1997, with appropriate upward adjustments for incremental assistance and additional families authorized subsequent to that date.

(Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, title I, § 8, as added Pub. L. 93–383, title II, § 201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 662; amended Pub. L. 94–375, § 2(d), (e), (g), Aug. 3, 1976, 90 Stat. 1068; Pub. L. 95–24, title I, § 101(c), Apr. 30, 1977, 91 Stat. 55; Pub. L. 95–128, title II, § 201(c)–(e), Oct. 12, 1977, 91 Stat. 1128; Pub. L. 95–557, title II, § 206(d)(1), (e), (f), Oct. 31, 1978, 92 Stat. 2091, 2092; Pub. L. 96–153, title II, §§ 202(b), 206(b), 210, 211(b), Dec. 21, 1979, 93 Stat. 1106, 1108–1110; Pub. L. 96–399, title II, § 203, title III, § 308(c)(3), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1629, 1641; Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §§ 322(e), 324–326(a), (e)(1), 329H(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 402, 405–407, 410; Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title II, §§ 203(b)(1), (2), 207–209(a), 210, 211], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1178, 1181–1183; Pub. L. 98–479, title I, § 102(b)(6)–(10), Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2221, 2222; Pub. L. 100–242, title I, §§ 141–149, title II, § 262, Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1849–1853, 1890; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 100–358, § 5, June 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 681; Pub. L. 100–628, title X, §§ 1004(a), 1005(b)(1), (c), 1006, 1014(b), (c), 1029, Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3264, 3265, 3269, 3272; Pub. L. 101–235, title I, § 127, title VIII, § 801(c), (g), Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 2025, 2058, 2059; Pub. L. 101–625, title II, § 289(b), title IV, § 413, title V, §§ 541–545(a), 545(2)[(b)], 546–549, 550(a), (c), 551–553, 572, title VI, §§ 603, 613(a), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4128, 4160, 4216–4224, 4236, 4277, 4280; Pub. L. 102–139, title II, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 756; Pub. L. 102–550, title I, §§ 141–148, 185(a), title VI, §§ 623(b), 660, 674, 675, 682(b), title X, § 1012(g), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3713–3715, 3745, 3819, 3825, 3827, 3828, 3830, 3905; Pub. L. 103–233, title I, § 101(c)(2), (3), (d), Apr. 11, 1994, 108 Stat. 357; Pub. L. 103–327, title II, Sept. 28, 1994, 108 Stat. 2315; Pub. L. 104–19, title I, § 1003, July 27, 1995, 109 Stat. 236; Pub. L. 104–99, title IV, §§ 402(d)(2), (3), (6)(A)(iii), (iv), 405(c), Jan. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 41, 42, 44; Pub. L. 104–134, title I, § 101(e) [title II, §§ 203(a)–(c), 208], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–257, 1321–281, 1321–284; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, § 1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327; Pub. L. 104–193, title IX, § 903(a)(2), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2348; Pub. L. 104–204, title II, § 201(g), Sept. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 2893; Pub. L. 105–18, title II, § 10002, June 12, 1997, 111 Stat. 201; Pub. L. 105–33, title II, §§ 2003, 2004, Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 257; Pub. L. 105–65, title II, §§ 201(c), 205, title V, § 523(a), (c), Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1364, 1365, 1406, 1407; Pub. L. 105–276, title II, § 209(a), title V, §§ 514(b)(1), 545(a), (b), 547–549(a)(2), (b), 550(a), 552–555(a), 556(a), 565(c), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2485, 2547, 2596–2607, 2609–2611, 2613, 2631; Pub. L. 106–74, title II, § 223, title V, §§ 523(a), 531(d), 535, 538(a), Oct. 20, 1999, 113 Stat. 1076, 1104, 1116, 1121, 1122; Pub. L. 106–246, div. B, title II, § 2801, July 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 569; Pub. L. 106–377, § 1(a)(1) [title II, §§ 205, 228, 232(a), 234], Oct. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 1441, 1441A–24, 1441A–30, 1441A–31, 1441A–35; Pub. L. 106–569, title III, § 301(a), title IX, §§ 902(a), 903(a), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 2952, 3026; Pub. L. 107–95, § 12, Dec. 21, 2001, 115 Stat. 921; Pub. L. 107–116, title VI, § 632, Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2227; Pub. L. 109–162, title VI, § 606, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3041; Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(d), (e), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 759; Pub. L. 109–461, title VII, § 710, Dec. 22, 2006, 120 Stat. 3441; Pub. L. 110–234, title IV, § 4002(b)(1)(B), (2)(Y), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1096, 1097; Pub. L. 110–246, § 4(a), title IV, § 4002(b)(1)(B), (2)(Y), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1857, 1859; Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title VIII, § 2835(a), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2871; Pub. L. 111–22, div. A, title VII, §§ 703, 704, May 20, 2009, 123 Stat. 1661, 1662; Pub. L. 111–203, title XIV, § 1484(2), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2204; Pub. L. 111–372, title III, § 302, Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 4084; Pub. L. 113–4, title VI, § 601(b)(2), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 107; Pub. L. 113–76, div. L, title II, §§ 220(a), 242, Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 630, 636; Pub. L. 114–94, div. G, title LXXVIII, § 78001(b), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1791; Pub. L. 114–201, title I, §§ 101(a), 102(d)–(f), 105, 106(a), 107(a), (b), 108, 110, 112(a), July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 783, 790, 791, 796, 800, 801, 803; Pub. L. 115–174, title III, § 304(a), (b), May 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 1339.)
Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 114–201, title I, § 101(a)(2), (3), (b), July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 784, 786, provided that, effective upon the issuance of notice or regulations implementing subsection (a) of section 101 of Pub. L. 114–201, subsection (o)(8) of this section is amended as follows:

(1) by redesignating subparagraph (G) as subparagraph (H); and

(2) by inserting after subparagraph (F) the following new subparagraph:

“(G) Enforcement of housing quality standards

“(i) Determination of noncompliance

A dwelling unit that is covered by a housing assistance payments contract under this subsection shall be considered, for purposes of subparagraphs (D) and (F), to be in noncompliance with the housing quality standards under subparagraph (B) if—

“(I) the public housing agency or an inspector authorized by the State or unit of local government determines upon inspection of the unit that the unit fails to comply with such standards;

“(II) the agency or inspector notifies the owner of the unit in writing of such failure to comply; and

“(III) the failure to comply is not corrected—

“(aa) in the case of any such failure that is a result of life-threatening conditions, within 24 hours after such notice has been provided; and

“(bb) in the case of any such failure that is a result of non-life-threatening conditions, within 30 days after such notice has been provided or such other reasonable longer period as the public housing agency may establish.

“(ii) Withholding of assistance amounts during correction

“The public housing agency may withhold assistance amounts under this subsection with respect to a dwelling unit for which a notice pursuant to clause (i)(II), of failure to comply with housing quality standards under subparagraph (B) as determined pursuant to an inspection conducted under subparagraph (D) or (F), has been provided. If the unit is brought into compliance with such housing quality standards during the periods referred to in clause (i)(III), the public housing agency shall recommence assistance payments and may use any amounts withheld during the correction period to make assistance payments relating to the period during which payments were withheld.

“(iii) Abatement of assistance amounts

“The public housing agency shall abate all of the assistance amounts under this subsection with respect to a dwelling unit that is determined, pursuant to clause (i) of this subparagraph, to be in noncompliance with housing quality standards under subparagraph (B). Upon completion of repairs by the public housing agency or the owner sufficient so that the dwelling unit complies with such housing quality standards, the agency shall recommence payments under the housing assistance payments contract to the owner of the dwelling unit.

“(iv) Notification

“If apublic housing agency providing assistance under this subsection abates rental assistance payments pursuant to clause (iii) with respect to a dwelling unit, the agency shall, upon commencement of such abatement—

“(I) notify the tenant and the owner of the dwelling unit that—

“(aa) such abatement has commenced; and

“(bb) if the dwelling unit is not brought into compliance with housing quality standards within 60 days after the effective date of the determination of noncompliance under clause (i) or such reasonable longer period as the agency may establish, the tenant will have to move; and

“(II) issue the tenant the necessary forms to allow the tenant to move to another dwelling unit and transfer the rental assistance to that unit.

“(v) Protection of tenants

“An owner of a dwelling unit may not terminate the tenancy of any tenant because of the withholding or abatement of assistance pursuant to this subparagraph. During the period that assistance is abated pursuant to this subparagraph, the tenant may terminate the tenancy by notifying the owner.

“(vi) Termination of lease or assistance payments contract

“If assistance amounts under this section for a dwelling unit are abated pursuant to clause (iii) and the owner does not correct the noncompliance within 60 days after the effective date of the determination of noncompliance under clause (i), or such other reasonable longer period as the public housing agency may establish, the agency shall terminate the housing assistance payments contract for the dwelling unit.

“(vii) Relocation

“(I) Lease of new unit

“The agency shall provide the family residing in such a dwelling unit a period of 90 days or such longer period as the public housing agency determines is reasonably necessary to lease a new unit, beginning upon termination of the contract, to lease a new residence with tenant-based rental assistance under this section.

“(II) Availability of public housing units

“If the family is unable to lease such a new residence during such period, the public housing agency shall, at the option of the family, provide such family a preference for occupancy in a dwelling unit of public housing that is owned or operated by the agency that first becomes available for occupancy after the expiration of such period.

“(III) Assistance in finding unit

“The public housing agency may provide assistance to the family in finding a new residence, including use of up to two months of any assistance amounts withheld or abated pursuant to clause (ii) or (iii), respectively, for costs directly associated with relocation of the family to a new residence, which shall include security deposits as necessary and may include reimbursements for reasonable moving expenses incurred by the household, as established by the Secretary. The agency may require that a family receiving assistance for a security deposit shall remit, to the extent of such assistance, the amount of any security deposit refunds made by the owner of the dwelling unit for which the lease was terminated.

“(viii) Tenant-caused damages

“If apublic housing agency determines that any damage to a dwelling unit that results in a failure of the dwelling unit to comply with housing quality standards under subparagraph (B), other than any damage resulting from ordinary use, was caused by the tenant, any member of the tenant’s household, or any guest or other person under the tenant’s control, the agency may waive the applicability of this subparagraph, except that this clause shall not exonerate a tenant from any liability otherwise existing under applicable law for damages to the premises caused by such tenant.

“(ix) Applicability

“This subparagraph shall apply to any dwelling unit for which a housing assistance payments contract is entered into or renewed after the date of the effectiveness of the regulations implementing this subparagraph.”

Pub. L. 114–201, title I, § 102(e), (f), (h), July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 791, provided that, effective upon the issuance of notice or regulations implementing section 102 of Pub. L. 114–201, except that such section 102 may only take effect upon the commencement of a calendar year, this section is amended as follows:

(1) in subsection (c)(3), by striking the last sentence; and

(2) in subsection (t)(1)(D), by striking “income” each place such term appears and inserting “annual adjusted income”.

Pub. L. 114–201, title I, § 106, July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 796, provided that, effective upon the issuance of notice or regulations implementing subsection (a) of section 106 of Pub. L. 114–201, subsection (o)(13) of this section is amended as follows:

(1) by striking “structure” each place such term appears and inserting “project”;

(2) by striking subparagraph (B) and inserting the following new subparagraph:

“(B) Percentage limitation

“(i) In general

“Subject to clause (ii), apublic housing agency may use for project-based assistance under this paragraph not more than 20 percent of the authorized units for the agency.

“(ii) Exception

Apublic housing agency may use up to an additional 10 percent of the authorized units for the agency for project-based assistance under this paragraph, to provide units that house individuals and families that meet the definition of homeless under section 103 of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11302), that house families with veterans, that provide supportive housing to persons with disabilities or elderly persons, or that are located in areas where vouchers under this subsection are difficult to use, as specified in subparagraph (D)(ii)(II). Any units of project-based assistance that are attached to units previously subject to federally required rent restrictions or receiving another type of long-term housing subsidy provided by the Secretary shall not count toward the percentage limitation under clause (i) of this subparagraph. The Secretary may, by regulation, establish additional categories for the exception under this clause.”;

(3) by striking subparagraph (D) and inserting the following new subparagraph:

“(D) Income-mixing requirement

“(i) In general

“Except as provided in clause (ii), not more than the greater of 25 dwelling units or 25 percent of the dwelling units in any project may be assisted under a housing assistance payment contract for project-based assistance pursuant to this paragraph. For purposes of this subparagraph, the term ‘project’ means a single building, multiple contiguous buildings, or multiple buildings on contiguous parcels of land.

“(ii) Exceptions

“(I) Certain families

“The limitation under clause (i) shall not apply to dwelling units assisted under a contract that are exclusively made available to elderly families or to households eligible for supportive services that are made available to the assisted residents of the project, according to standards for such services the Secretary may establish.

“(II) Certain areas

“With respect to areas in which tenant-based vouchers for assistance under this subsection are difficult to use, as determined by the Secretary, and with respect to census tracts with a poverty rate of 20 percent or less, clause (i) shall be applied by substituting ‘40 percent’ for ‘25 percent’, and the Secretary may, by regulation, establish additional conditions.

“(III) Certain contracts

“The limitation under clause (i) shall not apply with respect to contracts or renewal of contracts under which a greater percentage of the dwelling units in a project were assisted under a housing assistance payment contract for project-based assistance pursuant to this paragraph on July 29, 2016.

“(IV) Certain properties

“Any units of project-based assistance under this paragraph that are attached to units previously subject to federally required rent restrictions or receiving other project-based assistance provided by the Secretary shall not count toward the percentage limitation imposed by this subparagraph (D).

“(iii) Additional monitoring and oversight requirements

“The Secretary may establish additional requirements for monitoring and oversight of projects in which more than 40 percent of the dwelling units are assisted under a housing assistance payment contract for project-based assistance pursuant to this paragraph.”;

(4) by striking subparagraph (F) and inserting the following new subparagraph:

“(F) Contract term

“(i) Term

Ahousing assistance payment contract pursuant to this paragraph between a public housing agency and the owner of a project may have a term of up to 20 years, subject to—

“(I) the availability of sufficient appropriated funds for the purpose of renewing expiring contracts for assistance payments, as provided in appropriation Acts and in the agency’s annual contributions contract with the Secretary, provided that in the event of insufficient appropriated funds, payments due under contracts under this paragraph shall take priority if other cost-saving measures that do not require the termination of an existing contract are available to the agency; and

“(II) compliance with the inspection requirements under paragraph (8), except that the agency shall not be required to make biennial inspections of each assisted unit in the development.

“(ii) Addition of eligible units

“Subject to the limitations of subparagraphs (B) and (D), the agency and the owner may add eligible units within the same project to a housing assistance payments contract at any time during the term thereof without being subject to any additional competitive selection procedures.

“(iii) Housing under construction or recently constructed

“An agency may enter into a housing assistance payments contract with an owner for any unit that does not qualify as existing housing and is under construction or recently has been constructed whether or not the agency has executed an agreement to enter into a contract with the owner, provided that the owner demonstrates compliance with applicable requirements prior to execution of the housing assistance payments contract. This clause shall not subject a housing assistance payments contract for existing housing under this paragraph to such requirements or otherwise limit the extent to which a unit may be assisted as existing housing.

“(iv) Additional conditions

“The contract may specify additional conditions, including with respect to continuation, termination, or expiration, and shall specify that upon termination or expiration of the contract without extension, each assisted family may elect to use its assistance under this subsection to remain in the same project if its unit complies with the inspection requirements under paragraph (8), the rent for the unit is reasonable as required by paragraph (10)(A), and the family pays its required share of the rent and the amount, if any, by which the unit rent (including the amount allowed for tenant-based utilities) exceeds the applicable payment standard.”;

(5) in subparagraph (G), by striking “15 years” and inserting “20 years”;

(6) by striking subparagraph (I) and inserting the following new subparagraph:

“(I) Rent adjustments

Ahousing assistance payments contract pursuant to this paragraph entered into after July 29, 2016, shall provide for annual rent adjustments upon the request of the owner, except that—

“(i) by agreement of the parties, a contract may allow a public housing agency to adjust the rent for covered units using an operating cost adjustment factor established by the Secretary pursuant to section 524(c) of the Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act of 1997 (which shall not result in a negative adjustment), in which case the contract may require an additional adjustment, if requested, up to the reasonable rent periodically during the term of the contract, and shall require such an adjustment, if requested, upon extension pursuant to subparagraph (G);

“(ii) the adjusted rent shall not exceed the maximum rent permitted under subparagraph (H);

“(iii) the contract may provide that the maximum rent permitted for a dwelling unit shall not be less than the initial rent for the dwelling unit under the initial housing assistance payments contract covering the units; and

“(iv) the provisions of subsection (c)(2)(C) shall not apply.”;

(7) in subparagraph (J)—

(A) in the first sentence, by striking “shall” and inserting “may” and by inserting before the period the following: “or may permit owners to select applicants from site-based waiting lists as specified in this subparagraph”;

(B) by striking the third sentence and inserting the following: “The agency or owner may establish preferences or criteria for selection for a unit assisted under this paragraph that are consistent with the public housing agency plan for the agency approved under section 1437c–1 of this title and that give preference to families who qualify for voluntary services, including disability-specific services, offered in conjunction with assisted units.”; and

(C) by striking the fifth and sixth sentences and inserting the following: “Apublic housing agency may establish and utilize procedures for owner-maintained site-based waiting lists, under which applicants may apply at, or otherwise designate to the public housing agency, the project or projects in which they seek to reside, except that all eligible applicants on the waiting list of an agency for assistance under this subsection shall be permitted to place their names on such separate list, subject to policies and procedures established by the Secretary. All such procedures shall comply with title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Fair Housing Act, section 794 of title 29, and other applicable civil rights laws. The owner or manager of a project assisted under this paragraph shall not admit any family to a dwelling unit assisted under a contract pursuant to this paragraph other than a family referred by the public housing agency from its waiting list, or a family on a site-based waiting list that complies with the requirements of this subparagraph. A public housing agency shall disclose to each applicant all other options in the selection of a project in which to reside that are provided by the public housing agency and are available to the applicant.”;

(8) in subparagraph (M)(ii), by inserting before the period at the end the following: “relating to funding other than housing assistance payments”; and

(9) by adding at the end the following new subparagraphs:

“(N) Structure owned by agency

Apublic housing agency engaged in an initiative to improve, develop, or replace a public housing property or site may attach assistance to an existing, newly constructed, or rehabilitated structure in which the agency has an ownership interest or which the agency has control of without following a competitive process, provided that the agency has notified the public of its intent through its public housing agency plan and subject to the limitations and requirements of this paragraph.

“(O) Special purpose vouchers

Apublic housing agency that administers vouchers authorized under subsection (o)(19) or (x) of this section may provide such assistance in accordance with the limitations and requirements of this paragraph, without additional requirements for approval by the Secretary.

Pub. L. 114–201, title I, § 112, July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 803, provided that, effective upon the issuance of notice implementing subsection (a) of section 112 of Pub. L. 114–201, subsection (o)(12) of this section is amended as follows:

(1) in subparagraph (A), by striking the period at the end of the first sentence and all that follows through “of” in the second sentence and inserting “and rents”; and

(2) in subparagraph (B)—

(A) in clause (i), by striking “the rent” and all that follows and inserting the following: “rent shall mean the sum of the monthly payments made by afamily assisted under this paragraph to amortize the cost of purchasing the manufactured home, including any required insurance and property taxes, the monthly amount allowed for tenant-paid utilities, and the monthly rent charged for the real property on which the manufactured home is located, including monthly management and maintenance charges.”;

(B) by striking clause (ii); and

(C) in clause (iii)—

(i) by inserting after the period at the end the following: “If the amount of the monthly assistance payment for a family exceeds the monthly rent charged for the real property on which the manufactured home is located, including monthly management and maintenance charges, a public housing agency may pay the remainder to the family, lender or utility company, or may choose to make a single payment to the family for the entire monthly assistance amount.”; and

(ii) by redesignating such clause as clause (ii).

See 2016 Amendment notes below.

References in Text

The Housing and Community Development Act of 1992, referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(C), (D), is Pub. L. 102–550, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3672. Subtitle C of title VI of the Act is classified generally to subchapter I (§ 13601 et seq.) of chapter 135 of this title. Subtitle D of title VI of the Act is classified principally to subchapter II (§ 13611 et seq.) of chapter 135 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1992 Amendment note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

Sections 514 and 517 of the Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act of 1997, referred to in subsecs. (d)(5) and (bb)(2), are sections 514 and 517 of Pub. L. 105–65, and are set out as a note under this section.

The Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act, referred to in subsecs. (f)(4) and (o)(4)(D), (8)(E)(i), (10)(F), is Pub. L. 101–625, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4079. Title II of the Act, also known as the “HOME Investment Partnerships Act”, is classified principally to subchapter II (§ 12721 et seq.) of chapter 130 of this title. Subtitle A of title II of the Act is classified generally to part A (§ 12741 et seq.) of subchapter II of chapter 130 of this title. Title IV of the Act, also known as the “Homeownership and Opportunity Through HOPE Act”, enacted subchapter II–A (§ 1437aaa et seq.) of this chapter and subchapter IV (§ 12871 et seq.) of chapter 130 of this title, amended sections 1437c, 1437f, 1437l, 1437p, 1437r, and 1437s of this title and section 1709 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 1437c, 1437aa, and 1437aaa of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12701 of this title and Tables.

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsecs. (k) and (x)(4)(E), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, which is classified generally to chapter 7 (§ 301 et seq.) of this title. Parts B and E of title IV of the Act are classified generally to parts B (§ 621 et seq.) and E (§ 670 et seq.), respectively, of subchapter IV of chapter 7 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of this title and Tables.

The Food and Nutrition Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (k), is Pub. L. 88–525, Aug. 31, 1964, 78 Stat. 703, which is classified generally to chapter 51 (§ 2011 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under 2011 of Title 7 and Tables.

The Fair Housing Act, referred to in subsec. (o)(17), is title VIII of Pub. L. 90–284, Apr. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 81, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§ 3601 et seq.) of chapter 45 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3601 of this title and Tables.

Section 503(a) of the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998, referred to in subsec. (q)(1)(B)(ii)(I), (2)(A), is section 503(a) of Pub. L. 105–276, which is set out as an Effective Date of 1998 Amendment note under section 1437 of this title.

The effective date of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 2001, referred to in subsec. (t)(2), means the effective date of H.R. 5482, as enacted by section 1(a)(1) of Pub. L. 106–377, which was approved Oct. 27, 2000.

Section 1437o of this title, referred to in subsec. (u), was repealed by Pub. L. 101–625, title II, § 289(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4128.

The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act, referred to in subsec. (x)(4)(B), is Pub. L. 100–77, July 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 482. Subtitle C of title IV of the Act is classified generally to part C (§ 11381 et seq.) of subchapter IV of chapter 119 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 11301 of this title and Tables.

Subsection (o)(8)(A) of this section, referred to in subsec. (y)(3)(B), does not contain a cl. (ii) and does not relate to annual inspections. For provisions of subsec. (o)(8) which relate to annual inspections, see subpar. (D).

Subsection (c)(3)(B) of this section, referred to in subsec. (y)(5), was repealed by Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 550(a)(3)(A)(ii), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2609.

The National Housing Act, referred to in subsec. (y)(6), is act June 27, 1934, ch. 847, 48 Stat. 1246, which is classified principally to chapter 13 (§ 1701 et seq.) of Title 12, Banks and Banking. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1701 of Title 12 and Tables.

Section 1437u(d)(3) of this title, relating to reimbursement of escrow accounts, referred to in subsec. (y)(6)(A), was repealed by Pub. L. 105–276, title V, § 509(a)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2531.

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

October 20, 1999, referred to in subsec. (t)(3)(B)(ii), was in the original “the enactment of this Act”, which was translated as meaning the enactment of Pub. L. 106–74, which enacted subsec. (t) of this section, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 100–242, title II, § 203(a), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1878, as amended, which was formerly set out in a note under section 1715l of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and which provided that on Nov. 28, 1990, the amendment made by section 262 of Pub. L. 100–242 is repealed and section is to read as it would without such amendment, was omitted in the general amendment of subtitle A of title II of Pub. L. 100–242 by Pub. L. 101–625.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 8 of act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, 50 Stat. 891, as amended, authorized promulgation of rules and regulations by the Authority and was classified to section 1408 of this title, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 93–383.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (o)(7)(C), (F). Pub. L. 115–174 repealed Pub. L. 111–22, § 704, and restored and revived amendment by Pub. L. 111–22, § 703, as in effect Dec. 30, 2014. See 2009 Amendment notes below.

2016—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 114–201, § 107(a), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), struck out “Proposed fair market rentals for an area shall be published in the Federal Register with reasonable time for public comment, and shall become effective upon the date of publication in final form in the Federal Register.” after “October 1, 1980.” and “The Secretary shall establish separate fair market rentals under this paragraph for Westchester County in the State of New York. The Secretary shall also establish separate fair market rentals under this paragraph for Monroe County in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. In establishing fair market rentals for the remaining portion of the market area in which Monroe County is located, the Secretary shall establish the fair market rentals as if such portion included Monroe County.” after “no practical alternative.”, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 114–201, § 102(f), struck out at end “Reviews of family income shall be made no less frequently than annually.”

Subsec. (o)(1)(B). Pub. L. 114–201, § 107(b), inserted before period at end “, except that no public housing agency shall be required as a result of a reduction in the fair market rental to reduce the payment standard applied to a family continuing to reside in a unit for which the family was receiving assistance under this section at the time the fair market rental was reduced. The Secretary shall allow public housing agencies to request exception payment standards within fair market rental areas subject to criteria and procedures established by the Secretary”.

Subsec. (o)(1)(D). Pub. L. 114–201, § 102(d)(1), inserted before period at end “, except that a public housing agency may establish a payment standard of not more than 120 percent of the fair market rent where necessary as a reasonable accommodation for a person with a disability, without approval of the Secretary. A public housing agency may use a payment standard that is greater than 120 percent of the fair market rent as a reasonable accommodation for a person with a disability, but only with the approval of the Secretary. In connection with the use of any increased payment standard established or approved pursuant to either of the preceding two sentences as a reasonable accommodation for a person with a disability, the Secretary may not establish additional requirements regarding the amount of adjusted income paid by such person for rent”.

Subsec. (o)(5). Pub. L. 114–201, § 102(d)(2)(A), substituted “Reviews” for “Annual review” in heading.

Subsec. (o)(5)(A). Pub. L. 114–201, § 102(d)(2)(B), substituted “paragraphs (1), (6), and (7) of section 1437a(a) of this title and to” for “the provisions of” and struck out “and shall be conducted upon the initial provision of housing assistance for the family and thereafter as required by section 1437a(a)(1) of this title” before period at end.

Subsec. (o)(5)(B). Pub. L. 114–201, § 102(d)(2)(C), struck out at end “Each public housing agency shall, not less frequently than annually, conduct a review of the family income of each family receiving assistance under this subsection.”

Subsec. (o)(8)(A). Pub. L. 114–201, § 101(a)(1), added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Except as provided in paragraph (11), for each dwelling unit for which a housing assistance payment contract is established under this subsection, the public housing agency shall inspect the unit before any assistance payment is made to determine whether the dwelling unit meets the housing quality standards under subparagraph (B).”

Subsec. (o)(8)(G), (H). Pub. L. 114–201, § 101(a)(2), (3), added subpar. (G) and redesignated former subpar. (G) as (H).

Subsec. (o)(11). Pub. L. 114–201, § 105, designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted heading, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (o)(12)(A). Pub. L. 114–201, § 112(a)(1), substituted “residence and rents” for “residence. Such payments may be made only for the rental of”.

Subsec. (o)(12)(B)(i). Pub. L. 114–201, § 112(a)(2)(A), substituted “rent shall mean the sum of the monthly payments made by a family assisted under this paragraph to amortize the cost of purchasing the manufactured home, including any required insurance and property taxes, the monthly amount allowed for tenant-paid utilities, and the monthly rent charged for the real property on which the manufactured home is located, including monthly management and maintenance charges.” for “the rent for the space on which a manufactured home is located and with respect to which assistance payments are to be made shall include maintenance and management charges and tenant-paid utilities.”

Subsec. (o)(12)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 114–201, § 112(a)(2)(B), (C)(ii), redesignated cl. (iii) as (ii) and struck out former cl. (ii) which related to establishment of payment standard for the purpose of determining monthly assistance.

Subsec. (o)(12)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 114–201, § 112(a)(2)(C), inserted “If the amount of the monthly assistance payment for a family exceeds the monthly rent charged for the real property on which the manufactured home is located, including monthly management and maintenance charges, a public housing agency may pay the remainder to the family, lender or utility company, or may choose to make a single payment to the family for the entire monthly assistance amount.” after “paragraph (2).” and redesignated cl. (iii) as (ii).

Subsec. (o)(13)(A). Pub. L. 114–201, § 106(a)(1), substituted “project” for “structure” in two places.

Subsec. (o)(13)(B). Pub. L. 114–201, § 106(a)(2), added subpar. (B) and struck out former subpar. (B). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “Not more than 20 percent of the funding available for tenant-based assistance under this section that is administered by the agency may be attached to structures pursuant to this paragraph.”

Subsec. (o)(13)(D). Pub. L. 114–201, § 106(a)(3), added subpar. (D) and struck out former subpar. (D). Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

“(i) In general.—Not more than 25 percent of the dwelling units in any project may be assisted under a housing assistance payment contract for project-based assistance pursuant to this paragraph. For purposes of this subparagraph, the term ‘project’ means a single building, multiple contiguous buildings, or multiple buildings on contiguous parcels of land.

“(ii) Exceptions.—The limitation under clause (i) shall not apply in the case of assistance under a contract for housing consisting of single family properties or for dwelling units that are specifically made available for households comprised of elderly families, disabled families, and families receiving supportive services.

Subsec. (o)(13)(F). Pub. L. 114–201, § 106(a)(4), added subpar. (F) and struck out former subpar. (F). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “A housing assistance payment contract pursuant to this paragraph between a public housing agency and the owner of a structure may have a term of up to 15 years, subject to the availability of sufficient appropriated funds for the purpose of renewing expiring contracts for assistance payments, as provided in appropriations Acts and in the agency’s annual contributions contract with the Secretary, and to annual compliance with the inspection requirements under paragraph (8), except that the agency shall not be required to make annual inspections of each assisted unit in the development. The contract may specify additional conditions for its continuation. If the units covered by the contract are owned by the agency, the term of the contract shall be agreed upon by the agency and the unit of general local government or other entity approved by the Secretary in the manner provided under paragraph (11).”

Subsec. (o)(13)(G). Pub. L. 114–201, § 106(a)(1), (5), substituted “project” for “structure” in two places and “20 years” for “15 years”.

Subsec. (o)(13)(I). Pub. L. 114–201, § 106(a)(6), added subpar. (I) and struck out former subpar. (I). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: “A housing assistance payments contract pursuant to this paragraph shall provide for rent adjustments, except that—

“(i) the adjusted rent for any unit assisted shall be reasonable in comparison with rents charged for comparable dwelling units in the private, unassisted, local market and may not exceed the maximum rent permitted under subparagraph (H), except that the contract may provide that the maximum rent permitted for a dwelling unit shall not be less than the initial rent for the dwelling unit under the initial housing assistance payments contract covering the unit; and

“(ii) the provisions of subsection (c)(2)(C) shall not apply.”

Subsec. (o)(13)(J). Pub. L. 114–201, § 106(a)(1), (7), substituted “may select families” for “shall select families”, inserted “or may permit owners to select applicants from site-based waiting lists as specified in this subparagraph” before period at end of first sentence, and substituted “The agency or owner may establish preferences or criteria for selection for a unit assisted under this paragraph that are consistent with the public housing agency plan for the agency approved under section 1437c–1 of this title and that give preference to families who qualify for voluntary services, including disability-specific services, offered in conjunction with assisted units.” for “The agency may establish preferences or criteria for selection for a unit assisted under this paragraph that are consistent with the public housing agency plan for the agency approved under section 1437c–1 of this title.”, “admission to a project by the owner or manager of a project” for “admission to a structure by the owner or manager of a structure”, and “A public housing agency may establish and utilize procedures for owner-maintained site-based waiting lists, under which applicants may apply at, or otherwise designate to the public housing agency, the project or projects in which they seek to reside, except that all eligible applicants on the waiting list of an agency for assistance under this subsection shall be permitted to place their names on such separate list, subject to policies and procedures established by the Secretary. All such procedures shall comply with title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Fair Housing Act, section 794 of title 29, and other applicable civil rights laws. The owner or manager of a project assisted under this paragraph shall not admit any family to a dwelling unit assisted under a contract pursuant to this paragraph other than a family referred by the public housing agency from its waiting list, or a family on a site-based waiting list that complies with the requirements of this subparagraph. A public housing agency shall disclose to each applicant all other options in the selection of a project in which to reside that are provided by the public housing agency and are available to the applicant.” for “The owner or manager of a structure assisted under this paragraph shall not admit any family to a dwelling unit assisted under a contract pursuant to this paragraph other than a family referred by the public housing agency from its waiting list. Subject to its waiting list policies and selection preferences, a public housing agency may place on its waiting list a family referred by the owner or manager of a structure and may maintain a separate waiting list for assistance under this paragraph, but only if all families on the agency’s waiting list for assistance under this subsection are permitted to place their names on the separate list.”

Subsec. (o)(13)(M). Pub. L. 114–201, § 106(a)(1), substituted “project” for “structure” in cls. (i) and (ii).

Subsec. (o)(13)(M)(ii). Pub. L. 114–201, § 106(a)(8), inserted before period at end “relating to funding other than housing assistance payments”.

Subsec. (o)(13)(N), (O). Pub. L. 114–201, § 106(a)(9), added subpars. (N) and (O).

Subsec. (o)(20). Pub. L. 114–201, § 108, added par. (20).

Subsec. (t)(1)(D). Pub. L. 114–201, § 102(e), substituted “annual adjusted income” for “income” wherever appearing.

Subsec. (x)(2)(B). Pub. L. 114–201, § 110(1), substituted “36 months” for “18 months” and “24 years of age” for “21 years of age” and inserted “, or will leave foster care within 90 days, in accordance with a transition plan described in section 475(5)(H) of the Social Security Act, and is homeless or is at risk of becoming homeless” after “have left foster care”.

Subsec. (x)(4), (5). Pub. L. 114–201, § 110(2), (3), added par. (4) and redesignated former par. (4) as (5).

2015—Subsec. (o)(5)(A). Pub. L. 114–94 substituted “as required by section 1437a(a)(1) of this title” for “not less than annually”.

2014—Subsec. (o)(2)(D). Pub. L. 113–76, § 242, added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (o)(8)(D) to (G). Pub. L. 113–76, § 220(a), added subpars. (D) to (F), redesignated former subpar. (E) as (G), and struck out former subpar. (D) which required every public housing agency providing assistance under this subsection to make an annual inspection of each assisted dwelling unit.

2013—Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 113–4, § 601(b)(2)(A), struck out par. (9) which related to prohibitions against the denial of program assistance or admission to victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking and the termination of assistance, tenancy, or occupancy rights of such victims.

Subsec. (d)(1)(A). Pub. L. 113–4, § 601(b)(2)(B)(i), struck out “and that an applicant or participant is or has been a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking is not an appropriate basis for denial of program assistance or for denial of admission if the applicant otherwise qualifies for assistance or admission” before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 113–4, § 601(b)(2)(B)(ii)(I), struck out “, and that an incident or incidents of actual or threatened domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking will not be construed as a serious or repeated violation of the lease by the victim or threatened victim of that violence and will not be good cause for terminating the tenancy or occupancy rights of the victim of such violence” before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 113–4, § 601(b)(2)(B)(ii)(II), struck out before semicolon at end “, except that: (I) criminal activity directly relating to domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking, engaged in by a member of a tenant’s household or any guest or other person under the tenant’s control, shall not be cause for termination of the tenancy or occupancy rights or program assistance, if the tenant or immediate member of the tenant’s family is a victim of that domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking; (II) Notwithstanding subclause (I) or any Federal, State, or local law to the contrary, a public housing agency may terminate assistance to, or an owner or manager may bifurcate a lease under this section, or remove a household member from a lease under this section, without regard to whether a household member is a signatory to a lease, in order to evict, remove, terminate occupancy rights, or terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant and who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, without evicting, removing, terminating assistance to, or otherwise penalizing the victim of such violence who is also a tenant or lawful occupant. Such eviction, removal, termination of occupancy rights, or termination of assistance shall be effected in accordance with the procedures prescribed by Federal, State, and local law for the termination of leases or assistance under the relevant program of HUD-assisted housing. (III) nothing in subclause (I) may be construed to limit the authority of a public housing agency, owner, or manager, when notified, to honor court orders addressing rights of access to or control of the property, including civil protection orders issued to protect the victim and issued to address the distribution or possession of property among the household members in cases where a family breaks up; (IV) nothing in subclause (I) limits any otherwise available authority of an owner or manager to evict or the public housing agency to terminate assistance to a tenant for any violation of a lease not premised on the act or acts of violence in question against the tenant or a member of the tenant’s household, provided that the owner, manager, or public housing agency does not subject an individual who is or has been a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking to a more demanding standard than other tenants in determining whether to evict or terminate; (V) nothing in subclause (I) may be construed to limit the authority of an owner or manager to evict, or the public housing agency to terminate assistance, to any tenant if the owner, manager, or public housing agency can demonstrate an actual and imminent threat to other tenants or those employed at or providing service to the property if that tenant is not evicted or terminated from assistance; and (VI) nothing in this section shall be construed to supersede any provision of any Federal, State, or local law that provides greater protection than this section for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking.”

Subsec. (f)(8) to (11). Pub. L. 113–4, § 601(b)(2)(C), struck out pars. (8) to (11) which defined “domestic violence”, “dating violence”, “stalking”, and “immediate family member”, respectively.

Subsec. (o)(6)(B). Pub. L. 113–4, § 601(b)(2)(D)(i), struck out at end “Nothing in this section shall be construed to supersede any provision of any Federal, State, or local law that provides greater protection than this section for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking.”

Subsec. (o)(7)(C). Pub. L. 113–4, § 601(b)(2)(D)(ii)(I), in introductory provisions, struck out “and that an incident or incidents of actual or threatened domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking shall not be construed as a serious or repeated violation of the lease by the victim or threatened victim of that violence and shall not be good cause for terminating the tenancy or occupancy rights of the victim of such violence” before “and in the case”.

Subsec. (o)(7)(D). Pub. L. 113–4, § 601(b)(2)(D)(ii)(II), struck out before semicolon at end “; except that (i) criminal activity directly relating to domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking, engaged in by a member of a tenant’s household or any guest or other person under the tenant’s control shall not be cause for termination of the tenancy or occupancy rights, if the tenant or immediate member of the tenant’s family is a victim of that domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking; (ii) Limitation.—Notwithstanding clause (i) or any Federal, State, or local law to the contrary, a public housing agency may terminate assistance to, or an owner or manager may bifurcate a lease under this section, or remove a household member from a lease under this section, without regard to whether a household member is a signatory to a lease, in order to evict, remove, terminate occupancy rights, or terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant and who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, without evicting, removing, terminating assistance to, or otherwise penalizing the victim of such violence who is also a tenant or lawful occupant. Such eviction, removal, termination of occupancy rights, or termination of assistance shall be effected in accordance with the procedures prescribed by Federal, State, and local law for the termination of leases or assistance under the relevant program of HUD-assisted housing. (iii) nothing in clause (i) may be construed to limit the authority of a public housing agency, owner, or manager, when notified, to honor court orders addressing rights of access or control of the property, including civil protection orders issued to protect the victim and issued to address the distribution or possession of property among the household members in cases where a family breaks up; (iv) nothing in clause (i) limits any otherwise available authority of an owner or manager to evict or the public housing agency to terminate assistance to a tenant for any violation of a lease not premised on the act or acts of violence in question against the tenant or a member of the tenant’s household, provided that the owner, manager, or public housing agency does not subject an individual who is or has been a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking to a more demanding standard than other tenants in determining whether to evict or terminate; (v) nothing in clause (i) may be construed to limit the authority of an owner or manager to evict, or the public housing agency to terminate assistance to any tenant if the owner, manager, or public housing agency can demonstrate an actual and imminent threat to other tenants or those employed at or providing service to the property if that tenant is not evicted or terminated from assistance; and (vi) nothing in this section shall be construed to supersede any provision of any Federal, State, or local law that provides greater protection than this section for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking.”

Subsec. (o)(20). Pub. L. 113–4, § 601(b)(2)(D)(iii), struck out par. (20) which related to prohibited basis for termination of assistance.

Subsec. (ee). Pub. L. 113–4, § 601(b)(2)(E), struck out subsec. (ee) which related to certification that an individual is a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking and confidentiality of information provided to any owner, manager, or public housing agency.

2011—Subsec. (o)(18)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 111–372 inserted before period at end “, except that a family may be required at the time the family initially receives such assistance to pay rent in an amount exceeding 40 percent of the monthly adjusted income of the family by such an amount or percentage that is reasonable given the services and amenities provided and as the Secretary deems appropriate.”

2009—Subsec. (o)(7)(C). Pub. L. 111–22, § 703(1), as amended by Pub. L. 115–174, § 304(a), (b), inserted before semicolon at end “and in the case of an owner who is an immediate successor in interest pursuant to foreclosure during the term of the lease vacating the property prior to sale shall not constitute other good cause, except that the owner may terminate the tenancy effective on the date of transfer of the unit to the owner if the owner—

“(i) will occupy the unit as a primary residence; and

“(ii) has provided the tenant a notice to vacate at least 90 days before the effective date of such notice.”

Subsec. (o)(7)(F). Pub. L. 111–22, § 703(2), as amended by Pub. L. 115–174, § 304(a), (b), inserted at end “In the case of any foreclosure on any federally-related mortgage loan (as that term is defined in section 2602 of title 12) or on any residential real property in which a recipient of assistance under this subsection resides, the immediate successor in interest in such property pursuant to the foreclosure shall assume such interest subject to the lease between the prior owner and the tenant and to the housing assistance payments contract between the prior owner and the public housing agency for the occupied unit, except that this provision and the provisions related to foreclosure in subparagraph (C) shall not shall not affect any State or local law that provides longer time periods or other additional protections for tenants.”

2008—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 110–246, § 4002(b)(1)(B), (2)(Y), substituted “Food and Nutrition Act of 2008” for “Food Stamp Act of 1977”.

Subsec. (o)(10)(F). Pub. L. 110–289, § 2835(a)(2), added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (o)(13)(D)(i). Pub. L. 110–289, § 2835(a)(1)(A), substituted “any project” for “any building” and inserted at end “For purposes of this subparagraph, the term ‘project’ means a single building, multiple contiguous buildings, or multiple buildings on contiguous parcels of land.”

Subsec. (o)(13)(F). Pub. L. 110–289, § 2835(a)(1)(B), substituted “15 years” for “10 years”.

Subsec. (o)(13)(G). Pub. L. 110–289, § 2835(a)(1)(C), inserted after first sentence “Such contract may, at the election of the public housing agency and the owner of the structure, specify that such contract shall be extended for renewal terms of up to 15 years each, if the agency makes the determination required by this subparagraph and the owner is in compliance with the terms of the contract.” and inserted at end “A public housing agency may agree to enter into such a contract at the time it enters into the initial agreement for a housing assistance payment contract or at any time thereafter that is before the expiration of the housing assistance payment contract.

Subsec. (o)(13)(H). Pub. L. 110–289, § 2835(a)(1)(D), inserted before period at end of first sentence “, except that in the case of a contract unit that has been allocated low-income housing tax credits and for which the rent limitation pursuant to such section 42 is less than the amount that would otherwise be permitted under this subparagraph, the rent for such unit may, in the sole discretion of a public housing agency, be established at the higher section 8 rent, subject only to paragraph (10)(A)”.

Subsec. (o)(13)(I)(i). Pub. L. 110–289, § 2835(a)(1)(E), inserted before semicolon “, except that the contract may provide that the maximum rent permitted for a dwelling unit shall not be less than the initial rent for the dwelling unit under the initial housing assistance payments contract covering the unit”.

Subsec. (o)(13)(L), (M). Pub. L. 110–289, § 2835(a)(1)(F), added subpars. (L) and (M).

2006—Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(1), added par. (9).

Subsec. (c)(9)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(1), added cl. (ii) and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: “Notwithstanding clause (i), an owner or manager may bifurcate a lease under this section, in order to evict, remove, or terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant and who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, without evicting, removing, terminating assistance to, or otherwise penalizing the victim of such violence who is also a tenant or lawful occupant.”

Subsec. (d)(1)(A). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(d), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: “the selection of tenants shall be the function of the owner, subject to the annual contributions contract between the Secretary and the agency, except that with respect to the certificate and moderate rehabilitation programs only, for the purpose of selecting families to be assisted, the public housing agency may establish local preferences, consistent with the public housing agency plan submitted under section 1437c–1 of this title by the public housing agency and that an applicant or participant is or has been a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking is not an appropriate basis for denial of program assistance or for denial of admission if the applicant otherwise qualifies for assistance or admission;”.

Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(2)(A), which directed insertion of “and that an applicant or participant is or has been a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking is not an appropriate basis for denial of program assistance or for denial of admission if the applicant otherwise qualifies for assistance or admission” after “public housing agency”, was executed by making the insertion after “public housing agency” the last place appearing to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(2)(B), inserted “, and that an incident or incidents of actual or threatened domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking will not be construed as a serious or repeated violation of the lease by the victim or threatened victim of that violence and will not be good cause for terminating the tenancy or occupancy rights of the victim of such violence” before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(2)(C), inserted before semicolon at end “, except that: (I) criminal activity directly relating to domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking, engaged in by a member of a tenant’s household or any guest or other person under the tenant’s control, shall not be cause for termination of the tenancy or occupancy rights or program assistance, if the tenant or immediate member of the tenant’s family is a victim of that domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking; (II) notwithstanding subclause (I), a public housing agency may terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant and who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, or an owner or manager under this section may bifurcate a lease, in order to evict, remove, or terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant and who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, without evicting, removing, terminating assistance to, or otherwise penalizing the victim of such violence who is also a tenant or lawful occupant; (III) nothing in subclause (I) may be construed to limit the authority of a public housing agency, owner, or manager, when notified, to honor court orders addressing rights of access to or control of the property, including civil protection orders issued to protect the victim and issued to address the distribution or possession of property among the household members in cases where a family breaks up; (IV) nothing in subclause (I) limits any otherwise available authority of an owner or manager to evict or the public housing agency to terminate assistance to a tenant for any violation of a lease not premised on the act or acts of violence in question against the tenant or a member of the tenant’s household, provided that the owner, manager, or public housing agency does not subject an individual who is or has been a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking to a more demanding standard than other tenants in determining whether to evict or terminate; (V) nothing in subclause (I) may be construed to limit the authority of an owner or manager to evict, or the public housing agency to terminate assistance, to any tenant if the owner, manager, or public housing agency can demonstrate an actual and imminent threat to other tenants or those employed at or providing service to the property if that tenant is not evicted or terminated from assistance; and (VI) nothing in this section shall be construed to supersede any provision of any Federal, State, or local law that provides greater protection than this section for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking.”

Subsec. (d)(1)(B)(iii)(II). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(2), added subcl. (II) and struck out former subcl. (II) which read as follows: “notwithstanding subclause (I), a public housing agency may terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant and who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, or an owner or manager under this section may bifurcate a lease, in order to evict, remove, or terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant and who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, without evicting, removing, terminating assistance to, or otherwise penalizing the victim of such violence who is also a tenant or lawful occupant;”.

Subsec. (f)(8). Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(3), added par. (8).

Subsec. (f)(9). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(3)(A), struck out “and” after semicolon at end.

Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(3), added par. (9).

Subsec. (f)(10). Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(3), added par. (10).

Subsec. (f)(10)(A)(i). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(3)(B), substituted “or” for “and” at end.

Subsec. (f)(11). Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(3), added par. (11).

Subsec. (f)(11)(B). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(3)(C), substituted “blood or marriage” for “blood and marriage”.

Subsec. (o)(6)(B). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(4)(A)(iii), which directed the substitution of “admission. Nothing” for “admission, and that nothing” in second sentence, was executed by making the substitution in third sentence, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(4)(A)(ii), which directed the substitution of “for admission or” for “for admission for” in second sentence, was executed by substituting “for assistance or” for “for assistance for” in third sentence, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(4)(A)(i), which directed amendment of second sentence of subpar. (B) by striking “by” after “denial of program assistance”, was executed by striking that language in third sentence, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(4)(A), inserted “That an applicant or participant is or has been a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking is not an appropriate basis for denial of program assistance by or for denial of admission if the applicant otherwise qualifies for assistance for admission, and that nothing in this section shall be construed to supersede any provision of any Federal, State, or local law that provides greater protection than this section for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking.” at end.

Subsec. (o)(7)(C). Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(4)(B), inserted “, and that an incident or incidents of actual or threatened domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking shall not be construed as a serious or repeated violation of the lease by the victim or threatened victim of that violence and shall not be good cause for terminating the tenancy or occupancy rights of the victim of such violence” before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (o)(7)(D). Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(4)(C), inserted at end “; except that (i) criminal activity directly relating to domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking, engaged in by a member of a tenant’s household or any guest or other person under the tenant’s control shall not be cause for termination of the tenancy or occupancy rights, if the tenant or immediate member of the tenant’s family is a victim of that domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking; (ii) notwithstanding clause (i), a public housing agency may terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant and who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, or an owner or manager may bifurcate a lease under this section, in order to evict, remove, or terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant and who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, without evicting, removing, terminating assistance to, or otherwise penalizing the victim of such violence who is also a tenant or lawful occupant; (iii) nothing in clause (i) may be construed to limit the authority of a public housing agency, owner, or manager, when notified, to honor court orders addressing rights of access to control of the property, including civil protection orders issued to protect the victim and issued to address the distribution or possession of property among the household members in cases where a family breaks up; (iv) nothing in clause (i) limits any otherwise available authority of an owner or manager to evict or the public housing agency to terminate assistance to a tenant for any violation of a lease not premised on the act or acts of violence in question against the tenant or a member of the tenant’s household, provided that the owner, manager, or public housing agency does not subject an individual who is or has been a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking to a more demanding standard than other tenants in determining whether to evict or terminate; (v) nothing in clause (i) may be construed to limit the authority of an owner or manager to evict, or the public housing agency to terminate, assistance to any tenant if the owner, manager, or public housing agency can demonstrate an actual and imminent threat to other tenants or those employed at or providing service to the property if that tenant is not evicted or terminated from assistance; and (vi) nothing in this section shall be construed to supersede any provision of any Federal, State, or local law that provides greater protection than this section for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking.”

Subsec. (o)(7)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(4)(B)(i), added cl. (ii) and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: “notwithstanding clause (i), a public housing agency may terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant and who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, or an owner or manager may bifurcate a lease under this section, in order to evict, remove, or terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant and who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, without evicting, removing, terminating assistance to, or otherwise penalizing the victim of such violence who is also a tenant or lawful occupant;”.

Subsec. (o)(7)(D)(iii). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(4)(B)(ii), substituted “access or control” for “access to control”.

Subsec. (o)(7)(D)(v). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(4)(B)(iii), substituted “terminate” for “terminate,”.

Subsec. (o)(19)(B). Pub. L. 109–461 reenacted heading without change and amended text generally, substituting cls. (i) to (v) relating to amounts necessary to provide vouchers for rental assistance for fiscal years 2007 to 2011 for former cls. (i) through (iv) relating to amounts necessary to provide vouchers for rental assistance for fiscal years 2003 to 2006.

Subsec. (o)(20). Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(4)(D), added par. (20).

Subsec. (o)(20)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(4)(C), substituted “distribution or” for “distribution”.

Subsec. (r)(5). Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(5), inserted “, except that a family may receive a voucher from a public housing agency and move to another jurisdiction under the tenant-based assistance program if the family has complied with all other obligations of the section 8 program and has moved out of the assisted dwelling unit in order to protect the health or safety of an individual who is or has been the victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking and who reasonably believed he or she was imminently threatened by harm from further violence if he or she remained in the assisted dwelling unit” before period at end.

Subsec. (ee). Pub. L. 109–162, § 606(6), added subsec. (ee).

Subsec. (ee)(1)(A). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(5)(A), substituted “the individual receives a request for such certification from the owner, manager, or public housing agency” for “the owner, manager, or public housing agency requests such certification”.

Subsec. (ee)(1)(B). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(5)(B), substituted “the individual has received a request in writing for such certification for the owner, manager, or public housing agency” for “the owner, manager, public housing agency, or assisted housing provider has requested such certification in writing” and “The owner, manager or public housing” for “The owner, manager, public housing” and struck out “, or assisted housing provider” before “may extend the 14-day deadline”.

Subsec. (ee)(1)(C)(i). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(5)(C), struck out “sexual assault,” after “addressing domestic violence, dating violence,”.

Subsec. (ee)(1)(D). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(5)(D), struck out “sexual assault,” after “dating violence,”.

Subsec. (ee)(1)(E). Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(5)(E)(ii), struck out “, or assisted housing provider” in two places after “public housing agency”.

Pub. L. 109–271, § 5(e)(5)(E)(i), which directed the substitution of “manager or public housing” for “manager, public housing” wherever appearing, was executed by making the substitution for “manager, public housing” and “manger, public housing”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

2002—Subsec. (t)(2). Pub. L. 107–116 inserted “(including any such mortgage prepayment during fiscal year 1996 or a fiscal year thereafter or any insurance contract voluntary termination during fiscal year 1996 or a fiscal year thereafter)” after “insurance contract for the mortgage for such housing project”.

2001—Subsec. (o)(19). Pub. L. 107–95 added par. (19).

2000—Subsec. (o)(13). Pub. L. 106–377, § 1(a)(1) [title II, § 232(a)], reenacted heading without change and amended text generally, substituting subpars. (A) to (K) providing for funding percentage limitation, consistency of contracts with public housing agency plan and goals, income mixing requirement, resident choice requirement, contract term and its extension, rent calculation and adjustments, tenant selection, and vacated units for former subpars. (A) to (D) providing for extension of contract term, rent calculation, and adjusted rents.

Subsec. (t)(1)(B). Pub. L. 106–569, § 903(a), inserted before semicolon at end “, except that a limit shall not be considered reasonable for purposes of this subparagraph if it adversely affects such assisted families”.

Pub. L. 106–377, § 1(a)(1) [title II, § 205], inserted “and any other reasonable limit prescribed by the Secretary” before semicolon at end.

Pub. L. 106–246, which directed the substitution of “the assisted family may elect to remain in the same project in which the family was residing on the date of the eligibility event for the project, and if, during any period the family makes such an election and continues to so reside,” for “during any period that the assisted family continues residing in the same project in which the family was residing on the date of the eligibility event for the project, if” in section 538 of Pub. L. 106–74, was executed by making the substitution in subsec. (t)(1)(B) of this section, which was enacted by section 538 of Pub. L. 106–74, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (t)(2). Pub. L. 106–569, § 902(a), substituted “fiscal year 1994” for “fiscal year 1996”.

Pub. L. 106–377, § 1(a)(1) [title II, § 228], inserted “(including any such termination or expiration during fiscal years after fiscal year 1996 prior to the effective date of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 2001)” after “contract for rental assistance under this section for such housing project”.

Subsec. (x)(2). Pub. L. 106–377, § 1(a)(1) [title II, § 234], substituted “(A) any family (i) who is otherwise eligible for such assistance, and (ii)” for “any family (A) who is otherwise eligible for such assistance, and (B)” and inserted before period at end “and (B) for a period not to exceed 18 months, otherwise eligible youths who have attained at least 18 years of age and not more than 21 years of age and who have left foster care at age 16 or older”.

Subsec. (y)(7), (8). Pub. L. 106–569, § 301(a), added par. (7) and redesignated former par. (7) as (8).

1999—Subsec. (c)(8)(A). Pub. L. 106–74, § 535(1), substituted “termination of” for “terminating” after “Not less than one year before” and “. The notice shall also include a statement that, if the Congress makes funds available, the owner and the Secretary may agree to a renewal of the contract, thus avoiding termination, and that in the event of termination the Department of Housing and Urban Development will provide tenant-based rental assistance to all eligible residents, enabling them to choose the place they wish to rent, which is likely to include the dwelling unit in which they currently reside. Any contract covered by this paragraph that is renewed may be renewed for a period of up to 1 year or any number or years, with payments subject to the availability of appropriations for any year.” for “, specifying the reasons for the termination with sufficient detail to enable the Secretary to evaluate whether the termination is lawful and whether there are additional actions that can be taken by the Secretary to avoid the termination. The owner’s notice shall include a statement that the owner and the Secretary may agree to a renewal of the contract, thus avoiding the termination.

Subsec. (c)(8)(B). Pub. L. 106–74, § 535(2), (4), redesignated subpar. (C) as (B) and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: “In the case of owner who has requested that the Secretary renew the contract, the owner’s notice under subparagraph (A) to the tenants shall include statements that—

“(i) the owner currently has a contract with the Department of Housing and Urban Development that pays the Government’s share of the tenant’s rent and the date on which the contract will expire;

“(ii) the owner intends to renew the contract for another year;

“(iii) renewal of the contract may depend upon the Congress making funds available for such renewal;

“(iv) the owner is required by law to notify tenants of the possibility that the contract may not be renewed if Congress does not provide funding for such renewals;

“(v) in the event of nonrenewal, the Department of Housing and Urban Development will provide tenant-based rental assistance to all eligible residents, enabling them to choose the place they wish to rent; and

“(vi) the notice itself does not indicate an intent to terminate the contract by either the owner or the Department of Housing and Urban Development, provided there is Congressional approval of funding availability.”

Subsec. (c)(8)(C). Pub. L. 106–74, § 535(4), redesignated subpar. (D) as (C). Former subpar. (C) redesignated (B).

Pub. L. 106–74, § 535(3), struck out “Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this paragraph, if the owner agrees to a 5-year contract renewal offered by the Secretary, payments under which shall be subject to the availability of appropriations for any year, the owner shall provide a written notice to the Secretary and the tenants not less than 180 days before the termination of such contract.” after “(C)” and “in the immediately preceding sentence” before “, the owner may not evict the tenants”, struck out “180-day” before “notice” in two places, and substituted “1 year has elapsed” for “such period has elapsed” and “1 year of advance notice” for “180 days of advance notice”.

Subsec. (c)(8)(D), (E). Pub. L. 106–74, § 535(4), redesignated subpars. (D) and (E) as (C) and (D), respectively.

Subsec. (o)(18). Pub. L. 106–74, § 523(a), added par. (18).

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 106–74, § 538(a), added subsec. (t).

Subsec. (v). Pub. L. 106–74, § 531(d)(1), designated sentence enacted by Pub. L. 104–99, § 405(c), as subsec. (v).

Subsec. (w). Pub. L. 106–74, § 531(d)(2), struck out heading and text of subsec. (w). Text read as follows: “Not later than 30 days after the beginning of each fiscal year, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a plan for reducing, to the extent feasible, year-to-year fluctuations in the levels of budget authority that will be required over the succeeding 5-year period to renew expiring rental assistance contracts entered into under this section since August 22, 1974. To the extent necessary to carry out such plan and to the extent approved in appropriations Acts, the Secretary is authorized to enter into annual contributions contracts with terms of less than 60 months.”

Subsec. (z)(1). Pub. L. 106–74, § 223(1), in introductory provisions, inserted “expiration or” after “on account of” and struck out “(other than a contract for tenant-based assistance)” after “payments contract”.

Subsec. (z)(3). Pub. L. 106–74, § 223(2), struck out heading and text of par. (3). Text read as follows: “This subsection shall be effective for actions initiated by the Secretary on or before September 30, 1995.”

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(1), struck out at end “A public housing agency may contract to make assistance payments to itself (or any agency or instrumentality thereof) as the owner of dwelling units if such agency is subject to the same program requirements as are applied to other owners. In such cases, the Secretary may establish initial rents within applicable limits.”

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(2), substituted “Other” for “Rental certificates and other” in subsec. heading, inserted par. (1) designation and heading, and struck out after first sentence “The Secretary shall enter into a separate annual contributions contract with each public housing agency to obligate the authority approved each year, beginning with the authority approved in appropriations Acts for fiscal year 1988 (other than amendment authority to increase assistance payments being made using authority approved prior to the appropriations Acts for fiscal year 1988), and such annual contributions contract (other than for annual contributions under subsection (o) of this section) shall bind the Secretary to make such authority, and any amendments increasing such authority, available to the public housing agency for a specified period.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(3)(A), struck out “(A)” after par. designation, and struck out subpar. (B), which authorized payment of higher percentage of income as rent than that specified under section 1437a(a) of this title if family receiving tenant-based rental assistance notified public housing agency of its interest in a unit renting for an excess rent and agency determined that the rent was reasonable, and set forth provisions which limited agency approval of such excess rentals to 10 percent of annual allocation, required report to Secretary where such rentals exceeded 5 percent of allocation, and required Secretary to report to Congress annually on agencies which had submitted such reports and include recommendations deemed appropriate to correct problems identified in reports.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(3)(B), struck out “or by a family that qualifies to receive assistance under subsection (b) of this section pursuant to section 223 or 226 of the Low-Income Housing Preservation and Resident Homeownership Act of 1990” after “such dwelling unit” in first sentence.

Subsec. (c)(5), (6). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(3)(C), (D), redesignated par. (6) as (5) and struck out former par. (5) which read as follows: “Assistance payments may be made with respect to up to 100 per centum of the dwelling units in any structure upon the application of the owner or prospective owner. Within the category of projects containing more than fifty units and designed for use primarily by nonelderly and nonhandicapped persons which are not subject to mortgages purchased under section 305 of the National Housing Act, the Secretary may give preference to applications for assistance involving not more than 20 per centum of the dwelling units in a project. In according any such preference, the Secretary shall compare applications received during distinct time periods not exceeding sixty days in duration.”

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(3)(C), struck out par. (7) which read as follows: “To the extent authorized in contracts entered into by the Secretary with a public housing agency, such agency may purchase any structure containing one or more dwelling units assisted under this section for the purpose of reselling the structure to the tenant or tenants occupying units aggregating in value at least 80 per centum of the structure’s total value. Any such resale may be made on the terms and conditions prescribed under section 1437c(h) of this title and subject to the limitation contained in such section.”

Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 105–276, § 549(b), redesignated par. (9) as (8)(A) and substituted subpars. (B) to (E) for “The Secretary shall review the owner’s notice, shall consider whether there are additional actions that can be taken by the Secretary to avoid the termination, and shall ensure a proper adjustment of the contract rents for the project in conformity with the requirements of paragraph (2). The Secretary shall issue a written finding of the legality of the termination and the reasons for the termination, including the actions considered or taken to avoid the termination. Within 30 days of the Secretary’s finding, the owner shall provide written notice to each tenant of the Secretary’s decision. For purposes of this paragraph, the term ‘termination’ means the expiration of the assistance contract or an owner’s refusal to renew the assistance contract, and such term shall include termination of the contract for business reasons.”

Pub. L. 105–276, § 549(a)(1)(A), struck out par. (8) which read as follows: “Each contract under this section shall provide that the owner will notify tenants at least 90 days prior to the expiration of the contract of any rent increase which may occur as a result of the expiration of such contract.

Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 105–276, § 549(b)(1), redesignated par. (9) as (8)(A).

Pub. L. 105–276, § 549(a)(1)(B), substituted “Not less than one year before terminating any contract under which assistance payments are received under this section, other than a contract for tenant-based assistance under this section, an owner shall provide written notice to the Secretary and the tenants involved of the proposed termination, specifying the reasons for the termination with sufficient detail to enable the Secretary to evaluate whether the termination is lawful and whether there are additional actions that can be taken by the Secretary to avoid the termination.” for “Not less than 180 days prior to terminating any contract under which assistance payments are received under this section (but not less than 90 days in the case of housing certificates or vouchers under subsection (b) or (o) of this section), an owner shall provide written notice to the Secretary and the tenants involved of the proposed termination, specifying the reasons for the termination with sufficient detail to enable the Secretary to evaluate whether the termination is lawful and whether there are additional actions that can be taken by the Secretary to avoid the termination.

Subsec. (c)(10). Pub. L. 105–276, § 549(a)(1)(A), struck out par. (10) which read as follows: “If an owner provides notice of proposed termination under paragraph (9) and the contract rent is lower than the maximum monthly rent for units assisted under subsection (b)(1) of this section, the Secretary shall adjust the contract rent based on the maximum monthly rent for units assisted under subsection (b)(1) of this section and the value of the low-income housing after rehabilitation.”

Subsec. (d)(1)(A). Pub. L. 105–276, § 514(b)(1), amended subpar. (A) generally. For former text of subpar. (A), see 1996 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 105–276, § 549(a)(2)(A), substituted “during the term of the lease, the owner” for “the owner”.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 105–276, § 549(a)(2)(B), substituted “during the term of the lease, any criminal activity” for “provide that any criminal activity”.

Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(4)(A), struck out at end “Where the Secretary enters into an annual contributions contract with a public housing agency pursuant to which the agency will enter into a contract for assistance payments with respect to an existing structure, the contract for assistance payments may not be attached to the structure unless (i) the Secretary and the public housing agency approve such action, and (ii) the owner agrees to rehabilitate the structure other than with assistance under this chapter and otherwise complies with the requirements of this section, except that the Secretary shall permit the public housing agency to approve such attachment with respect to not more than 15 percent of the assistance provided by the public housing agency if the requirements of clause (ii) are met. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, a public housing agency and an applicable State agency may, on a priority basis, attach to structures not more than an additional 15 percent of the assistance provided by the public housing agency or the applicable State agency only with respect to projects assisted under a State program that permits the owner of the projects to prepay a State assisted or subsidized mortgage on the structure, except that attachment of assistance under this sentence shall be for the purpose of (i) providing incentives to owners to preserve such projects for occupancy by lower and moderate income families (for the period that assistance under this sentence is available), and (ii) to assist lower income tenants to afford any increases in rent that may be required to induce the owner to maintain occupancy in the project by lower and moderate income tenants. Any assistance provided to lower income tenants under the preceding sentence shall not be considered for purposes of the limitation under paragraph (1)(A) regarding the percentage of families that may receive assistance under this section who do not qualify for preferences under such paragraph.”

Subsec. (d)(2)(B) to (G). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(4)(C), redesignated subpars. (F) to (H) as (B) to (D), respectively, and struck out former subpars. (B) to (E). Prior to repeal, former subpar. (B) required the Secretary to permit a public housing agency to approve attachment of assistance with respect to any newly constructed structure if certain conditions were met, former subpar. (C) required a public housing agency to enter into a contract with an owner of a structure to which a contract for assistance was attached under this par. to provide for renewal of expiring assistance payment contracts, former subpar. (D) required owners of structures to which a contract for assistance was attached to adopt certain tenant selection procedures, and former subpar. (E) required the Secretary to annually survey public housing agencies to determine which have reached certain limitations in providing assistance and to report the survey results to Congress.

Subsec. (d)(2)(H). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(4)(C), redesignated subpar. (H) as (D).

Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(4)(B), substituted “An owner” for “Notwithstanding subsection (d)(1)(A)(i) of this section, an owner”.

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 105–276, § 552, added par. (6).

Subsec. (f)(6). Pub. L. 105–276, § 545(b), inserted “or (o)(13)” after “(d)(2)”.

Subsec. (f)(7). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(5), struck out “(b) or” after “under subsection” and inserted before period at end “and that provides for the eligible family to select suitable housing and to move to other suitable housing”.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105–276, § 565(c), which directed insertion of “(except as provided in section 1437d(j)(3) of this title)” after “section 1437d of this title”, was executed by making the insertion after “Sections 1437c(e) and 1437d of this title”, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(6), struck out subsec. (j), which authorized contracts for making rental assistance payments on behalf of low-income families utilizing manufactured homes as principal places of residence, directed that contract establish maximum monthly rent permitted with respect to home and real property on which it was located and provided formula for calculating amount of monthly assistance, provided for adjustments, set forth minimum and maximum terms, in the case of substantially rehabilitated or newly constructed park, provided limit on principal amount of mortgage attributable to rental spaces within park, and authorized Secretary to prescribe other terms and conditions necessary for purpose of carrying out subsection.

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(7), struck out subsec. (n) which read as follows: “In making assistance available under subsections (b)(1) and (e)(2) of this section, the Secretary may provide assistance with respect to residential properties in which some or all of the dwelling units do not contain bathroom or kitchen facilities, if—

“(1) the property is located in an area in which there is a significant demand for such units, as determined by the Secretary;

“(2) the unit of general local government in which the property is located and the local public housing agency approve of such units being utilized for such purpose; and

“(3) in the case of assistance under subsection (b)(1) of this section, the unit of general local government in which the property is located and the local public housing agency certify to the Secretary that the property complies with local health and safety standards.

The Secretary may waive, in appropriate cases, the limitation and preference described in the second and third sentences of section 1437a(b)(3) of this title with respect to the assistance made available under this subsection.”

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 105–276, § 545(a), amended subsec. (o) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (o) contained provisions relating to assistance using a payment standard based upon fair market rental, categories of families eligible for assistance and preferences, contracts with public housing agencies for annual contributions, annual adjustments of assistance payment amounts, assistance with respect to certain cooperative and mutual housing, contracts to provide rental vouchers, set asides of budget authority for an adjustment pool, reasonable rent requirements and disapproval of leases with unreasonable rents, and assistance on behalf of families utilizing manufactured homes as principal places of residence.

Subsec. (o)(2). Pub. L. 105–276, § 209(a), inserted at end “Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, for families being admitted to the voucher program who remain in the same unit or complex, where the rent (including the amount allowed for utilities) does not exceed the payment standard, the monthly assistance payment for any family shall be the amount by which such rent exceeds the greater of 30 percent of the family’s monthly adjusted income or 10 percent of the family’s monthly income.” Notwithstanding sections 209(b) and 503 of Pub. L. 105–276, set out as Effective Date of 1998 Amendment notes below and under section 1437 of this title, this amendment was executed before the amendment by section 545(a) of Pub. L. 105–276 to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the provisions of section 545(c) of Pub. L. 105–276, set out as an Effective Date of 1998 Amendment note below, and section 559 of Pub. L. 105–276, set out as a Regulations note below.

Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 105–276, § 547, amended subsec. (q) generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which authorized establishment of fee for costs incurred in administering certificate and housing voucher programs under subsecs. (b) and (o) of this section, costs of preliminary expenses in connection with new allocations of assistance, costs incurred in assisting families who experienced difficulty in obtaining appropriate housing under the programs, and extraordinary costs; provisions which set forth use of fees for employing one or more service coordinators to coordinate provision of supportive services for elderly or disabled families on whose behalf assistance was provided; and provision which limited establishment or increase of fees to amounts provided in appropriation Acts.

Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 105–276, § 553(3), inserted heading, added par. (1), and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: “Any family assisted under subsection (b) or (o) of this section may receive such assistance to rent an eligible dwelling unit if the dwelling unit to which the family moves is within the same State, or the same or a contiguous metropolitan statistical area as the metropolitan statistical area within which is located the area of jurisdiction of the public housing agency approving such assistance; except that any family not living within the jurisdiction of a public housing agency at the time that such family applies for assistance from such agency shall, during the 12-month period beginning upon the receipt of any tenant-based rental assistance made available on behalf of the family, use such assistance to rent an eligible dwelling unit located within the jurisdiction served by such public housing agency.

Subsec. (r)(2). Pub. L. 105–276, § 553(1), struck out at end “If no public housing agency has authority with respect to the dwelling unit to which a family moves under this subsection, the public housing agency approving the assistance shall have such responsibility.”

Subsec. (r)(3). Pub. L. 105–276, § 553(2), struck out “(b) or” before “(o) for” and inserted at end “The Secretary shall establish procedures for the compensation of public housing agencies that issue vouchers to families that move into or out of the jurisdiction of the public housing agency under portability procedures. The Secretary may reserve amounts available for assistance under subsection (o) to compensate those public housing agencies.”

Subsec. (r)(5). Pub. L. 105–276, § 553(5), added par. (5).

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 105–276, § 554, struck out subsec. (t). For text, see 1996 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (u). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(8), in pars. (1) and (3), struck out “certificates or” before “vouchers” and, in par. (2), struck out “, certificates” before “or vouchers”.

Subsec. (x)(2). Pub. L. 105–276, § 550(a)(9), substituted “tenant-based assistance” for “housing certificate assistance”.

Subsec. (y)(1). Pub. L. 105–276, § 555(a)(1)(A), in introductory provisions, substituted “A public housing agency providing tenant-based assistance on behalf of an eligible family under this section may provide assistance for an eligible family that purchases a dwelling unit (including a unit under a lease-purchase agreement) that will be owned by 1 or more members of the family, and will be occupied by the family, if the family” for “A family receiving tenant-based assistance under this section may receive assistance for occupancy of a dwelling owned by one or more members of the family if the family”.

Subsec. (y)(1)(A). Pub. L. 105–276, § 555(a)(1)(B), inserted “, or owns or is acquiring shares in a cooperative” before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (y)(1)(B). Pub. L. 105–276, § 555(a)(1)(C), struck out cl. (i), redesignated cl. (ii) as entire subpar., and inserted “, except that the Secretary may provide for the consideration of public assistance in the case of an elderly family or a disabled family” after “public assistance”. Prior to amendment, cl. (i) read as follows: “participates in the family self-sufficiency program under section 1437u of this title of the public housing agency providing the assistance; or”.

Subsec. (y)(2). Pub. L. 105–276, § 555(a)(2), added par. (2) and struck out heading and text of former par. (2). Text read as follows:

“(A) In general.—Notwithstanding any other provisions of this section governing determination of the amount of assistance payments under this section on behalf of a family, the monthly assistance payment for any family assisted under this subsection shall be the amount by which the fair market rental for the area established under subsection (c)(1) of this section exceeds 30 percent of the family’s monthly adjusted income; except that the monthly assistance payment shall not exceed the amount by which the monthly homeownership expenses, as determined in accordance with requirements established by the Secretary, exceeds 10 percent of the family’s monthly income.

“(B) Exclusion of equity from income.—For purposes of determining the monthly assistance payment for a family, the Secretary shall not include in family income an amount imputed from the equity of the family in a dwelling occupied by the family with assistance under this subsection.”

Subsec. (y)(3), (4). Pub. L. 105–276, § 555(a)(3), added pars. (3) and (4) and struck out former pars. (3) and (4) which read as follows:

“(3) Recapture of certain amounts.—Upon sale of the dwelling by the family, the Secretary shall recapture from any net proceeds the amount of additional assistance (as determined in accordance with requirements established by the Secretary) paid to or on behalf of the eligible family as a result of paragraph (2)(B).

“(4) Downpayment requirement.—Each public housing agency providing assistance under this subsection shall ensure that each family assisted shall provide from its own resources not less than 80 percent of any downpayment in connection with a loan made for the purchase of a dwelling. Such resources may include amounts from any escrow account for the family established under section 1437u(d) of this title. Not more than 20 percent of the downpayment may be provided from other sources, such as from nonprofit entities and programs of States and units of general local government.

Subsec. (y)(5). Pub. L. 105–276, § 555(a)(3), (4), redesignated par. (6) as (5) and struck out heading and text of former par. (5). Text read as follows: “A family may not receive assistance under this subsection during any period when assistance is being provided for the family under other Federal homeownership assistance programs, as determined by the Secretary, including assistance under the HOME Investment Partnerships Act, the Homeownership and Opportunity Through HOPE Act, title II of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1987, and section 1472 of this title.”

Subsec. (y)(6) to (8). Pub. L. 105–276, § 555(a)(4), redesignated pars. (7) and (8) as (6) and (7), respectively. Former par. (6) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (z). Pub. L. 105–276, § 548(1), made techni